Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 1.081

  1. Market structure and competition in the healthcare industry. Results from a transition economy

    Lábaj, Martin; Silanic, Peter; Weiss, Christoph; Yontcheva, Biliana
    The present paper provides first empirical evidence on the relationship between market size and the number of firms in the healthcare industry for a transition economy. We estimate market-size thresholds required to support different numbers of suppliers (firms) for three occupations in the healthcare industry in a large number of distinct geographic markets in Slovakia, taking into account the spatial interaction between local markets. The empirical analysis is carried out for three time periods (1995, 2001 and 2010) which characterise different stages of the transition process. Our results suggest that the relationship between market size and the number of firms differs both across industries and...

  2. Rethinking Populism: Peak democracy, liquid identity and the performance of sovereignty

    Blühdorn, Ingolfur; Butzlaff, Felix
    Despite the burgeoning literature on right-wing populism, there is still considerable uncertainty about its causes, its impact on liberal democracies and about promising counter-strategies. Inspired by recent suggestions that (1) the emancipatory left has made a significant contribution to the proliferation of the populist right; and (2) populist movements, rather than challenging the established socio-political order, in fact stabilize and further entrench its logic, this article argues that an adequate understanding of the populist phenomenon necessitates a radical shift of perspective: beyond the democratic and emancipatory norms, which still govern most of the relevant literature. Approaching its subject matter via...

  3. Paradoxes of Social Impact Bonds

    Maier, Florentine; Barbetta , Gian Paolo; Godina, Franka
    Social Impact Bonds (SIBs) have alternatively been portrayed as a promising tool to improve the functioning of welfare systems, or as an instrument of neoliberalism that threatens to undermine them. Recently, a more nuanced understanding of the promises as well as pitfalls of SIBs has developed, as both practical experiences and published empirical evidence about implemented SIBs have increased in number. We aim to contribute to the development of such an understanding by means of a combination of qualitative and quantitative text analysis. In doing so, we analyse a comprehensive sample of 51 practitioner reports on SIBs. We identify two...

  4. The spatial autocorrelation problem in spatial interaction modelling: A comparison of two common solutions

    Griffith, Daniel; Fischer, Manfred M.; LeSage, James P.
    Spatial interaction models of the gravity type are widely used to describe origin-destination flows. They draw attention to three types of variables to explain variation in spatial interactions across geographic space: variables that characterize the origin region of interaction, variables that characterize the destination region of interaction, and variables that measure the separation between origin and destination regions. A violation of standard minimal assumptions for least squares estimation may be associated with two problems: spatial autocorrelation within the residuals, and spatial autocorrelation within explanatory variables. This paper compares a spatial econometric solution with the spatial statistical Moran eigenvector spatial filtering...

  5. The irrelevance of stated plans in predicting farm successions in Finland

    Weiss, Christoph R.; Pietola, Kyösti; Väre, Minna
    This study estimates the value of farmers stated succession plans in predicting revealed succession decisions. The stated succession plan exists when a farmer answers in a survey questionnaire that the farm is going to be transferred to a new entrant within a five year period. The succession is revealed when the farm is transferred to a successor. The stated and revealed behaviour is estimated as a recursive Binomial-Probit- Model, which accounts for censoring of the decision variables and controls for a potential correlation between the estimating equations. The results suggest that the succession plans, as stated by elderly farmers in...

  6. Yet Another Event-driven Process Chain - Modelling Workflow Patterns with yEPCs

    Mendling, Jan; Neumann, Gustaf
    The 20 workflow patterns proposed by van der Aalst et al. provide a comprehensive benchmark for comparing process modelling languages. In this article, we discuss workflow pattern support of Event-Driven Process Chains (EPCs). Building on this analysis, we propose three extensions to EPCs in order to provide for workflow pattern support. These are the introduction of the so-called empty connector; inclusion of multiple instantiation concepts; and a cancellation construct. As both the latter are inspired by YAWL, we refer to this new class of EPCs as Yet Another Event-driven Process Chain (yEPC). Furthermore, we sketch how a transformation to YAWL...

  7. The impacts of port infrastructure and logistics performance on economic growth: the mediating role of seaborne trade

    Ziaul Haque, Munim; Schramm, Hans-Joachim
    Considering 91 countries with seaports, this study conducted an empirical inquiry into the broader economic contribution of seaborne trade, from a port infrastructure quality and logistics performance perspective. Investment in quality improvement of port infrastructure and its contribution to economy are often questioned by politicians, investors and general public. A structural equation model (SEM) is used to provide empirical evidence of significant economic impacts of port infrastructure quality and logistics performance. Furthermore, analysis of a multi-group SEM is performed by dividing countries into developed and developing economy groups. The results reveal that it is vital for developing countries to continuously...

  8. An Empirical Review of the Connection Between Model Viewer Characteristics and the Comprehension of Conceptual Process Models

    Mendling, Jan; Recker, Jan; Reijers, Hajo A.; Leopold, Henrik
    Understanding conceptual models of business domains is a key skill for practitioners tasked with systems analysis and design. Research in this field predominantly uses experiments with specific user proxy cohorts to examine factors that explain how well different types of conceptual models can be comprehended by model viewers. However, the results from these studies are difficult to compare. One key difficulty rests in the unsystematic and fluctuating consideration of model viewer characteristics (MVCs) to date. In this paper, we review MVCs used in prominent prior studies on conceptual model comprehension. We then design an empirical review of the influence of MVCS through a global, cross-sectional experimental...

  9. 25 Challenges of Semantic Process Modeling

    Mendling, Jan; Leopold, Henrik; Pittke, Fabian
    Process modeling has become an essential part of many organizations for documenting, analyzing and redesigning their business operations and to support them with suitable information systems. In order to serve this purpose, it is important for process models to be well grounded in formal and precise semantics. While behavioural semantics of process models are well understood, there is a considerable gap of research into the semantic aspects of their text labels and natural language descriptions. The aim of this paper is to make this research gap more transparent. To this end, we clarify the role of textual content in process...

  10. EXIOBASE 3: Developing a Time Series of Detailed Environmentally Extended Multi-Regional Input-Output Tables

    Stadler, Konstantin; Wood, Richard; Bulavskaya, Tatyana; Södersten, Carl-Johan; Simas, Moana; Schmidt, Sarah; Kunen, Jeroen; Bruckner, Martin; Giljum, Stefan; Lutter, Franz Stephan; Acosta-Fernández, José; Merciai, Stefan; Schmidt, Jannick H.; Theurl, Michaela C.; Plutzar, Christoph; Eisenmenger, Nina; Erb, Karl-Heinz; de Koning, Arjan; Tukker, Arnold
    Environmentally extended multiregional input-output (EE MRIO) tables have emerged as a key framework to provide a comprehensive description of the global economy and analyze its effects on the environment. Of the available EE MRIO databases, EXIOBASE stands out as a database compatible with the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA) with a high sectorial detail matched with multiple social and environmental satellite accounts. In this paper, we present the latest developments realized with EXIOBASE 3-a time series of EE MRIO tables ranging from 1995 to 2011 for 44 countries (28 EU member plus 16 major economies) and five rest of the...

  11. The Student View on Online Peer Reviews

    Bauer, Christine; Figl, Kathrin; Derntl, Michael; Beran, Peter Paul; Kabicher, Sonja
    Peer review is used as an effective quality assurance measure in many contexts, including science, business, programming or education. In education, several studies confirmed the positive effects of peer reviewing on student learning. Based on recent research concerning the role of media in the peer review process this study investigates how students perceive the process, content and effects of peer reviews. We also analyze students' opinions on different modes of peer reviewing activities, e.g. online vs. face-to-face reviewing. In the context of a computer science course on scientific writing, these research questions were addressed by administering an online questionnaire (n=38)...

  12. Co-action equilibrium fails to predict choices in mixed-strategy settings

    Berger, Ulrich
    Social projection is the tendency to project one's own characteristics onto others. This phenomenon can potentially explain cooperation in prisoner's dilemma experiments and other social dilemmas. The social projection hypothesis has recently been formalized for symmetric games as co-action equilibrium and for general games as consistent evidential equilibrium. These concepts have been proposed to predict choice behavior in experimental one-shot games. We test the predictions of the co-action equilibrium concept in a simple binary minimizer game experiment. We find no evidence of social projection.

  13. A Systematic Review on Developing Team Competencies in Information Systems Education

    Figl, Kathrin
    The ability to work effectively in teams has been a key competence for information systems engineers for a long time. Gradually, more attention is being paid to developing this generic competence as part of academic curricula, resulting in two questions: how to best promote team competencies and how to implement team projects successfully. These questions are closely interwoven and need to be looked at together. To address these questions, this paper identifies relevant studies and approaches, best practices, and key findings in the field of information systems education and related fields such as computer science and business, and examines them...

  14. Culture's Effects on Corporate Sustainability Practices: A Multi-Domain and Multi-Level View

    Miska, Christof; Szöcs, Ilona; Schiffinger, Michael
    With a triple-bottom-line lens on sustainability, this study examines the effects of culture on companies' economic, social, and environmental sustainability practices. Drawing on institutional theory and project GLOBE, we delineate cultural practices dimensions that consistently predict sustainability practices related to each of the three domains. Based on a sample of 1924 companies in 36 countries and nine cultural clusters, we find that future orientation, gender egalitarianism, uncertainty avoidance, and power distance practices positively, and performance orientation practices negatively, predict corporate sustainability practices. Further, our findings suggest that these effects might vary according to the country vis-à-vis cluster level of analysis.

  15. Does selection of mortality model make a difference in projecting population ageing?

    Scherbov, Sergei; Ediev, Dalkhat
    Background: In low mortality countries, assessing future ageing depends to a large extent on scenarios of future mortality reduction at old age. Often in population projections mortality reduction is implemented via life expectancy increases that do not specify mortality change at specific age groups. The selection of models that translate life expectancy into age-specific mortality rates may be of great importance for projecting the older age groups of future populations and indicators of ageing. Objective: We quantify how the selection of mortality models, assuming similar life expectancy scenarios, affects projected indices of population ageing. Methods: Using the cohort-component method, we project the...

  16. The Value of Time: Its Commodification and a Reconceptualization

    Fellner, Wolfgang
    The discourse about commodification of time indicates that under the current socio-economic regime important values get systematically ignored. This paper reviews literature about the value of time in classical political economy, neoclassical economics, the household production approach, household economics, and activity models. Starting with neoclassical economics, all these approaches are largely in accordance with utilitarian methodology. Utilitarian methodology turns out to be incapable of explaining the value of time. The debate about "quality work" allows us to identify the following intrinsic values: power, playfulness, a sense of meaning, and a sense of belonging. These intrinsic values match with the "five...

  17. Funds allocation in NPOs: the role of administrative cost ratios

    Burkart, Christian; Wakolbinger, Tina; Toyasaki, Fuminori
    Performance measurement of Non-Profit Organizations (NPOs) is of increasing importance for aid agencies, policy-makers and donors. A widely used benchmark for measuring the efficiency of NPOs is the overhead cost ratio, consisting of the total money spent on administration and fundraising relative to the budget. Donors generally favor a lower overhead cost ratio as it ensures that more Money directly reaches beneficiaries. Unlike fundraising expenses, administrative costs do not contribute to advertising the actions of an NPO even though they account for a significant proportion of overhead cost. Reducing administrative expenses is a logical consequence from a financial viewpoint, but might negatively affect NPOs...

  18. Funds allocation in NPOs: the role of administrative cost ratios

    Burkart, Christian; Wakolbinger, Tina; Toyasaki, Fuminori
    Performance measurement of Non-Profit Organizations (NPOs) is of increasing importance for aid agencies, policy-makers and donors. A widely used benchmark for measuring the efficiency of NPOs is the overhead cost ratio, consisting of the total money spent on administration and fundraising relative to the budget. Donors generally favor a lower overhead cost ratio as it ensures that more Money directly reaches beneficiaries. Unlike fundraising expenses, administrative costs do not contribute to advertising the actions of an NPO even though they account for a significant proportion of overhead cost. Reducing administrative expenses is a logical consequence from a financial viewpoint, but might negatively affect NPOs...

  19. Implementing Responsible Research and Innovation Practices in SMEs: Insights into Drivers and Barriers from the Austrian Medical Device Sector

    Auer, Alexander; Jarmai, Katharina
    This paper addresses the question of how Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) can be implemented in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs). It builds on existing knowledge about RRI in business as well as on insights into motivations, drivers and barriers from the related fields of eco-innovation and sustainability innovation. Expert interviews with CEOs of SMEs in the Austrian medical device sector are analyzed to develop insights into the companies¿ research and innovation activities and potential drivers and barriers for RRI. The findings support the assumption that SMEs are largely unaware of the RRI concept. At the same time, however, it is possible to identify current practices that...

  20. The potential role of employers in promoting sustainable mobility in rural areas: evidence from Eastern Austria

    Soder, Michael; Peer, Stefanie
    In industrialized countries, mobility represents one of the most important sources of CO2 emissions. Most research on promoting sustainable, climate-friendly modes of transportation has focused on urban areas. Rural areas-although characterized by high dependency on individual car ownership and usage-have received less attention. This article explores the potential role of rural employers in supporting sustainable alternatives to commuting by (single-occupied) motorized vehicles among their employees. We conduct a collective case study that considers five employers located in Eastern Austria (Burgenland), drawing from multiple data sources including structured surveys, expert interviews, focus groups, and site visits. Our analysis shows that employers have little incentive to implement measures that...

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