Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 1.111

  1. The positive impact of women's employment on divorce: Context, selection, or anticipation?

    Vignoli, Daniele; Matysiak, Anna; Styrc, Marta
    BACKGROUND: Empirical findings regarding the impact of women's employment on divorce are mixed. One explanation is that the effects are moderated by the country context. Another is that previous studies have failed to account for unobserved factors that introduce bias into the estimated effects. Studies also rarely consider possible anticipatory employment behavior on the part of women who are thinking of divorce. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to deepen our understanding of the nexus between women's employment and divorce in a comparative perspective. METHODS: We adopt an analytical strategy that allows us to account for selection and anticipation mechanisms. Namely, we...

  2. Have labour practices and human rights disclosures enhanced corporate accountability? The case of the GRI framework

    Parsa, Sepideh; Roper, Ian; Muller-Camen, Michael; Szigetvari, Eva
    This paper critically evaluates Transnational Corporations' (TNCs) claimed adherence to the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)'s "labour" and "human rights" reporting guidelines and examines how successful the GRI has been in enhancing comparability and transparency. We found limited evidence of TNCs discharging their accountability to their workforce and, rather, we found evidence to suggest that disclosure was motivated more by enhancing their legitimacy. TNCs failed to adhere to the guidelines, which meant that material information items were often missing, rendering comparability of information meaningless. Instead, TNCs reported large volumes of generic/anecdotal information without acknowledging the impediments they faced in practice.

  3. Poverty in US Lesbian and Gay Couple Households

    Schneebaum, Alyssa; Badgett, M. V. Lee
    Poverty is a widely researched topic in economics. However, despite growing research on the economic lives of lesbians and gay men in the United States since the mid 1990s, very little is known about poverty in same-sex couple households. This study uses American Community Survey data from 2010 to 2014 to calculate poverty rates for households headed by different-sex versus same-sex couples. Comparing households with similar characteristics, the results show that those headed by same-sex couples are more likely to be in poverty than those headed by different-sex married couples. Despite that overall disadvantage, a decomposition of the poverty risk...

  4. Will the Sustainable Development Goals be fulfilled? Assessing present and future global poverty

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesús; Fengler, Wolfgang; Kharas, Homi; Bekhtiar, Karim; Brottrager, Michael; Hofer, Martin
    Monitoring progress towards the fulfillment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires the assessment of potential future trends in poverty. This paper presents an econometric tool that provides a methodological framework to carry out projections of poverty rates worldwide and aims at assessing absolute poverty changes at the global level under different scenarios. The model combines country-specific historical estimates of the distribution of income, using Beta-Lorenz curves, with projections of population changes by age and education attainment level, as well as GDP projections to provide the first set of internally consistent poverty projections for all countries of the world. Making...

  5. Exchange rate forecasting and the performance of currency portfolios

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesus; Fortin, Ines; Hlouskova, Jaroslava
    We examine the potential gains of using exchange rate forecast models and forecast combination methods in the management of currency portfolios for three exchange rates: the euro versus the US dollar, the British pound, and the Japanese yen. We use a battery of econometric specifications to evaluate whether optimal currency portfolios implied by trading strategies based on exchange rate forecasts outperform single currencies and the equally weighted portfolio. We assess the differences in profitability of optimal currency portfolios for different types of investor preferences, two trading strategies, mean squared error-based composite forecasts, and different forecast horizons. Our results indicate that...

  6. Disentangling resource and mode escalation in the context of emerging markets. Evidence from a sample of manufacturing SMEs

    Akbar, Yusaf; Balboni, Bernardo; Bortoluzzi, Guido; Dikova, Desislava; Tracogna, Andrea

  7. Regional innovation policies for new path development - beyond neo-liberal and traditional systemic views

    Tödtling, Franz; Trippl, Michaela
    How new regional growth paths emerge and what policy concepts are most adequate for nurturing their evolution constitute recurring themes in regional innovation and development studies. New industrial paths are often portrayed as the result of market-driven processes and Schumpeterian entrepreneurial efforts. This view goes along with a neoliberal policy approach that restricts the role of public interventions to setting up a suitable regulatory frame and supporting an entrepreneurial climate. The theoretical underpinnings and policy perspectives of this approach have been challenged by the innovation system literature, which offers a systemic view on the rise of new growth paths and...

  8. Disaster relief inventory management: horizontal cooperation between humanitarian organizations

    Toyasaki, Fuminori; Arikan Fichtinger, Emel; Silbermayr, Lena; Falagara Sigala, Ioanna
    Cooperation among humanitarian organizations has attracted increasing attention to enhance effectiveness and efficiency of relief supply chains. Our research focuses on horizontal cooperation in inventory management which is currently implemented in the United Nations Humanitarian Response Depot (UNHRD) network. The present work follows a two-step research approach, which involves collection of empirical data and quantitative modeling to examine and overcome the coordination challenges of the network. Our interviews with members of the network identified several managerial issues for sustainable cooperative inventory management that the UNHRD network pursues. Using a newsvendor model in the context of non-cooperative game theory, our research...

  9. Ultra-low fertility in South Korea: The role of the tempo effect

    Yoo, Sam Hyun; Sobotka, Tomas
    Background: The total fertility rate (TFR) in South Korea has fallen below 1.3 since 2001. The role of the rapid shift toward a late-childbearing pattern in driving Korean fertility decline to this ultra-low level has been little explored until now. Objective: We provide an in-depth analysis of period fertility trends by birth order in South Korea from 1981 to 2015, when the period TFR fell from 2.57 to extremely low levels. Methods: We combine census and birth registration data to estimate period and cohort fertility indicators by birth order. We compare changes in conventional TFR with tempo- and parity-adjusted total...

  10. Cohort fertility decline in low fertility countries: Decomposition using parity progression ratios

    Zeman, Krystof; Beaujouan, Éva; Brzozowska, Zuzanna; Sobotka, Tomás
    BACKGROUND: The long-term decline in cohort fertility in highly developed countries has been widely documented. However, no systematic analysis has investigated which parity contributed most to the fertility decline to low and very low levels. Objective: We examine how the contribution of changing parity progression ratios varied across cohorts, countries, and broader regions in Europe, North America, Australia, and East Asia. We pay special attention to countries that reached very low completed cohort fertility, below 1.75 children per woman. Methods: Using population censuses and large-scale surveys for 32 low fertility countries, we decompose the change in completed cohort fertility among women...

  11. Vertex finding by sparse model-based clustering

    Frühwirth, Rudolf; Eckstein, Korbinian; Frühwirth-Schnatter, Sylvia
    The application of sparse model-based clustering to the problem of primary vertex finding is discussed. The observed z-positions of the charged primary tracks in a bunch crossing are modeled by a Gaussian mixture. The mixture parameters are estimated via Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). Sparsity is achieved by an appropriate prior on the mixture weights. The results are shown and compared to clustering by the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm.

  12. Provenienzforschung ins Museum: Ausstellungseröffnung und Restitution der Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien im Technischen Museum Wien

    Koll, Johannes; Zodl, Regina
    Am 4. Oktober 2017 wurde die Integrierung der Privatbibliothek des österreichischen Petrochemikers Dr. Leopold Singer (1869-1942), die zwei Jahre vorher von der Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien an dessen Erben und Erbinnen restituiert worden war, in die Dauerausstellung des Technischen Museums Wien gefeiert. Erstmalig werden damit Ergebnisse bibliothekarischer Provenienzforschung in einem international renommierten Museum der Öffentlichkeit zugänglich gemacht. Zugleich wurde ein Buch restituiert, das bis zum "Anschluss" Österreichs Dr. Martin Singer (1874-1950) gehört hatte.

  13. Aktuelle Debatte: Brexit-Strategien und die soziale Frage

    Becker, Joachim; Cetkovic, Predrag

  14. Editorial: Neue Weichen für die Weltwirtschaft

    Becker, Joachim; Prausmüller, Oliver

  15. Food waste matters - A systematic review of household food waste practices and their policy implications

    Schanes, Karin; Dobernig, Karin; Gözet, Burcu
    In recent years, food waste has received growing interest from local, national and European policymakers, international organisations, NGOs as well as academics from various disciplinary fields. Increasing concerns about food security and environmental impacts, such as resource depletion and greenhouse gas emissions attributed to food waste, have intensified attention to the topic. While food waste occurs in all stages of the food supply chain, private households have been identified as key actors in food waste generation. However, the evidence on why food waste occurs remains scattered. This paper maps the still small but expanding academic territory of consumer food waste...

  16. Enriching integrated statistical open city data by combining equational knowledge and missing value imputation

    Bischof, Stefan; Harth, Andreas; Kämpgen, Benedikt; Polleres, Axel; Schneider, Patrik
    Several institutions collect statistical data about cities, regions, and countries for various purposes. Yet, while access to high quality and recent such data is both crucial for decision makers and a means for achieving transparency to the public, all too often such collections of data remain isolated and not re-useable, let alone comparable or properly integrated. In this paper we present the Open City Data Pipeline, a focused attempt to collect, integrate, and enrich statistical data collected at city level worldwide, and re-publish the resulting dataset in a re-useable manner as Linked Data. The main features of the Open City...

  17. Perception of Key Barriers in Using and Publishing Open Data

    Polleres, Axel; Umbrich, Jürgen; Figl, Kathrin; Beno, Martin
    There is a growing body of literature recognizing the benefits of Open Data. However, many potential data providers are unwilling to publish their data and at the same time, data users are often faced with difficulties when attempting to use Open Data in practice. Despite various barriers in using and publishing Open Data still being present, studies which systematically collect and assess these barriers are rare. Based on this observation we present a review on prior literature on barriers and the results of an empirical study aimed at assessing both the users' and publishers' views on obstacles regarding Open Data...

  18. New economic challenges for managing disease prevention and monitoring

    Collazzo Yelpo, Pablo
    Managing disease prevention and monitoring its progression benefits professionals facing the challenge of acquiring new knowledge and information for fighting the many diseases that negatively affect the life of people in areas such as public health systems, families, economic and business systems. From economic and operational points of view, Cancer Registries as organisations managing information by collecting, storing, reporting and interpreting data to improve cancer monitoring which is needed to plan health policies evaluation and design. Sustaining the role of the Cancer Registry as information system for fighting against cancer relies on paying attention on regulatory and ethical aspects with...

  19. Editorial: In quality (assurance) we trust - don't we?

    Kernegger, Bernhard; Vettori, Oliver

  20. Predicting learning success in online learning environments: Self-regulated learning, prior knowledge and repetition

    Ledermüller, Karl; Fallmann, Irmgard
    The emergence of new trends sometimes carries the risk that established, well-proven concepts rooted in other disciplines are not properly integrated into new approaches. As Learning Analytics seems to be evolving into a highly multidisciplinary field, we would like to demonstrate the importance of embedding classic theories and concepts into a Learning Analytics, system-data-driven setting. Our results confirm that classical factors that are operationalized with the help of system-generated data outperform more recent survey-based models. Therefore, we want to stress the point that system-generated data should not be left behind in the quickly evolving field of Learning Analytics.

Aviso de cookies: Usamos cookies propias y de terceros para mejorar nuestros servicios, para análisis estadístico y para mostrarle publicidad. Si continua navegando consideramos que acepta su uso en los términos establecidos en la Política de cookies.