Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 595

  1. Learn from the Past, Prepare for the Future: Impacts of Education and Experience on Disaster Preparedness in the Philippines and Thailand

    Hoffmann, Roman; Muttarak, Raya
    This study aims at understanding the role of education in promoting disaster preparedness. Strengthening resilience to climate-related hazards is an urgent target of Goal 13 of the Sustainable Development Goals. Preparing for a disaster such as stockpiling of emergency supplies or having a family evacuation plan can substantially minimize loss and damages from natural hazards. However, the levels of household disaster preparedness are often low even in disaster-prone areas. Focusing on determinants of personal disaster preparedness, this paper investigates: (1) pathways through which education enhances preparedness; and (2) the interplay between education and experience in shaping preparedness actions. Data analysis is based on face-to-face surveys...

  2. Intellectual Property Norms in Online Communities: How User-Organized Intellectual Property Regulation Supports Innovation

    Bauer, Julia; Franke, Nikolaus; Türtscher, Philipp
    In many online communities, users reveal innovative and potentially valuable intellectual property (IP) under conditions that entail the risk of theft and imitation. Where there is rivalry and formal IP law is not effective, this would lead to underinvestment or withholding of IP, unless user-organized norms compensate for these shortcomings. This study is the first to explore the characteristics and functioning of such a norms-based IP system in the setting of anonymous, large-scale, and loose-knit online communities. In order to do so, we use data on the Threadless crowdsourcing community obtained through netnography, a survey, and a field experiment. On...

  3. Leaving the mainstream behind? Uncovering subjective understandings of economics instructors' roles

    Gruszka, Katarzyna; Scharbert, Annika Regine; Soder, Michael
    In the wake of the economic crisis, a number of student organizations and researchers highlighted the lack of pluralism and heterodox approaches in economics curricula. The relevance of pluralism becomes clear once set within the implications of a given scientific discourse on reality (e.g. economics and policy making). This study explores the role of instructors in co-constructing the pluralism discourse and debates, while recognizing the role of institutional obstacles to change within the discipline. An empirical field study is conducted with lecturers in introductory economics courses at the WU Vienna University of Economics and Business where they place themselves within...

  4. Framing the collaborative economy - Voices of contestation

    Gruszka, Katarzyna
    Within the context of multiple crises and change, a range of practices discussed under the umbrella term of collaborative (or sharing) economy have been gaining considerable attention. Supporters build an idealistic vision of collaborative societies. Critics have been stripping the concept of its visionary potential, questioning its revolutionary nature. In the study, these debates are brought down to the local level in search for common perceptions among the co-creators of the concept in Vienna, Austria. Towards this aim a Q study is conducted, i.e. a mixed method enabling analyses of subjective perceptions on socially contested topics. Four framings are identified:...

  5. Cost of capital in an international context: Institutional distance, quality, and dynamics

    Lindner, Thomas; Müllner, Jakob; Puck, Jonas
    Cost of debt is a key cognitive anchor for managerial decisions and an important determinant of firm profitability. We extend international management research by analyzing the effects of institutional distance, institutional quality, and their dynamics on the cost of debt in the context of foreign direct investments (FDI). We test our conceptual model on a sample of companies making 3,764 greenfield foreign direct investments from developed into less developed markets. Using hierarchical linear modelling, we show that the financial consequences of internationalizing into countries with weak institutions depend on both the institutional distance between countries, as well as their institutional...

  6. Natural Disasters and Human Capital Accumulation

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesus
    The empirical literature on the relationship between natural disaster risk and investment in education is inconclusive. Model averaging methods in a framework of crosscountry and panel regressions show an extremely robust negative partial correlation between secondary school enrollment and natural disaster risk. This result is driven exclusively by geologic disasters. Exposure to natural disaster risk is a robust determinant of differences in secondary school enrollment between countries but not necessarily within countries Natural disasters, human capital, education, school enrollment, Bayesian model averaging.

  7. Prevention is better than cure! Designing information security awareness programs to overcome users' non-compliance with information security policies in banks

    Bauer, Stefan; Bernroider, Edward; Chudzikowski, Katharina
    In organizations, users' compliance with information security policies (ISP) is crucial for minimizing information security (IS) incidents. To improve users' compliance, IS managers have implemented IS awareness (ISA) programs, which are systematically planned interventions to continuously transport security information to a target audience. The underlying research analyzes IS managers' efforts to design effective ISA programs by comparing current design recommendations suggested by scientific literature with actual design practices of ISA programs in three banks. Moreover, this study addresses how users perceive ISA programs and related implications for compliant IS behavior. Empirically, we utilize a multiple case design to investigate three...

  8. The Multi-Functionality of Professional and Business Associations in a Transitional Context: Empirical Evidence from Russia

    Ivanova, Ekaterina; Neumayr, Michaela
    In the literature it is generally assumed that activities of voluntary membership based associations operating in stable institutional environments are multi-faceted, contributing simultaneously to societal, economic and political spheres. This article, drawing on the concept of functions of non-profit organizations investigates, whether the multi-functional character of associations holds true in the context of transitional Russia. The paper examines the relative importance of the advocacy, community building and service delivery functions, fulfilled by different types of associations. The original empirical data from exploratory interviews with 15 leading experts on associational activities was triangulated by a confirmatory survey of 215 associations across Russia. The results confirm that the absolute majority of the...

  9. Evolutionary Political Economy: Content and Methods

    Hanappi, Hardy; Scholz-Wäckerle, Manuel
    In this paper we present the major theoretical and methodological pillars of evolutionary political economy. We proceed in four steps. Aesthetics: In chapter 1 the immediate appeal of evolutionary political economy as a specific scientific activity is described. Content: Chapter 2 explores the object of investigation of evolutionary political economy. Power: The third chapter develops the interplay between politics and economics. Methods: Chapter 4 focuses on the evolution of methods necessary for evolutionary political economy.

  10. Leaving behind what we are not. Applying a systems thinking perspective to present unlearning as an enabler for finding the best version of the self

    Grisold, Thomas; Kaiser, Alexander
    In response to criticism on the concept of "unlearning", we suggested that unlearning on an individual level should be defined as the reduction of the influence of old knowledge on cognitive and/or behavioural processes. In this article, we apply a systems thinking perspective on this definition to explore how far this kind of unlearning can possibly go and what happens if this process is inward-directed, i.e. affects the cognitive and behavioural patterns that define who we are. We take a knowledge perspective on the concept of the self and suggest that unlearning could trigger a disequilibrium, which in turn, enables a deep learning process and guides us to what is referred to...

  11. Post-capitalism, post-growth, post-consumerism? Eco-political hopes beyond sustainability

    Blühdorn, Ingolfur
    As a road map for a structural transformation of socially and ecologically self-destructive consumer societies, the paradigm of sustainability is increasingly regarded as a spent force. Yet, its exhaustion seems to coincide with the rebirth of several ideas reminiscent of earlier, more radical currents of eco-political thought: liberation from capitalism, consumerism and the logic of growth. May the exhaustion of the sustainability paradigm finally re-open the intellectual and political space for the big push beyond the established socio-economic order? Looking from the perspective of social and eco-political theory, this article argues that the new narratives (and social practices) of postcapitalism, degrowth and post-consumerism cannot plausibly be read as signalling a new eco-political...

  12. Peripheral integration and disintegration in Europe: the "European dependency school" revisited

    Weissenbacher, Rudy
    In this contribution to the history of theory, the author reconsiders the impact of the Latin American dependency paradigm on Europe. The analysis does not deal with the reception of the Latin American dependency school itself, the focus lies on elements of this school as they were used to explain the European situation in the 1970s and 1980s. For that purpose, it delineates research networks and their analyses of core-periphery relations in Europe. All these networks had a critical attitude towards the old development paradigm. Some called it development "from above" or "to the outside". A new paradigm was to include strategic elements of a "selective spatial closure" and "self-reliance"....

  13. A heuristic solution method for node routing based solid waste collection problems

    Hemmelmayr, Vera; Doerner, Karl F.; Hartl, Richard F.; Rath, Stefan
    This paper considers a real world waste collection problem in which glass, metal, plastics, or paper is brought to certain waste collection points by the citizens of a certain region. The collection of this waste from the collection points is therefore a node routing problem. The waste is delivered to special sites, so called intermediate facilities (IF), that are typically not identical with the vehicle depot. Since most waste collection points need not be visited every day, a planning period of several days has to be considered. In this context three related planning problems are considered. First, the periodic vehicle...

  14. Resolving inconsistencies and redundancies in declarative process models

    Di Ciccio, Claudio; Maggi, Fabrizio Maria; Montali, Marco; Mendling, Jan
    Declarative process models define the behaviour of business processes as a set of constraints. Declarative process discovery aims at inferring such constraints from event logs. Existing discovery techniques verify the satisfaction of candidate constraints over the log, but completely neglect their interactions. As a result, the inferred constraints can be mutually contradicting and their interplay may lead to an inconsistent process model that does not accept any trace. In such a case, the output turns out to be unusable for enactment, simulation or verification purposes. In addition, the discovered model contains, in general, redundancies that are due to complex interactions...

  15. Attracting foreign direct investment: the public policy scope for South East European countries

    Bellak, Christian; Leibrecht, Markus; Liebensteiner, Mario
    Based on earlier empirical literature for Central and Eastern European Countries this paper attempts to analyze the likely impact of changes in corporate income taxes, in the endowment with production-related material infrastructure and in the institutional environment on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) - and thus on one channel of regional development in South Eastern European Countries (SEECs). Specifically, we explore the scope for public policy to attract FDI separated by these three policy areas and across the SEECs. Our findings suggest that the potential for SEECs to attract FDI upon changes in these policy areas varies not only substantially between...

  16. Sustainable sourcing of strategic raw materials by integrating recycled materials

    Rogetzer, Patricia; Silbermayr, Lena; Jammernegg, Werner
    In this paper we investigate a manufacturer's sustainable sourcing strategy that includes recycled materials. To produce a short life-cycle electronic good, strategic raw materials can be bought from virgin material suppliers in advance of the season and via emergency shipments, as well as from a recycler. Hence, we take into account virgin and recycled materials from different sources simultaneously. Recycling makes it possible to integrate raw materials out of steadily increasing waste streams back into production processes. Considering stochastic prices for recycled materials, stochastic supply quantities from the recycler and stochastic demand as well as their potential dependencies, we develop a single-period inventory model to derive the order quantities...

  17. Pan-European regional income growth and club-convergence. Insights from a spatial econometric perspective

    Fischer, Manfred M.; Stirböck, Claudia
    Club-convergence analysis provides a more realistic and detailed picture about regional income growth than traditional convergence analysis. This paper presents a spatial econometric framework for club-convergence testing that relates the concept of club-convergence to the notion of spatial heterogeneity. The study provides evidence for the club-convergence hypothesis in cross-regional growth dynamics from a pan-European perspective. The conclusions are threefold. First, we reject the standard Barro-style regression model which underlies most empirical work on regional income convergence in favour of a two regime [club] alternative in which different regional economies obey different linear regressions when grouped by means of Getis and...

  18. Learning in neural spatial interaction models: A statistical perspective

    Fischer, Manfred M.
    In this paper we view learning as an unconstrained non-linear minimization problem in which the objective function is defined by the negative log-likelihood function and the search space by the parameter space of an origin constrained product unit neural spatial interaction model. We consider Alopex based global search, as opposed to local search based upon backpropagation of gradient descents, each in combination with the bootstrapping pairs approach to solve the maximum likelihood learning problem. Interregional telecommunication traffic flow data from Austria are used as test bed for comparing the performance of the two learning procedures. The study illustrates the superiority of Alopex based global search, measured in terms...

  19. (B)ELF in multicultural student teamwork

    Komori-Glatz, Miya
    Many researchers agree that multicultural teams are a "double-edged sword" with the potential for high levels of creativity and production, but also conflict. This paper argues that effective communication is vital for developing "virtuous", rather than vicious, circles and that research into (B)ELF offers an insight into what effective communication in multicultural and multilingual teams can look like. The conceptual frame develops research into ELF and BELF by also drawing on organisational and management research to examine team processes and the role of language within them. The second part of the paper presents illustrative examples from data collected in an...

  20. How do firm characteristics affect behavioural additionalities of public R&D subsidies? Evidence for the Austrian transport sector

    Wanzenböck, Iris; Scherngell, Thomas; Fischer, Manfred M.
    Interest of STI policies to influence the innovation behaviour of firms has been increased considerably. This gives rise to the notion of behavioural additionality, broadening traditional evaluation concepts of input and output additionality. Though there is empirical work measuring behavioural additionalities, we know little about what role distinct firm characteristics play for their occurrence. The objective is to estimate how distinct firm characteristics influence the realisation of behavioural additionalities. We use survey data on 155 firms, considering the behavioural additionalities stimulated by the Austrian R&D funding scheme in the field of intelligent transport systems in 2006. We focus on three different forms of behavioural additionality project additionality, scale additionality and...

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