Mostrando recursos 1 - 9 de 9

  1. Is the Demographic Dividend an Education Dividend?

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesus; Lutz, Wolfgang; Sanderson, Warren
    The effect of changes in age structure on economic growth has been widely studied in the demography and population economics literature. The beneficial effect of changes in age structure after a decrease in fertility has become known as the "demographic dividend." In this article, we reassess the empirical evidence on the associations among economic growth, changes in age structure, labor force participation, and educational attainment. Using a global panel of countries, we find that after the effect of human capital dynamics is controlled for, no evidence exists that changes in age structure affect labor productivity. Our results imply that improvements...

  2. Gender and Migration Background in Intergenerational Educational Mobility. Policy Paper no 11

    Schneebaum, Alyssa; Rumplmaier, Bernhard; Altzinger, Wilfried
    We employ 2011 European Union Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data for Austria to perform Markovian mobility matrix analysis and uni- and multivariate econometric analysis to study intergenerational educational mobility by gender and migration background. We find that the educational attainment of girls and migrants relative to their parents is less mobile than for boys and natives. Further, the immobility of educational attainment is enhanced by the intersection of these identities: migrant girls are the least educationally mobile group and are especially likely to follow their mothers 19 educational footsteps, while native boys are the most mobile, especially compared...

  3. Towards an operational measurement of socio-ecological performance

    Kettner, Claudia; Köppl, Angela; Stagl, Sigrid
    Questioning GDP as dominant indicator for economic performance has become commonplace. For economists economic policy always aims for a broader array of goals (like income, employment, price stability, trade balance) alongside income, with income being the priority objective. The Stiglitz-Sen-Fitoussi Commission argued for extending and adapting key variables of macroeconomic analysis. International organisations such as the EC, OECD, Eurostat and UN have proposed extended arrays of macroeconomic indicators (see 'Beyond GDP', 'Compendium of wellbeing indicators', 'GDP and Beyond', 'Green Economy', 'Green Growth', 'Measuring Progress of Societies'). Despite these high profile efforts, few wellbeing and environmental variables are in use in macroeconomic...

  4. A Catalog of Reusable Design Decisions for Developing UML/MOF-based Domain-specific Modeling Languages

    Hoisl, Bernhard; Sobernig, Stefan; Strembeck, Mark
    In model-driven development (MDD), domain-specific modeling languages (DSMLs) act as a communication vehicle for aligning the requirements of domain experts with the needs of software engineers. With the rise of the UML as a de facto standard, UML/MOF-based DSMLs are now widely used for MDD. This paper documents design decisions collected from 90 UML/MOF-based DSML projects. These recurring design decisions were gained, on the one hand, by performing a systematic literature review (SLR) on the development of UML/MOF-based DSMLs. Via the SLR, we retrieved 80 related DSML projects for review. On the other hand, we collected decisions from developing ten...

  5. The dynamics of returns to education in Uganda: National and subnational Trends

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesus; Raggl, Anna
    We assess empirically the changes in returns to education at the subnational level in Uganda using the Uganda National Household Surveys for 2002/2003 and 2005/2006. Our results indicate that average returns to schooling tended to converge across regions in the last decade. The overall trend in convergence of returns to schooling took place at all levels of educational attainment and this behaviour in returns to education is mostly driven by the dynamics of returns to schooling in urban areas. We analyse subnational convergence in returns to education and unveil deviant dynamics in Northern Uganda. We discuss the potential challenges to...

  6. Evolutionary Stability of Indirect Reciprocity by Image Scoring

    Berger, Ulrich; Grüne, Ansgar
    Indirect reciprocity describes a class of reputation-based mechanisms which may explain the prevalence of cooperation in groups where partners meet only once. The first model for which this has analytically been shown was the binary image scoring mechanism, where one's reputation is only based on one's last action. But this mechanism is known to fail if errors in implementation occur. It has thus been claimed that for indirect reciprocity to stabilize cooperation, reputation assessments must be of higher order, i.e. contingent not only on past actions, but also on the reputations of the targets of these actions. We show here that...

  7. Financial Stress, Sovereign Debt and Economic Activity in Industrialized Countries: Evidence from Dynamic Threshold Regressions

    Proaño, Christian R.; Schoder, Christian; Semmler, Willi
    We analyze how the impact of a change in the sovereign debt-to-GDP ratio on economic growth depends on the level of debt, the stress level on the financial market and the membership in a monetary union. A dynamic growth model is put forward demonstrating that debt affects macroeconomic activity in a non-linear manner due to amplifications from the financial sector. Employing dynamic country-specific and dynamic panel threshold regression methods, we study the non-linear relation between the growth rate and the debt-to-GDP ratio using quarterly data for sixteen industrialized countries for the period 1981Q1-2013Q2. We find that the debt-to-GDP ratio has impaired...

  8. Dynamic Spillovers of Oil Price Shocks and Policy Uncertainty

    Antonakakis, Nikolaos; Chatziantoniou, Ioannis; Filis, George
    This study examines the dynamic relationship between changes in oil prices and the economic policy uncertainty index for a sample of both net oil-exporting and net oil-importing countries over the period 1997:01-2013:06. To achieve that, we extend the Diebold and Yilmaz (2009, 2012) dynamic spillover index using structural decomposition. The results reveal that economic policy uncertainty (oil price shocks) responds negatively to aggregate demand oil price shocks (economic policy uncertainty shocks). Furthermore, during the Great Recession of 2007-2009, total spillovers increase considerably, reaching unprecedented heights. Moreover, in net terms, economic policy uncertainty becomes the dominant transmitter of shocks between 1997 and 2009,...

  9. National Representation in Supranational Institutions: The Case of the European Central Bank

    Badinger, Harald; Nitsch, Volker
    Supranational institutions face an important trade-off when hiring personnel. On the one hand, hiring decisions are based, as in most organizations, on a candidate's professional qualifications. On the other hand, supranational institutions often aim for broad national representation. Reviewing evidence from the European Central Bank, we show that nationality is indeed relevant for both hiring and decision-making. Specifically, we find a disproportionately narrow spread of national representation in the top management of the ECB. Further, there is evidence for the existence of national networks between adjacent management layers. Finally, monetary policy decisions seem to be linked to national representation in the core business areas of the ECB. Examining...

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