Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 989

  1. Opportunities for knowledge co-production across the energy-food-water nexus: Making interdisciplinary approaches work for better climate decision making

    Monasterolo, Irene; Howarth, Candice
    The relationship between the energy-food-water nexus and the climate is non-linear, multi-sectoral and time sensitive, incorporating aspects of complexity and risk in climate related decision-making. This paper seeks to explore how knowledge co-production can help identify opportunities for building more effective, sustainable, inclusive and legitimate decision making processes on climate change. This would enable more resilient responses to climate risks impacting the nexus while increasing transparency, communication and trust among key actors. We do so by proposing the operationalization of an interdisciplinary approach of analysis applying the novel methodology developed in Howarth and Monasterolo (2016). Through a bottom-up, participative approach,...

  2. When Do Distance Effects Become Empirically Observable? An Investigation in the Context of Headquarters Value Creation for Subsidiaries

    Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; Nell, Phillip C.; Ambos, Björn
    Integrating distance research with the behavioral strategy literature on MNC headquarters-subsidiary relations, this paper explores how the distance between headquarters and subsidiaries relates to value added by the headquarters. We show for 124 manufacturing subsidiaries in Europe that, on average, distance is unrelated to value added by headquarters but that this effect is contingent upon the extent to which the subsidiary is locally embedded. Only after a certain threshold level of subsidiary embeddedness, distance is negatively related to headquarters value added. This effect is more pronounced for cultural, economic, and administrative distances than for pure geographic distance, highlighting the critical...

  3. Trojan Horses or Local Allies: Host-country National Managers in Developing Market Subsidiaries

    Müllner, Jakob; Klopf, Patricia; Nell, Phillip C.
    We investigate a multinational corporation's (MNC) decision to appoint host-country national (HCN) managers to foreign subsidiaries based on the institutional context of and familiarity with the host country. HCN managers are commonly associated with specialized knowledge, superior responsiveness, and higher legitimacy. Yet, we argue that local familiarity of HCNs can also be perceived as risky or harmful by MNC parents. We analyze how formal and informal institutions affect the trade-off between positive effects and potential costs associated with HCN managers ("Local allies" vs. "Trojan horses"). We find that legal institutions protect foreign MNCs from potential costs, encourage the use of...

  4. Reconceptualising Hierarchies: The Disaggregation and Dispersion of Headquarters in Multinational Corporations

    Nell, Phillip C.; Kappen, Philip; Laamanen, Tomi
    In this paper, we provide an introduction to the Special Issue entitled "Divide and Rule? The Emergence and Implications of Increasingly Disaggregated and Dispersed Headquarters Activities in Contemporary Firms". The purpose is two-fold. First, we propose a conceptualization of headquarters activities as a dynamic system in which activities can be distributed organizationally and spatially. We explicitly break with the dominant view of the prior research on "the headquarters" as a single, identifiable unit in one specific location. Second, building on the manuscripts accepted for publication in this Special Issue, we outline research implications and put forward an agenda for research...

  5. How "space" and "place" influence subsidiary host country political embeddedness

    Klopf, Patricia; Nell, Phillip C.
    As a part of multinational corporations (MNCs), subsidiaries operate in distinct host countries and have to deal with their external context. Host country political embeddedness, in particular, helps subsidiaries to obtain knowledge and understanding of the regulatory and political context, and to get access to local networks. Moreover, they get some guidance and support from their headquarters. Distance between MNC home and host countries, however, alienates subsidiaries from the MNC and influences the extent of subsidiary host country political embeddedness. We suggest that the host country political and regulatory context moderates the effect of distance on subsidiary host country political embeddedness by reducing the need and/or value...

  6. Beyond Simple Configurations: The Dual Involvement of Divisional and Corporate Headquarters in Subsidiary Innovation Activities in Multibusiness Firms

    Decreton, Benoit; Dellestrand, Henrik; Kappen, Philip; Nell, Phillip C.
    We investigate "dual headquarters involvement", i.e., corporate and divisional headquarters' simultaneous involvement in innovation development projects hosted by subsidiaries of multibusiness firms. Drawing on selective hierarchical involvement theory and the literature on subsidiary network embeddedness, we analyze 83 innovation projects in 22 multibusiness firms and find that the number of partners in the projects, rather than subsidiary intra- and inter-divisional embeddedness acts as a driver of dual headquarters involvement. We do however find that intra- and inter-divisional embeddedness is positively related to dual headquarters involvement when the number of partners in the innovation project is relatively large. These results lend...

  7. The dynamic response process to conflicting institutional demands in MNC subsidiaries - An inductive study in the Sub-Saharan African e-commerce sector

    Holm, Alison E.; Decreton, Benoit; Nell, Phillip C.; Klopf, Patricia
    In this paper, we examine responses to the conflicting institutional demands faced by an e-commerce subsidiary located in Sub-Saharan Africa and headquartered in Europe. Following an inductive approach, we gathered data from a 6-month participant-observation study and interviews with local managers. Our findings show that the subsidiary managers responded to conflicting institutional demands in a dynamic way, taking one response after the other. In some cases, the subsidiary managers responded in a way that they thought would be satisfactory but subsequent pressures from their headquarters or their local environment pushed them to adopt a new response. In other cases, the...

  8. Greener households? The effectiveness of smart meters in reducing energy consumption levels in the DACH region

    Bauer, Michael; Höltl, Andrea; Brandtweiner, Roman
    With public opinion shifting to a believe in climate change in the early 2000s the interest in energy efficiency has been increasing. EU Directives set the goal of deploying smart meters if cost efficient for providing more detailed energy consumption. The main goal is to better inform consumers and to give individual households the power to change possibly energy wasting behaviours. This paper evaluates through a literature review the effectiveness of intelligent electricity metering systems with a focus on the DACH region, the provision of different types of feedback and its persistence. It can be concluded that energy feedback enabled by smart meters can lead to...

  9. "Turn Left after the WC, and Use the Lift to Go to the 2nd Floor" - Generation of Landmark-Based Route Instructions for Indoor Navigation

    Fellner, Irene; Huang, Haosheng; Gartner, Georg
    People in unfamiliar environments often need navigation guidance to reach a destination. Research has found that compared to outdoors, people tend to lose orientation much more easily within complex buildings, such as university buildings and hospitals. This paper proposes a category-based method to generate landmark-based route instructions to support people's wayfinding activities in unfamiliar indoor environments. Compared to other methods relying on detailed instance-level data about the visual, semantic, and structural characteristics of individual spatial objects, the proposed method relies on commonly available data about categories of spatial objects, which exist in most indoor spatial databases. With this, instructions like "Turn right after the second door, and use...

  10. Vom politischen Vorfeld zu Gegnern. Über das Verhältnis von Bürgerprotesten, Bewegungen und Parteien

    Butzlaff, Felix

  11. Vulnerable yet relevant: the two dimensions of climate-related financial disclosure

    Monasterolo, Irene; Battiston, Stefano; Janetos, Anthony C.; Zheng, Zoey
    Market-based solutions to climate change are widely advocated by financial actors and policy makers in order to foster a smooth transition to a low-carbon economy. A first important limiting factor to this approach is widely recognized to be the imperfect information on investors' portfolios' exposure to climate-related risks. While better disclosure of climaterelevant information is often recommended as a remedy, the current lack of concise and comparable measures of portfolios' exposure to climate risk fails to provide major investors with the full incentives to reallocate their portfolios. A second limiting factor arises from the fact that in the context of the low-carbon transition, it is not clear...

  12. An Agent-Based Model of Institutional Life-Cycles

    Wäckerle, Manuel; Rengs, Bernhard; Radax, Wolfgang
    We use an agent-based model to investigate the interdependent dynamics between individual agency and emergent socioeconomic structure, leading to institutional change in a generic way. Our model simulates the emergence and exit of institutional units, understood as generic governed social structures. We show how endogenized trust and exogenously given leader authority influences institutional change, i.e., diversity in institutional life-cycles. It turns out that these governed institutions (de)structure in cyclical patterns dependent on the overall evolution of trust in the artificial society, while at the same time, influencing this evolution by supporting social learning. Simulation results indicate three scenarios of institutional life-cycles. Institutions may, (1) build up very fast...

  13. Problematizing socioemotional wealth in family firms: a systems-theoretical reframing

    Hasenzagl, Rupert; Hatak, Isabella; Frank, Hermann
    The concept of socioemotional wealth (SEW) seeks to present an independent paradigmatic basis for family-firm research, and in doing so aims to establish a sound basis for the scientific legitimacy of family-firm research. Establishing that legitimacy requires scholars to demonstrate that SEW is based on coherent assumptions on several theoretical levels. This paper uses the problematization methodology to challenge the coherence of the theoretical assumptions underpinning SEW and to advance theory development. The results of this problematization show that SEW is built on a theoretical level close to the object of research (in-house assumptions), but that more deeply-rooted theoretical levels (e.g. paradigmatic assumptions) are not sufficiently elaborated. Moreover, the original conceptualization is...

  14. The roles of absorptive capacity and cultural balance for exploratory and exploitative innovation in SMEs

    Limaj, Everist; Bernroider, Edward
    This study investigates whether balanced forms of organizational cultures moderate the effects of potential and realized absorptive capacities (ACs) to simultaneously generate exploratory and exploitative innovations. Using empirical survey data collected from 138 small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), we applied partial least squares (PLS) structural equation modeling (SEM) combined with mediation and moderation analyses to test our hypotheses. Our results show that the effects of potential AC on organizations' exploratory and exploitative innovations are fully mediated by the organizations' realized AC. The positive effects of realized AC on innovation are contingent on the overall cultural balance of the organization, which,...

  15. When the purpose lies within: Maximizers and satisfaction with autotelic choices

    Kokkoris, Michail D.
    Are maximizers less satisfied with their choices than satisficers? This research provides a novel perspective on this question by distinguishing between two types of consumer goals: autotelic, when choice is a goal in itself, and instrumental, when a choice is a means to achieving other goals. Study 1 showed that maximizers value autotelic experiences more than satisficers. Study 2 experimentally manipulated the choice goal and found that maximizers compared to satisficers experience higher choice satisfaction when the choice goal is autotelic rather than instrumental. Additionally, evidence is provided for the underlying mechanism (perceived ease of choice) as well as downstream consequences (consumers' willingness to pay for their chosen option)....

  16. When the purpose lies within: Maximizers and satisfaction with autotelic choices

    Kokkoris, Michail D.
    Are maximizers less satisfied with their choices than satisficers? This research provides a novel perspective on this question by distinguishing between two types of consumer goals: autotelic, when choice is a goal in itself, and instrumental, when a choice is a means to achieving other goals. Study 1 showed that maximizers value autotelic experiences more than satisficers. Study 2 experimentally manipulated the choice goal and found that maximizers compared to satisficers experience higher choice satisfaction when the choice goal is autotelic rather than instrumental. Additionally, evidence is provided for the underlying mechanism (perceived ease of choice) as well as downstream consequences (consumers' willingness to pay for their chosen option)....

  17. How CEO Values and TMT Diversity Jointly Influence the Corporate Strategy Making Process

    Hoffmann, Werner H.; Meusburger, Lukas
    Understanding managerial behavior and its underlying motivations is of key interest in times where the role of business in society is generally viewed critically. While CEO influence on strategy making processes is almost undisputed, little attention has explicitly been paid to how CEO values and the characteristics of the top management team (TMT) interact in shaping corporate strategy making. This is surprising if one follows the assumption that top managers who work closely together will by necessity influence each other's actions. Hence, we would expect the CEO-TMT interface to be vital in understanding how leadership influences strategy making. To address this, we propose a model in which the...

  18. Risk pooling via unidirectional inventory transshipments in a decentralized supply chain

    Arikan Fichtinger, Emel; Silbermayr, Lena
    We study risk pooling via unidirectional lateral transshipments between two locations under local decision-making. Unidirectional transshipments can be applicable when cost structures and/or capabilities differ between locations, and it is also a common practice in dual channel supply chains with online and offline sales channels. We show that such a system cannot be coordinated only with varying transshipment prices. The transshipment receiver orders more and the transshipment giver orders less than the respective optimal centralised order quantities. In order to remove this discrepancy, we suggest horizontal coordinationmechanisms by introducing a leftover subsidy for the location providing the transshipments or a shortage...

  19. A cross-country comparison of math achievement at teen age and cognitive performance 40 years later

    Skirbekk, Vegard; Bordone, Valeria; Weber, Daniela
    BACKGROUND Maintaining cognitive functioning through mid- to late-life is relevant for the individual and societal aim of active ageing. Evidence shows considerable stability in individual-level rank-ordering of cognitive functioning, but little attention has been given to cohort performance over the life cycle and macro-level factors that could affect it. OBJECTIVE The main goal of this paper is to address cross-national variation in mental performance from younger to older ages. METHODS Using a quasi-longitudinal approach, we compare the relative country ranking in standardised mathematical test scores of young teenagers in 1964 from the First International Mathematics Study (FIMS) and cognitive test performance at mid-life in 2004,...

  20. Future trends in the prevalence of severe activity limitations among older adults in Europe: a cross-national population study using EU-SILC

    Scherbov, Serguei; Weber, Daniela
    Objective: To project the proportion of population 65+ years with severe long-term activity limitations from 2017 to 2047. Design: Large population study. Setting: Population living in private households of the European Union (EU) and neighbouring countries. Participants: Participants from the EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions aged 55 years and older and living in one of 26 EU and neighbouring countries, who answered the health section of the questionnaire. Outcome: measures Prevalence of severe long-term activity limitations of particular subpopulations (ie, 55+, 65+, 75+ and 85+ years) by sex and country. Results: We find a huge variation in the prevalence of self-reported severe long-term...

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