Mostrando recursos 41 - 60 de 100

  1. Regionalprofil der Region "Wien - Bratislava"

    Kauper, Ronald; Steinbauer, Rene
    kein Abstract vorhanden

  2. Stuck in the middle? The structure of trade between South Africa and its major trading partners.

    Smet, Koen
    This paper analyses the South African trade data from1992 until 2006 by means of a Grubel-Lloyd index, a measurement of marginal intra-industry trade and a revealed comparative advantage (RCA) indicator. During this period a lot happened that influenced the South African trade policy, e.g. the political transition in 1994, the formation of the World Trade Organisation in 1995, the rise of China as trading power, etc. The purpose is not only to analyse the current structure of South African trade, but also to examine its structural change over time. As a result this paper shows that South Africa is principally...

  3. Globalization and the effects of changes in functional income distribution on aggregate demand in Germany

    Stockhammer, Engelbert; Hein, Eckhard; Grafl, Lucas
    Germany has experienced a period of extreme nominal and real wage moderation since the mid 1990s. Contrary to the expectations of liberal economists this has failed to improve Germany's mediocre economic performance. However, Germany is now running substantial current account surpluses. One possible explanation for Germany's disappointing performance is found in Kaleckian theory, which highlights that the domestic demand effect of a decline in the wage share will typically be contractionary, whereas net exports will increase (Blecker 1989). The size of the foreign demand effect will critically depend on the degree of openness of the economy. The paper aims at...

  4. Evaluating the effects of farm programs. Results from propensity score matching.

    Pufahl, Andrea; Weiss, Christoph
    The paper applies a non-parametric propensity score matching approach to evaluate the effects of two types of farm programs (agri-environment (AE) programs and the less favoured area (LFA) scheme) on input use and farm output of individual farms in Germany. The analysis reveals a positive and significant treatment effect of the LFA scheme for farm sales and the area under cultivation. Participants in AE schemes are found to significantly increase the area under cultivation (in particular grassland), resulting in a decrease of livestock densities. Furthermore, participation in AE programs significantly reduced the purchase of farm chemicals (fertilizer, pesticide). We also...

  5. Escaping RGBland: Selecting Colors for Statistical Graphics

    Zeileis, Achim; Hornik, Kurt; Murrell, Paul
    Statistical graphics are often augmented by the use of color coding information contained in some variable. When this involves the shading of areas (and not only points or lines) - e.g., as in bar plots, pie charts, mosaic displays or heatmaps - it is important that the colors are perceptually based and do not introduce optical illusions or systematic bias. Here, we discuss how the perceptually-based Hue-Chroma-Luminance (HCL) color space can be used for deriving suitable color palettes for coding categorical data (qualitative palettes) and numerical variables (sequential and diverging palettes). (author's abstract)

  6. Escaping RGBland: Selecting Colors for Statistical Graphics

    Zeileis, Achim; Hornik, Kurt; Murrell, Paul
    Statistical graphics are often augmented by the use of color coding information contained in some variable. When this involves the shading of areas (and not only points or lines) - e.g., as in bar plots, pie charts, mosaic displays or heatmaps - it is important that the colors are perceptually based and do not introduce optical illusions or systematic bias. Here, we discuss how the perceptually-based Hue-Chroma-Luminance (HCL) color space can be used for deriving suitable color palettes for coding categorical data (qualitative palettes) and numerical variables (sequential and diverging palettes).

  7. Reproducible Econometric Research. A Critical Review of the State of the Art.

    Koenker, Roger; Zeileis, Achim
    Recent software developments are reviewed from the vantage point of reproducible econometric research. We argue that the emergence of new tools, particularly in the open-source community, have greatly eased the burden of documenting and archiving both empirical and simulation work in econometrics. Some of these tools are highlighted in the discussion of three small replication exercises. (author's abstract)

  8. Reproducible Econometric Research. A Critical Review of the State of the Art.

    Koenker, Roger; Zeileis, Achim
    Recent software developments are reviewed from the vantage point of reproducible econometric research. We argue that the emergence of new tools, particularly in the open-source community, have greatly eased the burden of documenting and archiving both empirical and simulation work in econometrics. Some of these tools are highlighted in the discussion of three small replication exercises.

  9. Testing the tax competition theory: How elastic are national tax bases in western Europe?

    Riedl, Aleksandra; Rocha-Akis, Silvia
    In this paper, we test one of the fundamental assumptions in the tax competition literature, namely, that a country's taxable income depends on the tax policies pursued in the domestic and in neighbouring countries. Based on a panel of annual data of 14 western European countries spanning the period 1982 to 2004, we show that the common trend in falling corporate income tax (CIT) rates can in part be explained by the existence of fiscal externalities in the form of international resource flows. Our results confirm the presumption put forward in recent empirical tax reaction function studies, that interdependent tax...

  10. Taxation of Cross border Hybrid Finance. A legal Analysis.

    Eberhartinger, Eva; Six, Martin
    (no abstract availabel)

  11. Eastern European Integration and Tax Competition

    Rabitsch, Katrin
    The member countries of the enlarged European Union show large differences in the structure of their tax systems. While consumption taxes have been largely harmonized over the past decades, differences remain in taxes on factor incomes, in particular on capital income. Also, effective tax rates on capital income in Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) have been falling substantially over the last decade- a trend that may suggest that some tax competition has taken place in the enlarged European Union. The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, it presents and contrasts effective tax rates of Western European countries with...

  12. Footloose capital and productive public services

    Commendatore, Pasquale; Kubin, Ingrid; Petraglia, Carmelo
    We analyse in a Footloose Capital productive public services provided by a central government aiming at reducing regional disparities. Two countervailing effects occur - one upon productivity and another upon local demand - the relative strength of which depends upon the financing scheme. Only if the "rich" region contributes sufficiently to the financing of the public services in the "poor" region, the poor region will actually gain. In studying these questions we pay particular attention to the dynamic adjustment processes and to the role of trade freeness. (authors' abstract)

  13. Source versus Residence. A comparison from a New Economic Geography perspective

    Commendatore, Pasquale; Kubin, Ingrid
    Recently, issues of international taxation have also been analysed from a New Economic Geography perspective. These discussions show that agglomerative forces play a non negligible role. In the paper, we introduce explicitly taxation into a Footloose Capital Model and compare implications of taxation according to the residence principle and the source principle from a New Economic Geography perspective. We confirm that agglomerative effects change the results substantially compared to the standard analysis and that the two taxation principles have different implications for industry agglomeration. (author's abstract)

  14. Zusammenarbeit und Konkurrenz in der Wiener Theaterlandschaft. Unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Wiener Festwochen. Eine explorative Studie.

    Angel, Stefan; Roch, Ramona; Witzani, Agnes
    This paper investigates the Viennese theatre scene as a part of Austria's Cultural Industries. On the one hand, the aim of this explorative study is to find out which types of cooperation between theatres occur and to analyse the underlying reasons and motives for cooperation. On the other hand the field-actors' perception of competition between theatres in the scene is investigated. The findings show that social networks (social capital) are regarded as very important for success and survival in the theatre scene. Competition comprises four different aspects and occurs as competition for financial supplements, competition for placement on the "market",...

  15. Zusammenarbeit und Konkurrenz in der Wiener Theaterlandschaft. Unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Wiener Festwochen. Eine explorative Studie.

    Angel, Stefan; Roch, Ramona; Witzani, Agnes
    This paper investigates the Viennese theatre scene as a part of Austria's Cultural Industries. On the one hand, the aim of this explorative study is to find out which types of cooperation between theatres occur and to analyse the underlying reasons and motives for cooperation. On the other hand the field-actors' perception of competition between theatres in the scene is investigated. The findings show that social networks (social capital) are regarded as very important for success and survival in the theatre scene. Competition comprises four different aspects and occurs as competition for financial supplements, competition for placement on the "market",...

  16. Let's Have a party! An Open-Source Toolbox for Recursive Partytioning

    Hothorn, Torsten; Zeileis, Achim; Hornik, Kurt
    Package party, implemented in the R system for statistical computing, provides basic classes and methods for recursive partitioning along with reference implementations for three recently-suggested tree-based learners: conditional inference trees and forests, and model-based recursive partitioning. (authors' abstract)

  17. Let's Have a party! An Open-Source Toolbox for Recursive Partytioning

    Hothorn, Torsten; Zeileis, Achim; Hornik, Kurt
    Package party, implemented in the R system for statistical computing, provides basic classes and methods for recursive partitioning along with reference implementations for three recently-suggested tree-based learners: conditional inference trees and forests, and model-based recursive partitioning.

  18. Macroeconomic policy mix, employment and inflation in a Post-Keynesian alternative to the New Consensus Model

    Hein, Eckhard; Stockhammer, Engelbert
    New Consensus Models (NCMs) have been criticised by Post-Keynesians (PKs) for a variety of reasons. The paper presents a model that synthesises several of the PK arguments. The model consists of three classes: rentiers, firms and workers. It has a short-run inflation barrier derived from distribution conflict between these classes, which is endogenous in the medium run. Distribution conflict does not only affect inflation but also income shares. On the demand side the income classes have different saving propensities. We apply a Kaleckian investment function with expected sales and internal funds as major determinants. The paper analyses short-run stability and...

  19. Product differentiation in a linear city and wage bargaining

    Grandner, Thomas
    Economides (1986) has shown that within a linear city an equilibrium exists in a two-stage location-price game when the curvature of the transportation cost function is sufficiently high. One important point is that not all of these equilibria are at maximal differentiation. In this paper we include an additional stage with decentralized wage bargaining. This intensifies price competition resulting in locations that are nearer to the extremes of the city. The magnitude of this effect depends on the bargaining power of the unions. (author's abstract)

  20. International financial markets and fragility in the Eastern Europe: "can it happen" here?

    Onaran, Özlem
    The aim of this paper is to analyze the fragility of the New Member States and accession countries in the Central Eastern and South Eastern European countries (henceforth Eastern Europe) to the turbulences in the global economy and the changes in the direction of the international capital flows. (author's abstract)

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