Mostrando recursos 81 - 97 de 97

  1. Uncertainty and exploitation in history

    Stockhammer, Engelbert; Ramskogler, Paul
    The paper builds on the Marxist concept of exploitation to explore the meaning of the Post Keynesian notion of uncertainty. Uncertainty is mediated by institutions and is distributed unevenly among different social groups. As different historical social formations entail different institutional structures, the distribution and nature of uncertainty also differ. The configurations between class relations and uncertainty are analyzed for the capitalist, feudal and slave modes of production. It is demonstrated that modes of production do not only imply specific exploitative relations but also different relative distributions of uncertainty amongst classes. Joining Marxian and Post Keynesian approaches allows a richer...

  2. Betriebswirtschaftliche Versicherungswissenschaft (BwVersWiss). Konzeptionen für Forschung, Lehre und Organisation an Universitäten.

    Eszler, Erwin
    Durch Ausweitung des Bereiches der Erkenntnisobjekte und durch eine besondere methodologische Differenzierung wird aus der herkömmlichen "Versicherungsbetriebslehre" eine "Betriebwirtschaftliche Versicherungswissenschaft" (BwVersWiss) entwickelt. Die Einordnung dieser BwVersWiss in eine ebenfalls neu entwickelte Systematik risiko- und versicherungsbezogener Wissenschaften, die Unterteilung der BwVersWiss in verschiedene Tätigkeitsbereiche sowie organisatorische Aspekte der Umsetzung der BwVersWiss an Universitäten werden dargelegt. (Autorenref.)

  3. Jobless growth in the Central and Eastern European Countries. A country specific panel data analysis for the manufacturing industry.

    Onaran, Özlem
    This paper estimates a labor demand equation based on the panel data of manufacturing industry in the Central and Eastern European Countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Lithuania, Bulgaria, and Romania) in order to test the effect of domestic factors (wages and output) and international factors (exports, imports, and FDI) on employment during the era of post -transition recovery. The findings indicate that employment does not respond to wages in more than half of the cases. The output elasticity of labor demand is mostly positive, but low, with a number of cases where employment is completely de-linked from...

  4. Text Mining of Supreme Administrative Court Jurisdictions

    Feinerer, Ingo; Hornik, Kurt
    Within the last decade text mining, i.e., extracting sensitive information from text corpora, has become a major factor in business intelligence. The automated textual analysis of law corpora is highly valuable because of its impact on a company's legal options and the raw amount of available jurisdiction. The study of supreme court jurisdiction and international law corpora is equally important due to its effects on business sectors. In this paper we use text mining methods to investigate Austrian supreme administrative court jurisdictions concerning dues and taxes. We analyze the law corpora using R with the new text mining package tm....

  5. Text Mining of Supreme Administrative Court Jurisdictions

    Feinerer, Ingo; Hornik, Kurt
    Within the last decade text mining, i.e., extracting sensitive information from text corpora, has become a major factor in business intelligence. The automated textual analysis of law corpora is highly valuable because of its impact on a company's legal options and the raw amount of available jurisdiction. The study of supreme court jurisdiction and international law corpora is equally important due to its effects on business sectors. In this paper we use text mining methods to investigate Austrian supreme administrative court jurisdictions concerning dues and taxes. We analyze the law corpora using R with the new text mining package tm....

  6. Hybrid Instruments and the Indirect Credit Method - Does it work?

    Wiedermann-Ondrej, Nadine
    This paper analyses the possibility of double non-taxation of hybrid instruments in cross border transactions where the country of the investor has implemented the indirect credit method for mitigation or elimination of double taxation. From an isolated perspective a double non-taxation cannot be obtained because typically no taxes are paid in the foreign country due to the classification as debt and therefore even in the case of a classification as a dividend in the country of the investor no indirect credit can be given to the taxpayer. Using this as a starting point this paper investigates the impact of asymmetric...

  7. Open-Source Machine Learning: R Meets Weka

    Hornik, Kurt; Buchta, Christian; Zeileis, Achim
    Two of the prime open-source environments available for machine/statistical learning in data mining and knowledge discovery are the software packages Weka and R which have emerged from the machine learning and statistics communities, respectively. To make the different sets of tools from both environments available in a single unified system, an R package RWeka is suggested which interfaces Weka's functionality to R. With only a thin layer of (mostly R) code, a set of general interface generators is provided which can set up interface functions with the usual "R look and feel", re-using Weka's standardized interface of learner classes (including...

  8. Open-Source Machine Learning: R Meets Weka

    Hornik, Kurt; Buchta, Christian; Zeileis, Achim
    Two of the prime open-source environments available for machine/statistical learning in data mining and knowledge discovery are the software packages Weka and R which have emerged from the machine learning and statistics communities, respectively. To make the different sets of tools from both environments available in a single unified system, an R package RWeka is suggested which interfaces Weka's functionality to R. With only a thin layer of (mostly R) code, a set of general interface generators is provided which can set up interface functions with the usual "R look and feel", re-using Weka's standardized interface of learner classes (including...

  9. Tax Treatment of Revenue Based Payments

    Wiedermann-Ondrej, Nadine
    The influence of taxes on financing decision has long been discussed and different opinions exist concerning this subject. However, the importance of tax shield must not be underestimated because taxes can alter the effective interest rate of an instrument significantly. Generally it is assumed that payments of instrument that provide for revenue based compensation are not tax deductible because these instruments are normally qualified as equity. However, a detailed analysis of the various tax laws shows that this need not necessarily be the case. Payments that depend on the profits of a corporation can obtain an interest treatment if an...

  10. A Functional Approach to Configural Frequency Analysis

    von Eye, Alexander; Mair, Patrick
    Standard Configural Frequency Analysis (CFA) is a one-step procedure that determines which cells of a cross-classification contradict a base model. Selecting these cells out does not guarantee that the base model fits. Therefore, the role played by these cells for the base model is unclear, and interpretation of types and antitypes can be problematic. In this paper, functional CFA is proposed. This model of CFA pursues two goals simultaneously. First, cells are selected out that constitute types and antitypes. Second, the base model is fit to the data. This is done using an iterative procedure that blanks out individual cells...

  11. Extended Rasch Modeling: The eRm Package for the Application of IRT Models in R

    Mair, Patrick; Hatzinger, Reinhold
    Item response theory models (IRT) are increasingly becoming established in social science research, particularly in the analysis of performance or attitudinal data in psychology, education, medicine, marketing and other fields where testing is relevant. We propose the R package eRm (extended Rasch modeling) for computing Rasch models and several extensions. A main characteristic of some IRT models, the Rasch model being the most prominent, concerns the separation of two kinds of parameters, one that describes qualities of the subject under investigation, and the other relates to qualities of the situation under which the response of a subject is observed. Using...

  12. A Common Election Day for Euro Zone Member States?

    Breuss, Fritz
    This paper tests for the Euro zone the hypothesis put forward by Sapir and Sekkat (1999) that synchronizing elections might improve welfare. After identifying a political budget cycle in the Euro zone we build a politico-macroeconomic model and simulate the effects of adopting a common election day in the 12 Euro zone member states. The results support most of the theoretical predictions by Sapir-Sekkat: (i) Synchronizing the elections could enhance GDP growth, reduce unemployment, but leads to increased inflation and in some countries to a deterioration of the budget; higher inflation forces ECB to monetary restrictions. (ii) If the synchronization...

  13. Functional income distribution and aggregate demand in the Euro-area

    Stockhammer, Engelbert; Onaran, Özlem; Ederer, Stefan
    An increase in the wage share has contradictory effects on the subaggregates of aggregate demand. Private consumption expenditures ought to increase because wage incomes typically are associated with higher consumption propensities than capital incomes. Investment expenditures ought to be negatively affected because investment will positively depend on profits. Net exports will be negatively affected because an increase in the wage share corresponds to an increase in unit labor costs and thus a loss in competitiveness. Theoretically aggregate demand can therefore be either wage led or profit led depending on how these effects add up. The results will crucially depend on...

  14. Importance Sampling to Accelerate the Convergence of Quasi-Monte Carlo

    Hörmann, Wolfgang; Leydold, Josef
    Importance sampling is a well known variance reduction technique for Monte Carlo simulation. For quasi-Monte Carlo integration with low discrepancy sequences it was neglected in the literature although it is easy to see that it can reduce the variation of the integrand for many important integration problems. For lattice rules importance sampling is of highest importance as it can be used to obtain a smooth periodic integrand. Thus the convergence of the integration procedure is accelerated. This can clearly speed up QMC algorithms for integration problems up to dimensions 10 to 12. (author's abstract)

  15. Vom kurzfristigen zum mittelfristigen Gleichgewicht in einer offenen Volkswirtschaft unter fixen und flexiblen Wechselkursen

    Badinger, Harald; Kubin, Ingrid
    Das makroökonomische Lehrbuch von Oliver Blanchard (2006) sowie dessen deutschsprachige Adaption durch Gerhard Illing (2006) haben sich an vielen Universitäten als Standardliteratur etabliert, die sich in der Lehre sehr gut bewährt. Bemerkenswert ist insbesondere die sorgfältige Analyse von kurz- und mittelfristigen Gleichgewichten und den entsprechenden Anpassungsprozessen, die für die geschlossene Wirtschaft im Rahmen eines kombinierten IS-LM/AS-AD Modells explizit und überzeugend dargestellt werden. Für die offene Volkswirtschaft werden entsprechende Anpassungsprozesse jedoch nur angedeutet. Da dieser Bereich von Studierenden erfahrungsgemäß als schwierig empfunden wird, versuchen wir im folgenden Artikel, diese Anpassungsprozesse explizit auszuarbeiten und so die Argumentation zu ergänzen und zu vertiefen....

  16. Vom kurzfristigen zum mittelfristigen Gleichgewicht in einer offenen Volkswirtschaft unter fixen und flexiblen Wechselkursen

    Badinger, Harald; Kubin, Ingrid
    Das makroökonomische Lehrbuch von Oliver Blanchard (2006) sowie dessen deutschsprachige Adaption durch Gerhard Illing (2006) haben sich an vielen Universitäten als Standardliteratur etabliert, die sich in der Lehre sehr gut bewährt. Bemerkenswert ist insbesondere die sorgfältige Analyse von kurz- und mittelfristigen Gleichgewichten und den entsprechenden Anpassungsprozessen, die für die geschlossene Wirtschaft im Rahmen eines kombinierten IS-LM/AS-AD Modells explizit und überzeugend dargestellt werden. Für die offene Volkswirtschaft werden entsprechende Anpassungsprozesse jedoch nur angedeutet. Da dieser Bereich von Studierenden erfahrungsgemäß als schwierig empfunden wird, versuchen wir im folgenden Artikel, diese Anpassungsprozesse explizit auszuarbeiten und so die Argumentation zu ergänzen und zu vertiefen.

  17. Treatment of Far-Off Objects in Moran's I Test

    Gumprecht, Daniela
    Spatial dependency is commonly measured and tested with Moran's I statistic. The question to be answered is, whether far-off objects affect this statistic and influence the test. Far-off objects are observations that are far apart from all other objects in the dataset, i.e. they do not have spatial links to other design points. In the paper different possibilities of treating such objects are discussed, and their influence on Moran's I and the corresponding spatial autocorrelation test is analysed. (author's abstract)

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