Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 1.112

  1. Power versus trust - what matters more in collaborative consumption?

    Hofmann, Eva; Hartl, Barbara; Penz, Elfriede
    Purpose - Collaborative consumption, such as car sharing, speci fi cally implicates customer-to-customer interaction, which must be regulated by service providers (companies, peers and self-regulating communities), comprising different challenges for business organizations. While in conventional business relations, consumers are protected from undesirable customer behavior by laws, regulations (power) in the context of collaborative consumption are rare, so that trust becomes more relevant. It is the purpose of the study to investigate possible mechanisms to prevent undesirable customers in collaborative consumption. Design/methodology/Approach - In between subject designs, samples of 186 and 328 consumers fi lled in experimental online questionnaires with vignettes. Analyses were made of differences among car...

  2. Editorial

    Mader, Katharina; Smet, Koen; Theine, Hendrik

  3. The Explanatory Power of Reciprocal Behavior for the Inter-Organizational Exchange Context

    Pieperhoff, Martina
    In order to create sustainable competitive advantages, organizations are embedded in dyadic exchange relationships, which depend on the coordination of the behavior of the actors involved. Often, coordinated behavior is explained by trust. Since trust develops in a process of reciprocal responses to presumed trustworthy behavior, it is a reciprocity-based concept. While inter-organizational exchange relationships can appear in different stages (forming, establishing, broken), different reciprocity types (direct, indirect, negative) can be distinguished. The study links reciprocal behavior to different stages of inter-organizational exchange relationships in order to investigate reciprocity as a possible coordination mechanism of behavior and thus explore the...

  4. Life Expectancy by Education, Income and Occupation in Germany: Estimations Using the Longitudinal Survival Method

    Luy, Marc; Wegner-Siegmundt , Christian; Wiedemann, Angela; Spijker, Jeroen
    Reliable estimates for differences in life expectancy (LE) by socio-economic position (SEP), that can be assessed in an international context and are comprehensive in terms of considering different SEP dimensions, are missing for the German population so far. The aim of the present study is to fill this gap by providing estimates for differences in LE by education, household income, work status and vocational class. The lack of national mortality data by SEP required an innovative methodological approach to estimate LE from survey data with a mortality followup. The main strengths of the method are the low demand on the data, its simple applicability and the estimation of...

  5. The Rise of Non-financial performance Measures in Annual Reports. An Analysis of ATX-listed Companies

    Mühlbacher, Jürgen; Siebenaler, Tom; Würflingsdobler, Ulrike
    Purpose of the article: In the past, annual reports only included financial measures. More recently, this shareholder value approach has been criticized of leading to a strategic short-term orientation. Consequently, the use of strategic performance measurement systems (SPMSs), namely the Balanced Scorecard (BSC), is proposed to communicate non-financial measures to investors and stakeholders. Besides the distribution of critical information, the disclosure of non-financial measures should strengthen the employees' commitment to the long-term strategy. The purpose of the article is thus to reveal whether Austrian companies disclose their strategic performance measures in their annual reports. Methodology/methods: Two observation points, 2002 and 2012, were chosen to analyse the annual...

  6. Cohort fertility and educational expansion in the Czech Republic during the 20th century

    Zeman, Krystof
    BACKGROUND: During the 20th century the Czech Republic went through profound changes in female employment, gender roles, population and family policies, and public childcare. The educational structure of the female population changed tremendously. At the same time, completed cohort fertility fluctuated between 1.8 and 2.2 children per woman. OBJECTIVE: This article analyses the changes in the level of completed cohort fertility by education, during educational expansion in the Czech population under the economic, cultural, and institutional background of the state socialist regime, and after its breakdown. METHODS: The changes in the level of completed cohort fertility by education are analysed by means of decomposition, complemented...

  7. Diversification and Systemic Risk: A Financial Network Perspective

    Frey, Rüdiger; Hledik, Juraj
    In this paper, we study the implications of diversification in the asset portfolios of banks for financial stability and systemic risk. Adding to the existing literature, we analyse this issue in a network model of the interbank market. We carry out a simulation study that determines the probability of a systemic crisis in the banking network as a function of both the level of diversification, and the connectivity and structure of the financial network. In contrast to earlier studies we find that diversification at the level of individual banks may be beneficial for financial stability even if it does lead to a higher asset return correlation...

  8. Fundamental freedoms and VAT: an analysis based on the Credit Lyonnais case

    Spies, Karoline
    In the Credit Lyonnais case, the CJEU concluded that the proportion of input VAT deduction on mixed-use goods and services is to be calculated by taking into account the output supplies carried out by establishments located within the same territory only. This interpretation of the VAT Directive leads to a different treatment of domestic and foreign branches and is, hence, questionable in the light of the freedom of establishment. This paper analyses the impact of the fundamental freedoms on VAT law in general and possible reasons behind the interpretation chosen by the Court in the Credit Lyonnais case more specifically.

  9. Investigating patterns of local climate governance: How low-carbon municipalities and intentional communities intervene in social practices

    Hausknost, Daniel; Haas, Willi; Hielscher, Sabine; Schäfer, Martina; Leitner, Michaela; Kunze, Iris; Mandl, Sylvia
    The local level has gained prominence in climate policy and governance in recent years as it is increasingly perceived as a privileged arena for policy experimentation and social and institutional innovation. However, the success of local climate governance in industrialized countries has been limited. One reason may be that local communities focus too much on strategies of technology-oriented ecological modernization and individual behavior change and too little on strategies that target unsustainable social practices and their embeddedness in complex socioeconomic patterns. In this paper we assess and compare the strategies of "low-carbon municipalities" (top-down initiatives) and those of "intentional communities" (bottom-up initiatives). We were interested to determine to what...

  10. Double Blind Peer-Review in Games

    Berger, Ulrich; Rittman, Martyn

  11. Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research in Practice: Lessons from Inter- and Transdisciplinary Research in the Austrian Eisenwurzen

    Gingrich, Simone; Schmid, Martin; Dirnböck, Thomas; Dullinger, Iwona; Garstenauer, Rita; Gaube, Veronika; Haberl, Helmut; Kainz, Martin; Kreiner, Daniel; Mayer, Renate; Mirtl, Michael; Sass, Oliver; Schauppenlehner, Thomas; Stocker-Kiss, Andrea; Wildenberg, Martin
    Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research (LTSER) is an inter- and transdisciplinary research field addressing socio-ecological change over time at various spatial and temporal scales. In the Austrian Eisenwurzen region, an LTSER platform was founded in 2004. It has fostered and documented research projects aiming at advancing LTSER scientifically and at providing regional stakeholders with relevant information for sustainable regional development. Since its establishment, a broad range of research activities has been pursued in the region, integrating information from long-term ecological monitoring sites with approaches from social sciences and the humanities, and in cooperation with regional stakeholders. Based on the experiences gained in...

  12. IEEE P7000? The First Global Standard Process for Addressing Ethical Concerns in System Design

    Spiekermann, Sarah
    This keynote will give an introduction to IEEE P7000, the first standard IEEE is ever going to publish on ethical issues in system design. As co-chair of IEEE P7000 I am going to inform the audience about what this standard will be all about. In a nutshell: engineers, technologists and other project stakeholders need a methodology for identifying, analyzing and reconciling ethical concerns of end users at the beginning of systems and software life cycles. The purpose of IEEE P7000 is to enable the pragmatic application of this type of Value-Based System Design methodology which demonstrates that conceptual analysis of values and an extensive feasibility analysis...

  13. Multi-Layered Roles of Religion among Refugees Arriving in Austria around 2015

    Buber-Ennser, Isabella; Goujon, Anne; Kohlenberger, Judith; Rengs, Bernhard
    Violent conflicts and social unrest in the Middle East, in Central Asia, and in Africa have led to growing numbers of persons seeking refuge in Europe since 2011. The phenomenon culminated in 2015. In that year, with 88,300 new asylum applications, Austria was the 4th largest receiver of asylum seekers in the EU, thereby increasing visibly religious diversity in the country. Using two social surveys carried out in 2015 and in 2017 among asylum seekers and refugees, we study religious affiliation, religiosity, and attitudes as well as participation in religious groups. By focusing on the time span shortly after arriving...

  14. Will highly educated women have more children in the future?

    Testa, Maria Rita
    "Will highly educated women have more children in the future?" In this contribution, I address this question by looking at both fertility and fertility intentions; i.e., the number of children people plan to have over their reproductive lives. Intended births are highly correlated with actual births, and in low-fertility settings, childbearing has become associated with the couple's agency. On the other hand, education, which is a marker of income and social status, has remained an important driver of fertility choices. Hence, understanding the reproductive decision-making of women and men with low, medium, and high levels of education is crucial when seeking to determine...

  15. The educational gradient of fertility intentions: a meta-analysis of European studies.

    Testa, Maria Rita; Stephany, Fabian
    Unlike achieved fertility, fertility intentions are often positively correlated with education. However, the conditions under which such a positive relationship exists are not yet well known. Using 86 pieces of research covering 13 European countries that were published between 1990 and 2011, we assess in a quantitative manner the temporal and cross-country variation in the relationship between educational attainment and reproductive intentions. Because of the sequential nature of reproductive decisions and the gendered nature of each individual's life course, we look separately at childless women and women with one child, and compare women with men. Our findings show that both...

  16. Regional identity: a key to overcome structural weaknesses in peripheral rural regions?

    Sedlacek, Sabine; Kurka, Bernhard; Maier, Gunther
    Depopulation is a well-known phenomenon in peripheral rural regions. The most identified problems are based on structural weaknesses in terms of decreasing business activities and a lack of public infrastructure. In such regions population is mainly older causing major changes in social infrastructure. For instance many schools and kindergartens close down for lack of demand, which hinders young families to migrate to such regions. The result is typically a negative cumulative process of loss of population, loss of jobs, loss of infrastructure, further outmigration. It is an enormous challenge for such regions to overcome this vicious circle. Regional identity can...

  17. Panel discussion: language awareness vs. folk linguistics vs. applied linguistics

    Stegu, Martin; Preston, Dennis R.; Wilton, Antje; Finkbeiner, Claudia

  18. Schwarz-Blaues Regieren II: Orbánisierung in Rot-Weiß-Rot?

    Becker, Joachim

  19. Parteien in Zeiten des Umbruchs

    Novy, Andreas

  20. Beyond growth: new alliances for socio-ecological transformation in Austria

    Soder, Michael; Niedermoser, Kathrin; Theine, Hendrik
    Trade unions and environmental movements are often seen as political opponents most prominently discussed in the form of the "jobs vs. environment dilemma". Based on historical examples of the conflict relations between trade unions and environmental groups in the Austrian energy sector, this paper showcases how the relationship between the two groups has changed from enmity to first attempts at alliance building. Drawing from analysis of union documents and problem-centred interviews conducted with Austrian unionists, it shows that newly emerging alliances between unions and environmental movements contain the seeds for a broad societal movement that can help overcome the paradigm...

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