Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 576

  1. Personal Data Markets

    Spiekermann-Hoff, Sarah; Böhme, Rainer; Acquisti, Alessandro; Hui, Kai-Lung

  2. The Challenges of Personal Data Markets and Privacy

    Spiekermann-Hoff, Sarah; Böhme, Rainer; Acquisti, Alessandro; Hui, Kai-Lung
    Personal data is increasingly conceived as a tradable asset. Markets for personal information are emerging and new ways of valuating individuals' data are being proposed. At the same time, legal obligations over protection of personal data and individuals' concerns over its privacy persist. This article outlines some of the economic, technical, social, and ethical issues associated with personal data markets, focusing on the privacy challenges they raise.

  3. A systematic methodology for privacy impact assessments: a design science approach

    Spiekermann-Hoff, Sarah; Oetzel, Marie Caroline
    For companies that develop and operate IT applications that process the personal data of customers and employees, a major problem is protecting these data and preventing privacy breaches. Failure to adequately address this problem can result in considerable damage to the company's reputation and finances, as well as negative effects for customers or employees (data subjects). To address this problem, we propose a methodology that systematically considers privacy issues by using a step-by-step privacy impact assessment (PIA). Existing PIA approaches cannot be applied easily because they are improperly structured or imprecise and lengthy. We argue that companies that employ our...

  4. The Challenges of Privacy by Design

    Spiekermann-Hoff, Sarah
    Heralded by regulators, Privacy by Design holds the promise to solve the digital world's privacy problems. But there are immense challenges, including management commitment and step-by-step methods to integrate privacy into systems.

  5. Neural networks. A general framework for non-linear function approximation

    Fischer, Manfred M.
    The focus of this paper is on the neural network modelling approach that has gained increasing recognition in GIScience in recent years. The novelty about neural networks lies in their ability to model non-linear processes with few, if any, a priori assumptions about the nature of the data-generating process. The paper discusses some important issues that are central for successful application development. The scope is limited to feedforward neural networks, the leading example of neural networks. It is argued that failures in applications can usually be attributed to inadequate learning and/or inadequate complexity of the network model. Parameter estimation and...

  6. The geography of knowledge spillovers between high-technology firms in Europe. Evidence from a spatial interaction modelling perspective

    Fischer, Manfred M.; Scherngell, Thomas; Jansenberger, Eva
    The focus in this paper is on knowledge spillovers between high-technology firms in Europe, as captured by patent citations. High-technology is defined to include the ISIC-sectors aerospace (ISIC 3845), electronics-telecommunication (ISIC 3832), computers and office equipment (ISIC 3825), and pharmaceuticals (ISIC 3522). The European coverage is given by patent applications at the European Patent Office that are assigned to high-technology firms located in the EU-25 member states (except Cyprus and Malta), the two accession countries Bulgaria and Romania, and Norway and Switzerland. By following the paper trail left by citations between these high-technology patents we adopt a Poisson spatial interaction...

  7. A methodology for neural spatial interaction modeling

    Fischer, Manfred M.; Reismann, Martin
    This paper attempts to develop a mathematically rigid and unified framework for neural spatial interaction modeling. Families of classical neural network models, but also less classical ones such as product unit neural network ones are considered for the cases of unconstrained and singly constrained spatial interaction flows. Current practice appears to suffer from least squares and normality assumptions that ignore the true integer nature of the flows and approximate a discrete-valued process by an almost certainly misrepresentative continuous distribution. To overcome this deficiency we suggest a more suitable estimation approach, maximum likelihood estimation under more realistic distributional assumptions of Poisson processes, and utilize a global search procedure, called Alopex,...

  8. About the Importance of Interface Complexity and Entropy for Online Information Sharing

    Spiekermann-Hoff, Sarah; Korunovska, Jana
    In this paper, we describe two experiments that show the powerful influence of interface complexity and entropy on online information sharing behaviour. 134 participants were asked to do a creativity test and answer six open questions against three different screen backgrounds of increasing complexity. Our data shows that, as an interface becomes more complex and has more entropy users refer less to themselves and show less information sharing breadth. However, their verbal creativity and information sharing depth do not suffer in the same way. Instead, an inverse U shaped relationship between Interface complexity and creativity as well as information sharing depth can be observed:...

  9. Personenbezogene Daten privatwirtschaftlich nachhaltig nutzen. Regulatorische und technische Zukunftskonzepte

    Novotny, Alexander; Spiekermann, Sarah
    Zunehmende wirtschaftliche Vernetzung und Lobbyismus fordern die Sicherstellung von informierter Zustimmung, Transparenz und Verantwortlichkeit in der privatwirtschaftlichen Verwendung personenbezogener Daten heraus. Unser neues Modell verbindet durch das Zusammenspiel regulatorischer und technischer Datenschutzkonzepte mehr Sicherheit und Selbstbestimmung mit verstärkten Innovationsmöglichkeiten.

  10. International project finance: review and implications for international finance and international business

    Müllner, Jakob
    This literature review analyzes the global phenomenon of international project finance (PF) as both a management and finance instrument, allowing practitioners to realize large scale infrastructure projects in high risk contexts. After describing the characteristics of PF, its historical origins and its unique benefits for empirical inquiry, I summarize the findings of academic research from an interdisciplinary perspective. Based on this integration of Finance, Management and International Business research, I discuss the theoretical implications for each field that emanate from PF. Finally, I identify possibilities for future research and propose a more balanced, interdisciplinary academic treatment of PF.

  11. Towards a value theory for personal data

    Spiekermann-Hoff, Sarah; Korunovska, Jana
    Analysts, investors and entrepreneurs have recognized the value of personal data for Internet economics. Personal data is viewed as the "oil" of the digital economy. Yet, ordinary people are barely aware of this. Marketers collect personal data at minimal cost in exchange for free services. But will this be possible in the long term, especially in the face of privacy concerns? Little is known about how users really value their personal data. In this paper, we build a user-centered value theory for personal data. On the basis of a survey experiment with 1269 Facebook users, we identify core constructs that...

  12. A vision for global privacy bridges: Technical and legal measures for international data markets

    Spiekermann-Hoff, Sarah; Novotny, Alexander
    From the early days of the information economy, personal data has been its most valuable asset. Despite data protection laws and an acknowledged right to privacy, trading personal information has become a business equated with "trading oil". Most of this business is done without the knowledge and active informed consent of the people. But as data breaches and abuses are made public through the media, consumers react. They become irritated about companies' data handling practices, lose trust, exercise political pressure and start to protect their privacy with the help of technical tools. As a result, companies' Internet business models that...

  13. Productivity spillovers across countries and industries: new evidence from OECD countries

    Badinger, Harald; Egger, Peter
    This paper uses a translog approach to estimate intra- and inter-industry productivity spillovers transmitted through input-output linkages, distinguishing R&D and other (remainder) spillovers. For a panel of 12 OECD countries and 15 manufacturing industries from 1995-2005, first, we find that the estimated elasticity with respect to "own" R&D amounts to 0.25 on average (which would be estimated to be lower if R&D were assumed to be additively separable from other inputs). Second, there are sizeable intra-industry and relatively small inter-industry R&D spillovers. Third, there are significant remainder spillovers, which are mainly of the intra-industry type and substantially amplify idiosyncratic technology...

  14. Economic growth, volatility, and cross-country spillovers: new evidence for the G7 countries

    Antonakakis, Nikolaos; Badinger, Harald
    This study examines the linkages between output growth and output volatility in the G7 countries over the period 1958M2-2013M8. Using the VAR-based spillover index approach by Diebold and Yilmaz (2012) we find that: i) output growth and volatility are highly intertwined; ii) spillovers have reached unprecedented levels during the global financial crisis; and iii) the US has been the largest transmitter of growth and volatility shocks. Generalized impulse response analyses suggest moderate growth spillovers and sizable volatility spillovers across countries. Cross-variable effects indicate that volatility shocks lead to lower growth, while growth shocks reduce output volatility.

  15. Fiscal rules and twin deficits: the link between fiscal and external balances.

    Badinger, Harald; Fichet de Clairfontaine, Aurélien; Reuter, Wolf Heinrich
    This paper investigates the relationship between countries' fiscal balances and current accounts with an emphasis on the role of fiscal rules. The direct effect of fiscal policy on the current account via aggregate (import) demand is potentially amplified by indirect effects, materialising through interest rate effects and intergenerational transfers that reduce savings. On the other hand, the implied positive relation between fiscal and external balances is potentially attenuated by offsetting changes in savings through Ricardian equivalence considerations. We expect this attenuation effect to be stronger in countries with more stringent fiscal rules and test this hypothesis using a panel of...

  16. Spacey Parents and Spacey Hosts in Foreign Direct Investment

    Badinger, Harald; Egger, Peter
    Shocks on FDI of some parent country in a host affect the same parent's FDI in other hosts. Shocks on a parent's FDI in some host affect other parents' FDI in the same host. In general equilibrium, shocks on FDI between any country pair will affect all country pairs' FDI. Using cross-sectional data on FDI among 22 OECD countries in 2000, we use a spatial estimation framework to allow for all three modes of interdependence simultaneously, thereby distinguishing between market-size-related and remainder interdependence. Our results highlight the complexity of multinational enterprises' investment strategies and the interconnectedness of the world investment system.

  17. Determinants of fiscal rules

    Badinger, Harald; Reuter, Wolf Heinrich
    This paper empirically assesses determinants of countries' fiscal rules suggested by the political science, sociology, and economics literature. We find several of these variables to be related to the stringency of fiscal rules, providing indirect evidence for the relevance of governments' deficit bias. These determinants may also serve as instruments in models with (endogenous) fiscal rules as explanatory variable.

  18. Spatial Externalities and Growth in a Mankiw-Romer-Weil World: Theory and Evidence

    Fischer, Manfred M.
    This paper presents a theoretical growth model that accounts for technological interdependence among regions in a Mankiw-Romer-Weil world. The reasoning behind the theoretical work is that technological ideas cannot be fully appropriated by investors and these ideas may diffuse and increase the productivity of other firms. We link the diffusion of ideas to spatial proximity and allow for ideas to flow to nearby regional economies. Through the magic of solving for the reduced form of the theoretical model and the magic of spatial autoregressive processes, the simple dependence on a small number of neighbouring regions leads to a reduced form theoretical model and an associated empirical model...

  19. Wirtschaftswachstum und nachhaltiger Wohlstand. Mythen und Messung

    Stockhammer, Engelbert; Fellner, Wolfgang
    Dieser Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über ökonomisch und ökologisch orientierte Messansätze des nachhaltigen Wohlstands. Besondere Aufmerksamkeit wird dabei dem Bruttoindlandsprodukt (BIP) und dem Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare gewidmet. Die Debatte um die Folgeschäden von Wachstumsprozessen hat gezeigt, dass das BIP ein unzulänglicher Wohlstandsindikator ist, der systematisch verzerrte Informationen über die Nachhaltigkeit der Wohlstandsentwicklung liefert. Trotzdem sind bisher keine auf ökologische und soziale Nachhaltigkeit ausgerichteten Indikatorensysteme implementiert, um das BIP als zentralen Wohlstandsindikator zu ersetzen. Die Diskussion in der Wirtschaftswissenschaft und ökologisch orientierte Debatten scheinen sich eher auseinander entwickelt zu haben.

  20. Currency unions, export margins, and product differentiation: an empirical assessment for European Monetary Union

    Badinger, Harald; Türkcan, Kemal
    This paper reconsiders the trade effects of the euro, providing a decomposition into its effects on the extensive margin and intensive margin. Furthermore, it relates the more disaggregated estimates for 93 two-digit HS product groups to the elasticity of substitution, thereby testing a key hypothesis of recent trade theory. The estimates for the period 1996-2011 suggest a trade effect of the euro of some 28 percent, which has mainly materialized through the intensive margin. For several product groups, we find a negative net effect of the euro on the extensive margin, supporting anecdotal evidence that firms have consolidated their product...

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