Mostrando recursos 1 - 10 de 10

  1. Estimation and Testing of Higher-Order Spatial Autoregressive Panel Data Error Component Models

    Badinger, Harald; Egger, Peter
    This paper develops an estimator for higher-order spatial autoregressive panel data error component models with spatial autoregressive disturbances, SARAR(R,S). We derive the moment conditions and optimal weighting matrix without distributional assumptions for a generalized moments (GM) estimation procedure of the spatial autoregressive parameters of the disturbance process and define a generalized two-stage least squares estimator for the regression parameters of the model. We prove consistency of the proposed estimators, derive their joint asymptotic distribution, and provide Monte Carlo evidence on their small sample performance.

  2. Attitude is everything? The impact of workload, safety climate, and safety tools on medical errors: A study of intensive care units

    Steyrer, Johannes; Schiffinger, Michael; Clemens, Huber; Valentin, Andreas; Strunk, Guido
    Background: Hospitals face an increasing pressure towards efficiency and cost reduction while ensuring patient safety. This warrants a closer examination of the trade-off between production and protection posited in the literature for a high-risk hospital setting (intensive care). Purposes: Based on extant literature and concepts on both safety management and organizational/safety culture, this study investigates to which extent production pressure (i.e., increased staff workload and capacity utilization) and safety culture (consisting of safety climate among staff and safety tools implemented by management) influence the occurrence of medical errors and if/how safety climate and safety tools interact. Methodology / Approach: A prospective, observational,...

  3. CSR Practices and Consumer Perceptions

    Öberseder, Magdalena; Schlegelmilch, Bodo B.; Murphy, Patrick E.
    Researchers and companies are paying increasing attention to corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs and the reaction to them by consumers. But despite such corporate efforts and an expanding literature exploring consumers' response to CSR, it remains unclear how consumers perceive CSR and which "Gestalt" consumers have in mind when considering CSR. Moreover, academics and managers lack a tool for measuring consumers' perceptions of CSR. This research explores consumers' perceptions of CSR and develops a measurement model for them. Based on qualitative data from interviews with managers and consumers, a conceptualization of consumers' perceptions of CSR is developed. Subsequently, this model...

  4. Business cycle convergence in EMU: A second look at the second moment

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesus; Fernandez Amador, Octavio
    We analyse the dynamics of the standard deviation of demand and supply shocks as well as of the demand component of GDP across countries in the European Monetary Union (EMU). This analysis allows us to evaluate the patterns of cyclical comovement in EMU and compare them the cyclical performance of the new members of the EU and other OECD countries. We make use of sigma-convergence methods to identify synchronization patterns in business cycles. The Eurozone has converged to a stable lower level of dispersion across business cycles during the end of the 80s and the beginning of the 90s. The new EU members have also experienced a...

  5. MNE Entrepreneurial Capabilities at Intermediate Levels: The Roles of External Embeddedness and Heterogeneous Environments

    Hoenen, Anne Kristin; Nell, Phillip C.; Ambos, Björn
    This study investigates the entrepreneurial capabilities of MNE units at intermediate geographical levels, between the local subsidiary level and global corporate headquarters. In our conceptual development, we build on the entrepreneurship and MNE embeddedness literature to explain how MNE units at intermediate geographical levels differ from local subsidiaries and global corporate headquarters, and why those differences are important. We illustrate our arguments using data on European regional headquarters (RHQs). We find that RHQs' entrepreneurial capabilities depend on their external embeddedness and on the heterogeneous information that is generated through dissimilar markets within the region. Our study opens up for an...

  6. The social cost of carbon emissions: Seven propositions

    Foley, Duncan K.; Rezai, Armon; Taylor, Lance
    Determining the social cost of carbon emissions (SCC) is a crucial step in the economic analysis of climate change policy as the US government's recent decision to use a range of estimates of the SCC centered at $77/tC (or, equivalently, $21/tCO2) in cost-benefit analyses of proposed emission-control legislation underlines. This note reviews the welfare economics theory fundamental to the estimation of the SCC in both static and intertemporal contexts, examining the effects of assumptions about the typical agent's pure rate of time preference and elasticity of marginal felicity of consumption, production and mitigation technology, and the magnitude of climate-change damage on...

  7. Model uncertainty in matrix exponential spatial growth regression models

    Fischer, Manfred M.; Piribauer, Philipp
    This paper considers the problem of model uncertainty associated with variable selection and specification of the spatial weight matrix in spatial growth regression models in general and growth regression models based on the matrix exponential spatial specification in particular. A natural solution, supported by formal probabilistic reasoning, is the use of Bayesian model averaging which assigns probabilities on the model space and deals with model uncertainty by mixing over models, using the posterior model probabilities as weights. This paper proposes to adopt Bayesian information criterion model weights since they have computational advantages over fully Bayesian model weights. The approach is...

  8. The gendered nature of intra-household decision making in and across Europe

    Schneebaum, Alyssa; Mader, Katharina
    After surveying the literature on the economics of household decision-making, we employ data from the 2010 European Union Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) to study the relationship between personal characteristics such as gender and decision-making power and responsibility. We find that across Europe, women more often make decisions about everyday spending and purchases for children, while it is mainly men who make the financial decisions in a household. Greater intrahousehold inequality in income and education is correlated with a lower probability of couples making decisions together, as is having a housewife in the home. Interesting patterns of household decision-making across countries emerge;...

  9. Gender and Migration Background in Intergenerational Educational Mobility

    Schneebaum, Alyssa; Rumplmaier, Bernhard; Altzinger, Wilfried
    We employ 2011 European Union Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data for Austria to perform Markovian mobility matrix analysis and uni- and multivariate econometric analysis to study intergenerational educational mobility by gender and migration background. We find that the educational attainment of girls and migrants relative to their parents is less mobile than for boys and natives. Further, the immobility of educational attainment is enhanced by the intersection of these identities: migrant girls are the least educationally mobile group and are especially likely to follow their mothers 19 educational footsteps, while native boys are the most mobile, especially compared to their mothers. (authors' abstract)

  10. Academic Anti-Semitism and the Austrian School: Vienna, 1918-1945

    Klausinger, Hansjörg
    The theme of academic anti-Semitism has been much discussed recently in histories of the interwar period of the University of Vienna, in particular its Faculty of Law and Policy Sciences. This paper complements these studies by focusing in this regard on the economics chairs at this faculty and, more generally, on the fate of the younger generation of the Austrian school of economics. After some introductory remarks the paper concentrates on three case studies: the neglect of Mises in all three appointments of economics chairs in the 1920s; the anti-Semitic overtones in the conflict between Hans Mayer and Othmar Spann, both professors...

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