Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 894

  1. Deep Impact: Geo-Simulations as a Policy Toolkit for Natural Disasters

    Naqvi, Asjad
    Adverse post-natural disaster outcomes in low-income regions, like elevated internal migration levels and low consumption levels, are the result of market failures, poor mechanisms for stabilizing income, and missing insurance markets, which force the affected population to respond, and adapt to the shock they face. In a spatial environment, with multiple locations with independent but interconnected markets, these transitions quickly become complex and highly non-linear due to the feedback loops between the micro individual-level decisions and the meso location-wise market decisions. To capture these continuously evolving micro-meso interactions, this paper presents a spatially explicit bottom-up agent-based model to analyze natural disaster-like...

  2. Erfahrungen und Erträge eines reichen Forscherlebens. Helmut Riedl zum 80. Geburtstag.

    Hofmayer, Albert

  3. Felix Jülg zum 80. Geburtstag

    Hofmayer, Albert

  4. Eine neue wirtschaftsräumliche Gliederung von Österreich: Aktualisierung einer Österreich-Atlas-Karte aus 1979.

    Kulmhofer, Huberta; Hofmayer, Albert
    Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt eine neue wirtschaftsräumliche Gliederung Österreichs vor, die eine direkt vergleichbare Aktualisierung der im Jahre 1979 publizierten Österreich-Atlas-Karte "Wirtschaftliche Strukturgebiete auf Grund der Arbeitsbevölkerung und Pendlerbilanz" darstellt. Auf Basis gemeindeweiser Beschäftigungs- und Tourismusdaten wird Österreich nach genau festgelegten Regeln (vgl. Bobek & Hofmayer 1981) in wirtschaftsstrukturelle Regionen (ca. 200 Gebiete) gegliedert, die hinsichtlich Sektoralstruktur der Beschäftigten, Tourismusintensität und Arbeitsplatzausstattung möglichst homogen sind. Die neue Karte wurde im Rahmen einer Dissertation an der Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien von Huberta Kulmhofer (2009) erarbeitet. Dieser Beitrag bietet nach einer kurzen Deskription der neuen Regionalisierung eine Auswertung in zweierlei Richtung: 1) Überprüfung der...

  5. Eine neue wirtschaftsräumliche Gliederung von Österreich: Aktualisierung einer Österreich-Atlas-Karte aus 1979.

    Kulmhofer, Huberta; Hofmayer, Albert
    Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt eine neue wirtschaftsräumliche Gliederung Österreichs vor, die eine direkt vergleichbare Aktualisierung der im Jahre 1979 publizierten Österreich-Atlas-Karte "Wirtschaftliche Strukturgebiete auf Grund der Arbeitsbevölkerung und Pendlerbilanz" darstellt. Auf Basis gemeindeweiser Beschäftigungs- und Tourismusdaten wird Österreich nach genau festgelegten Regeln (vgl. Bobek & Hofmayer 1981) in wirtschaftsstrukturelle Regionen (ca. 200 Gebiete) gegliedert, die hinsichtlich Sektoralstruktur der Beschäftigten, Tourismusintensität und Arbeitsplatzausstattung möglichst homogen sind. Die neue Karte wurde im Rahmen einer Dissertation an der Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien von Huberta Kulmhofer (2009) erarbeitet. Dieser Beitrag bietet nach einer kurzen Deskription der neuen Regionalisierung eine Auswertung in zweierlei Richtung: 1) Überprüfung der...

  6. Personalia. Wolfgang Schwarz zum 70. Geburtstag - eine Mehrebenenanalyse

    Hofmayer, Albert

  7. Bürgerschaftliches Engagement und soziale Ungleichheit. Eine Untersuchung auf Basis des European Social Survey

    Heitzmann, Karin; Hofbauer, Johanna; Mackerle-Bixa, Stefanie; Strunk, Guido
    (no abstract available)

  8. Quantifying policy tradeoffs to support aging populations

    Scherbov, Sergei; Sanderson, Warren C.; Mamolo, Marija
    BACKGROUND Coping with aging populations is a challenge for most developed countries. Supporting non-working adults can create an unsustainable burden on those working. One way of dealing with this is to raise the normal pension age, but this has proven unpopular. A complementary approach is to raise the average labor force participation rate. These policies are generally more politically palatable because they often remove barriers, allowing people who would like to work to do so. OBJECTIVE To conceptualize and estimate the trade-off between pension age and labor force participation rate policies. METHOD We project the populations of European countries and apply different levels...

  9. Market structure and competition in transition: results from a spatial analysis

    Labaj, Martin; Morvay, Karol; Silanic, Peter; Weiss, Christoph; Yontcheva, Biliana
    The present article provides first microlevel (indirect) empirical evidence on changes in entry barriers, the determinants of firm profitability as well as the nature of competition for a transition economy. We estimate size thresholds required to support different numbers of firms for several retail and professional service industries in a large number of geographic markets in Slovakia. The 3 time periods in the analysis (1995, 2001 and 2010) characterize different stages of the transition process. Specific emphasis is given to spatial spill-over effects between local markets. Estimation results obtained from a spatial ordered probit model suggest that entry barriers have...

  10. Straßengüterverkehr österreichischer Unternehmen 2003

    Fürst, Elmar Wilhelm M.; Riegler, Brigitte
    Von den österreichischen Unrernehmen, die Straßengüterfahrzeuge mir einer Nutzlast von mindestens zwei Tonnen einsetzten, wurden im Erhebungsjahr 2003 insgesamt 297,2 Mio. t Güter befördert, womit ein um 4,1% höheres Transportaufkommen als im Jahr zuvor erzielt wurde. Die im In- und Ausland erbrachte Transportleistung nahm gegenüber dem Vorjahr um 2,8% auf insgesamt 39,6 Mrd. tkm zu. Die Transportmengen betrugen beim lnlandverkehr 256,1 Mio. t (+4,1%), beim grenzüberschreitenden Empfang 16,0 Mio. t (+5,3%), beim grenzüberschreitenden Versand 17,1 Mio. t (+4,7%) und beim Transit 4,4 Mio. t (-5,2%).

  11. Measuring the Speed of Aging across Population Subgroups

    Dowd, Jennifer Beam; Sanderson, Warren C.; Scherbov, Sergei
    People in different subgroups age at different rates. Surveys containing biomarkers can be used to assess these subgroup differences. We illustrate this using hand-grip strength to produce an easily interpretable, physical-based measure that allows us to compare characteristic-based ages across educational subgroups in the United States. Hand-grip strength has been shown to be a good predictor of future mortality and morbidity, and therefore a useful indicator of population aging. Data from the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) were used. Two education subgroups were distinguished, those with less than a high school diploma and those with more education. Regressions on hand-grip...

  12. Is Education a Key to Reducing Vulnerability to Natural Disasters and hence Unavoidable Climate Change?

    Muttarak, Raya; Lutz, Wolfgang
    The collection of articles in this Special Feature is part of a larger project on "Forecasting Societies" Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change (an Advanced Grant of the European Research Council to Wolfgang Lutz). In investigating how global change will affect population vulnerability to climate variability and extremes, the project aims to help develop strategies that enable societies to better cope with the consequences of climate change. In doing so, the basic hypothesis being tested is that societies can develop the most effective long-term defense against the dangers of climate change by strengthening human capacity, primarily through education. Education can directly influence risk perception, skills and...

  13. Attrition in the Austrian Generations and Gender Survey

    Buber-Ennser, Isabella
    BACKGROUND In longitudinal research the loss of sample members between waves is a possible source of bias. It is therefore crucial to analyse attrition. OBJECTIVE This paper analyses attrition in a longitudinal study on family and fertility, by distinguishing between attrition due to non-contact and attrition due to non-cooperation. METHODS Based on the first two waves of the Austrian Generations and Gender Survey, the two components of attrition are studied separately by using bivariate as well as multivariate methods. Moreover, overall dropout - the combination of both components - is analysed. Apart from various socio-economic characteristics and data collection information, the study focuses on fertility-relevant...

  14. Cohabitation and marriage in Austria

    Berghammer, Caroline; Fliegenschnee, Katrin; Schmidt, Eva-Maria
    BACKGROUND Although cohabitation has spread rapidly in Austria during the past decades, it is more a prelude than an alternative to marriage. The individualization thesis serves as a conceptual framework for explaining the rise of cohabiting unions. OBJECTIVE Our aim is to understand what motivates people to cohabit and marry from an individualization perspective. The present study was designed to investigate in which ways key notions of the individualization thesis such as commitment, romantic love and risk are reflected in discourses on cohabitation and marriage. METHODS Research is based on data from eight focus group discussions (71 participants) conducted in Vienna, Austria, in 2012. This...

  15. Does Lone Motherhood Decrease Women's Happiness? Evidence from Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna; Matysiak, Anna; Mynarska, Monika
    This paper contributes to the discussion on the effects of single motherhood on happiness. We use a mixed-method approach. First, based on indepth interviews with mothers who gave birth while single, we explore mechanisms through which children may influence mothers' happiness. In a second step, we analyze panel survey data to quantify this influence. Our results leave no doubt that, while raising a child outside of marriage poses many challenges, parenthood has some positive influence on a lone mother's life. Our qualitative evidence shows that children are a central point in an unmarried woman's life, and that many life decisions are taken with consideration of the...

  16. Does Lone Motherhood Decrease Women's Happiness? Evidence from Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna; Matysiak, Anna; Mynarska, Monika
    This paper contributes to the discussion on the effects of single motherhood on happiness. We use a mixed-method approach. First, based on indepth interviews with mothers who gave birth while single, we explore mechanisms through which children may influence mothers' happiness. In a second step, we analyze panel survey data to quantify this influence. Our results leave no doubt that, while raising a child outside of marriage poses many challenges, parenthood has some positive influence on a lone mother's life. Our qualitative evidence shows that children are a central point in an unmarried woman's life, and that many life decisions are taken with consideration of the...

  17. Modelling the constraints on consanguineous marriage when fertility declines

    Barakat, Bilal; Basten, Stuart
    BACKGROUND Consanguinity - or marriage between close blood relatives, in particular first cousins - is widely practised and even socially encouraged in many countries. However, in the face of fertility transition where the number of cousins eligible to marry declines, how might such constraints on consanguinity develop in the future? OBJECTIVE Numerous studies have stated that the practice cannot continue at present levels and in its present form in the face of fertility transition. However, the future impact of fertility transition on availability of cousins to marry has not yet been quantified. METHODS We perform a simulation exercise using past and projected net reproduction rates...

  18. Policy analysis: Empiricism, social construction and realism

    Spash, Clive L.
    In a recent article Ulrich Brand has discussed how best to perform policy analysis. I reflect upon the paper as an interdisciplinary researcher experienced in public policy problems and their analysis with a particular interest in the relationship between social, economic and environmental problems. At the centre of the paper is the contrast between two existing methodologies prevalent in political science and related disciplines. One is the rationalist approach, which takes on the character of a natural science, that believes in a fully knowable objective reality which can be observed by an independent investigator. The other is a strong social...

  19. The Role of Education on Disaster Preparedness: Case Study of 2012 Indian Ocean Earthquakes on Thailand's Andaman Coast

    Muttarak, Raya; Pothisiri , Wiraporn
    In this paper we investigate how well residents of the Andaman coast in Phang Nga province, Thailand, are prepared for earthquakes and tsunami. It is hypothesized that formal education can promote disaster preparedness because education enhances individual cognitive and learning skills, as well as access to information. A survey was conducted of 557 households in the areas that received tsunami warnings following the Indian Ocean earthquakes on 11 April 2012. Interviews were carried out during the period of numerous aftershocks, which put residents in the region on high alert. The respondents were asked what emergency preparedness measures they had taken following the 11 April earthquakes....

  20. The impact of policies influencing the demography of age-structured populations: lessons from academies of sciences

    Riosmena, Fernando; Winkler-Dworak, Maria; Prskawetz, Alexia; Feichtinger, Gustav
    In this paper, we assess the role of policies aimed at regulating the number and age structure of elections on the size and age structure of five European Academies of Sciences. We show the recent pace of ageing and the degree of variation in policies across them and discuss the implications of different policies on the size and age structure of academies. We also illustrate the potential effect of different election regimes (regimens? types?) (fixed vs. linked) and age structures of elections (younger vs. older) by contrasting the steady-state dynamics of different projections of Full Members in each academy into...

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