Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 64

  1. Strategies for executing federated queries in SPARQL1.1

    Buil-Aranda, Carlos; Polleres, Axel; Umbrich, Jürgen
    A common way for exposing RDF data on the Web is by means of SPARQL endpoints which allow end users and applications to query just the RDF data they want. However, servers hosting SPARQL endpoints often restrict access to the data by limiting the amount of results returned per query or the amount of queries per time that a client may issue. As this may affect query completeness when using SPARQL1.1's federated query extension, we analysed different strategies to implement federated queries with the goal to circumvent endpoint limits. We show that some seemingly intuitive methods for decomposing federated queries provide unsound results in the general case, and...

  2. Strategies for executing federated queries in SPARQL1.1

    Buil-Aranda, Carlos; Polleres, Axel; Umbrich, Jürgen
    A common way for exposing RDF data on the Web is by means of SPARQL endpoints which allow end users and applications to query just the RDF data they want. However, servers hosting SPARQL endpoints often restrict access to the data by limiting the amount of results returned per query or the amount of queries per time that a client may issue. As this may affect query completeness when using SPARQL1.1's federated query extension, we analysed different strategies to implement federated queries with the goal to circumvent endpoint limits. We show that some seemingly intuitive methods for decomposing federated queries provide unsound results in the general case, and...

  3. Quantifying policy tradeoffs to support aging populations

    Scherbov, Sergei; Sanderson, Warren C.; Mamolo, Marija
    BACKGROUND Coping with aging populations is a challenge for most developed countries. Supporting non-working adults can create an unsustainable burden on those working. One way of dealing with this is to raise the normal pension age, but this has proven unpopular. A complementary approach is to raise the average labor force participation rate. These policies are generally more politically palatable because they often remove barriers, allowing people who would like to work to do so. OBJECTIVE To conceptualize and estimate the trade-off between pension age and labor force participation rate policies. METHOD We project the populations of European countries and apply different levels...

  4. Measuring the Speed of Aging across Population Subgroups

    Dowd, Jennifer Beam; Sanderson, Warren C.; Scherbov, Sergei
    People in different subgroups age at different rates. Surveys containing biomarkers can be used to assess these subgroup differences. We illustrate this using hand-grip strength to produce an easily interpretable, physical-based measure that allows us to compare characteristic-based ages across educational subgroups in the United States. Hand-grip strength has been shown to be a good predictor of future mortality and morbidity, and therefore a useful indicator of population aging. Data from the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) were used. Two education subgroups were distinguished, those with less than a high school diploma and those with more education. Regressions on hand-grip...

  5. Is Education a Key to Reducing Vulnerability to Natural Disasters and hence Unavoidable Climate Change?

    Muttarak, Raya; Lutz, Wolfgang
    The collection of articles in this Special Feature is part of a larger project on "Forecasting Societies" Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change (an Advanced Grant of the European Research Council to Wolfgang Lutz). In investigating how global change will affect population vulnerability to climate variability and extremes, the project aims to help develop strategies that enable societies to better cope with the consequences of climate change. In doing so, the basic hypothesis being tested is that societies can develop the most effective long-term defense against the dangers of climate change by strengthening human capacity, primarily through education. Education can directly influence risk perception, skills and...

  6. Attrition in the Austrian Generations and Gender Survey

    Buber-Ennser, Isabella
    BACKGROUND In longitudinal research the loss of sample members between waves is a possible source of bias. It is therefore crucial to analyse attrition. OBJECTIVE This paper analyses attrition in a longitudinal study on family and fertility, by distinguishing between attrition due to non-contact and attrition due to non-cooperation. METHODS Based on the first two waves of the Austrian Generations and Gender Survey, the two components of attrition are studied separately by using bivariate as well as multivariate methods. Moreover, overall dropout - the combination of both components - is analysed. Apart from various socio-economic characteristics and data collection information, the study focuses on fertility-relevant...

  7. Cohabitation and marriage in Austria

    Berghammer, Caroline; Fliegenschnee, Katrin; Schmidt, Eva-Maria
    BACKGROUND Although cohabitation has spread rapidly in Austria during the past decades, it is more a prelude than an alternative to marriage. The individualization thesis serves as a conceptual framework for explaining the rise of cohabiting unions. OBJECTIVE Our aim is to understand what motivates people to cohabit and marry from an individualization perspective. The present study was designed to investigate in which ways key notions of the individualization thesis such as commitment, romantic love and risk are reflected in discourses on cohabitation and marriage. METHODS Research is based on data from eight focus group discussions (71 participants) conducted in Vienna, Austria, in 2012. This...

  8. Does Lone Motherhood Decrease Women's Happiness? Evidence from Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna; Matysiak, Anna; Mynarska, Monika
    This paper contributes to the discussion on the effects of single motherhood on happiness. We use a mixed-method approach. First, based on indepth interviews with mothers who gave birth while single, we explore mechanisms through which children may influence mothers' happiness. In a second step, we analyze panel survey data to quantify this influence. Our results leave no doubt that, while raising a child outside of marriage poses many challenges, parenthood has some positive influence on a lone mother's life. Our qualitative evidence shows that children are a central point in an unmarried woman's life, and that many life decisions are taken with consideration of the...

  9. Modelling the constraints on consanguineous marriage when fertility declines

    Barakat, Bilal; Basten, Stuart
    BACKGROUND Consanguinity - or marriage between close blood relatives, in particular first cousins - is widely practised and even socially encouraged in many countries. However, in the face of fertility transition where the number of cousins eligible to marry declines, how might such constraints on consanguinity develop in the future? OBJECTIVE Numerous studies have stated that the practice cannot continue at present levels and in its present form in the face of fertility transition. However, the future impact of fertility transition on availability of cousins to marry has not yet been quantified. METHODS We perform a simulation exercise using past and projected net reproduction rates...

  10. Policy analysis: Empiricism, social construction and realism

    Spash, Clive L.
    In a recent article Ulrich Brand has discussed how best to perform policy analysis. I reflect upon the paper as an interdisciplinary researcher experienced in public policy problems and their analysis with a particular interest in the relationship between social, economic and environmental problems. At the centre of the paper is the contrast between two existing methodologies prevalent in political science and related disciplines. One is the rationalist approach, which takes on the character of a natural science, that believes in a fully knowable objective reality which can be observed by an independent investigator. The other is a strong social...

  11. Government as Institutional Entrepreneur: Extending Working Life in the UK and Japan

    Flynn, Mathew; Schröder, Heike; Higo, Masa; Yamada, Atsuhiro
    Through the lens of Institutional Entrepreneurship, this paper discusses howgovernments use the levers of power afforded through business and welfare systems to affect change in the organisational management of older workers. It does so using national stakeholder interviews in two contrasting economies: the United Kingdom and Japan. Both governments have taken a "light-touch" approach to work and retirement. However, the highly institutionalised Japanese system affords the government greater leverage than that of the liberal UK system in changing employer practices at the workplace level.

  12. A systematic methodology for privacy impact assessments: a design science approach

    Spiekermann-Hoff, Sarah; Oetzel, Marie Caroline
    For companies that develop and operate IT applications that process the personal data of customers and employees, a major problem is protecting these data and preventing privacy breaches. Failure to adequately address this problem can result in considerable damage to the company's reputation and finances, as well as negative effects for customers or employees (data subjects). To address this problem, we propose a methodology that systematically considers privacy issues by using a step-by-step privacy impact assessment (PIA). Existing PIA approaches cannot be applied easily because they are improperly structured or imprecise and lengthy. We argue that companies that employ our...

  13. About the Importance of Interface Complexity and Entropy for Online Information Sharing

    Spiekermann-Hoff, Sarah; Korunovska, Jana
    In this paper, we describe two experiments that show the powerful influence of interface complexity and entropy on online information sharing behaviour. 134 participants were asked to do a creativity test and answer six open questions against three different screen backgrounds of increasing complexity. Our data shows that, as an interface becomes more complex and has more entropy users refer less to themselves and show less information sharing breadth. However, their verbal creativity and information sharing depth do not suffer in the same way. Instead, an inverse U shaped relationship between Interface complexity and creativity as well as information sharing depth can be observed:...

  14. Currency unions, export margins, and product differentiation: an empirical assessment for European Monetary Union

    Badinger, Harald; Türkcan, Kemal
    This paper reconsiders the trade effects of the euro, providing a decomposition into its effects on the extensive margin and intensive margin. Furthermore, it relates the more disaggregated estimates for 93 two-digit HS product groups to the elasticity of substitution, thereby testing a key hypothesis of recent trade theory. The estimates for the period 1996-2011 suggest a trade effect of the euro of some 28 percent, which has mainly materialized through the intensive margin. For several product groups, we find a negative net effect of the euro on the extensive margin, supporting anecdotal evidence that firms have consolidated their product...

  15. The Avoidance of Double Non-Taxation in Double Tax Treaty Law - A Critical Analysis of the Subject-To-Tax Clause Recommended by the European Commission

    Marchgraber, Christoph
    Countries around the world have traditionally treated tax planning as a legitimate practice, unless the ambiguous borders to abusive behavior have been crossed. However, over time, business structures have become more sophisticated and tax authorities have become involved in keeping pace with the continuous improvement of international tax planning. By exploiting the inconsistencies between domestic tax rules and bilateral double taxation conventions it is even possible that certain income remains completely untaxed. In order to properly address this issue of double non-taxation, the European Commission - alongside the work of the OECD on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) -...

  16. Kurt Rothschild: A Personal Recollection

    Walther, Herbert
    (no abstract available)

  17. Comments on the paper by Heinz Kurz

    Kubin, Ingrid
    (no abstract availabe)

  18. Untergeordnete Integration: Das Assoziationsabkommen zwischen der EU und Ukraine

    Becker, Joachim
    (no abstract available)

  19. Editorial: Ukraine - Zur politischen Ökonomie eines europäischen Konfliktes

    Becker, Joachim
    (no abstract available)

  20. Die Große Transformation gestalten - Implikationen für Europa

    Novy, Andreas
    (no abstract availabe)

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