Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 55

  1. Intellectual Property Norms in Online Communities: How User-Organized Intellectual Property Regulation Supports Innovation

    Bauer, Julia; Franke, Nikolaus; Türtscher, Philipp
    In many online communities, users reveal innovative and potentially valuable intellectual property (IP) under conditions that entail the risk of theft and imitation. Where there is rivalry and formal IP law is not effective, this would lead to underinvestment or withholding of IP, unless user-organized norms compensate for these shortcomings. This study is the first to explore the characteristics and functioning of such a norms-based IP system in the setting of anonymous, large-scale, and loose-knit online communities. In order to do so, we use data on the Threadless crowdsourcing community obtained through netnography, a survey, and a field experiment. On...

  2. Towards a value theory for personal data

    Spiekermann-Hoff, Sarah; Korunovska, Jana
    Analysts, investors and entrepreneurs have recognized the value of personal data for Internet economics. Personal data is viewed as the "oil" of the digital economy. Yet, ordinary people are barely aware of this. Marketers collect personal data at minimal cost in exchange for free services. But will this be possible in the long term, especially in the face of privacy concerns? Little is known about how users really value their personal data. In this paper, we build a user-centered value theory for personal data. On the basis of a survey experiment with 1269 Facebook users, we identify core constructs that...

  3. Productivity spillovers across countries and industries: new evidence from OECD countries

    Badinger, Harald; Egger, Peter
    This paper uses a translog approach to estimate intra- and inter-industry productivity spillovers transmitted through input-output linkages, distinguishing R&D and other (remainder) spillovers. For a panel of 12 OECD countries and 15 manufacturing industries from 1995-2005, first, we find that the estimated elasticity with respect to "own" R&D amounts to 0.25 on average (which would be estimated to be lower if R&D were assumed to be additively separable from other inputs). Second, there are sizeable intra-industry and relatively small inter-industry R&D spillovers. Third, there are significant remainder spillovers, which are mainly of the intra-industry type and substantially amplify idiosyncratic technology...

  4. Spatial Externalities and Growth in a Mankiw-Romer-Weil World: Theory and Evidence

    Fischer, Manfred M.
    This paper presents a theoretical growth model that accounts for technological interdependence among regions in a Mankiw-Romer-Weil world. The reasoning behind the theoretical work is that technological ideas cannot be fully appropriated by investors and these ideas may diffuse and increase the productivity of other firms. We link the diffusion of ideas to spatial proximity and allow for ideas to flow to nearby regional economies. Through the magic of solving for the reduced form of the theoretical model and the magic of spatial autoregressive processes, the simple dependence on a small number of neighbouring regions leads to a reduced form theoretical model and an associated empirical model...

  5. Modeling the interaction between flooding events and economic growth

    Grames, Johanna; Prskawetz, Alexia; Grass, Dieter; Viglione, Alberto; Blöschl, Günter
    Recently socio-hydrology models have been proposed to analyze the interplay of community risk-coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth. These models descriptively explain the feedbacks between socio-economic development and natural disasters such as floods. Complementary to these descriptive models, we develop a dynamic optimization model, where the inter-temporal decision of an economic agent interacts with the hydrological system. We assume a standard macro-economic growth model where agents derive utility from consumption and output depends on physical capital that can be accumulated through investment. To this framework we add the occurrence of flooding events which will destroy part of the capital. We identify two specific periodic long term...

  6. Housework over the course of relationships: Gender ideology, resources, and the division of housework from a growth curve perspective

    Nitsche, Natalie; Grunow, Daniela
    In the 21st century, the division of housework remains gendered, with women on average still spending more time doing chores than their male partners. While research has studied why this phenomenon is so persistent, few studies have yet been able to assess the effect of gender ideology and socio-economic resources at the same time, usually due to data restrictions. We use data from the pairfam, a new and innovative German panel study, in order to test the effect of absolute and relative resources as well as his and her gender ideology on the division of housework. We employ a life course perspective and analyze trajectories of...

  7. "Sorry I forgot your birthday!": Adjusting apparent school participation for survey timing when age is measured in whole years

    Barakat, Bilal
    When only whole years of age are recorded in survey data, children who experienced a birthday since the beginning of the school year may appear to be of school-age when they are not, or vice-versa. This creates an error in estimates of school participation indicators based on such data. This issue is well-known in education statistics, and several procedures attempting to correct for this error have been proposed. The present study critiques current practice and demonstrates that its limitations continue to confound educational research and high-stakes policy conclusions: speculative explanations have been proposed for what is actually a measurement artefact....

  8. Extracting Reusable Design Decisions for UML-based Domain-specific Languages: A Multi-Method Study

    Sobernig, Stefan; Hoisl, Bernhard; Strembeck, Mark
    When developing domain-specific modeling languages (DSMLs), software engineers have to make a number of important design decisions on the DSML itself, or on the software-development process that is applied to develop the DSML. Thus, making well-informed design decisions is a critical factor in developing DSMLs. To support this decision-making process, the model-driven development community has started to collect established design practices in terms of patterns, guidelines, story-telling, and procedural models. However, most of these documentation practices do not capture the details necessary to reuse the rationale behind these decisions in other DSML projects. In this paper, we report on a three-year...

  9. Measuring The Environmental Impact Of Ict Hardware

    Krumay, Barbara; Brandtweiner, Roman
    Society needs information and communication technology (ICT) hardware to produce, process and store highly valuable information. This hardware, of course, affects the environment throughout its whole life cycle, starting with manufacturing, where the necessary scarce and precious resources (e.g. rare earth metals) are often mined under miserable environmental conditions. This leads to pollution of soil, water and air in the present as well as for the future. During the use phase of ICT hardware, energy consumption impacts the environment. At the end of life of ICT hardware, recycling, disposing as e-waste in landfills or disassembling are additional impacts that affect...

  10. Konzertveranstalter für klassische Musik in Wien im Vergleich. Eine explorative, qualitative Studie zu Distinktionsmechanismen, Umgang mit Veränderungen im Publikum, Strategien und kulturpolitischer Ausrichtung.

    Fischer, Manuela; Riegler, Maria; Tuma, Andreas; Windecker, Stephanie
    In dieser Arbeit wird untersucht, ob und wie Konzertveranstalter für klassische Musik in Wien Veränderungen in ihrem Publikum wahrnehmen und wie sie damit umgehen. Die explorative, qualitative Studie vergleicht Musikverein, Konzerthaus und Jeunesse miteinander, wobei auch der Wandel zwischen zwei Zeitpunkten - 2000 und 2015 - untersucht wird. In Anlehnung an Bourdieu gingen wir davon aus, dass sich Unterschiede zwischen den drei Institutionen hinsichtlich der Wahrnehmung ihres Publikums und des Umgangs mit Änderungen finden würden, auch wenn alle untersuchten Institutionen in erster Linie Konzerte im Hochkultursegment veranstalten. Zunächst wurden die Programmhefte der Konzertveranstalter aus den beiden Saisonen analysiert, die Erkenntnisse...

  11. Arbeiten oder leben? Bemerkungen zur Ökonomie der Zeit im Neoliberalismus

    Berger, Christian; Ziolkowski, Maria
    In der Ökonomie der Zeit löst sich nach Marx alle Ökonomie auf. Dieser vagen Prämisse folgend, setzen wir uns in folgendem Beitrag mit den Ambivalenzen im Verhältnis von Arbeit und Zeit auseinander. Das neoliberale Spiel mit Freiheit und Zwang, Emanzipation und Unterwerfung steht, neben der sozialkritischen Diagnose einer Entgrenzung, Subjektivierung und Flexibilisierung von Arbeit, im Zentrum unserer Auseinandersetzung. Auf die rezenten rechtlichen, ökonomischen und politischen Implikationen der Genealogie und Transformation der Arbeitszeit - und nicht zuletzt deren Auswirkungen auf die Geschlechterverhältnisse - wollen wir theoretische und empirische Schlaglichter werfen, um aufzuzeigen, dass diese Transformation eine Form der Autonomie ins Werk...

  12. Genderspezifische Verteilungswirkungen der Reformen des österreichischen Lohnsteuer- und Sozialversicherungsbeitragssystems

    Pechmann, Patrick
    Dieser Artikel beschäftigt sich mit den Verteilungswirkungen der Reformen des österreichischen Lohnsteuer- und Sozialversicherungsbeitragssystems. Untersucht werden dazu Maßnahmen der Reformen 2004/05, 2009 und 2015/16. Im Mittelpunkt der Analyse stehen dabei die Auswirkungen von Veränderungen der staatlichen Einnahmenseite auf die Verteilung der Sekundäreinkommen. Während bei den meisten Untersuchungen Aspekte der vertikalen Verteilung im Vordergrund stehen, wird in dieser Arbeit ein spezieller Fokus auf den Einfluss der Reformen auf die Verteilung zwischen den Geschlechtern gelegt. Generell lässt sich feststellen, dass die betrachteten Reformen durchaus die größten relativen Einkommenszuwächse in den unteren Einkommensbereichen und somit bei Frauen mit sich bringen, durch aber gleichzeitig...

  13. Das Ende der Mittelschicht? Die Entwicklung der Einkommensverteilung in Österreich und Europa

    Kranzinger, Stefan; Derndorfer, Judith
    In letzter Zeit rückte die Entwicklung der Mittelschicht vermehrt in den Fokus der öffentlichen Debatte. Um Fragen bezüglich der Einkommensverteilung in Europa und Österreich zu beantworten, untersucht dieser Beitrag die Entwicklung von drei Einkommensschichten in 20 europäischen Ländern. Dafür wird mithilfe des EU-SILC-Datensatzes die Verteilung der verfügbaren Äquivalenzeinkommen zwischen 2004 und 2012 analysiert. Auf europäischer Ebene wird versucht zu klären, ob Länder desselben Wohlfahrtsstaatsregimes ähnliche Veränderungen in ihrer Einkommensverteilung aufweisen. Auf Länderebene wird die Lage Österreichs vertieft behandelt. Hierbei wird auf die Haushaltszusammensetzung nach Einkommensschichten und die Auswirkungen der Wirtschafts- und Finanzkrise eingegangen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass sich wohlfahrtsstaatliche Gemeinsamkeiten innerhalb...

  14. Demographic strengthening of European identity

    Striessnig, Erich; Lutz, Wolfgang

  15. Social entrepreneurship and the non-profit sector

    Millner, Reinhard; Vandor, Peter

  16. Anatomie des AKP-Regimes

    Becker, Joachim
    (no abstract available)

  17. Nach dem "arabischen Frühling": Konflikte im Nahen Osten

    Becker, Joachim
    (no abstract available)

  18. Die südeuropäische Linke zwischen Aufschwung und Brüssler-Berliner Diktate: Editorial

    Becker, Joachim
    (no abstract available)

  19. Terrainverluste der lateinamerikanischen Linksregierungen

    Becker, Joachim
    (no abstract available)

  20. Low carbon lifestyles: A framework to structure consumption strategies and options to reduce carbon footprints

    Schanes, Karin; Giljum, Stefan; Hertwich, Edgar
    There are many opportunities for consumers to design their lives more sustainably. While a rapidly growing body of literature has investigated how consumers can reduce carbon footprints in key con- sumption areas, such as food, housing and mobility, an overall framework that allows structuring those options across all consumption areas is still missing. Hence, this paper presents a novel and systematic framework to identify improvement options that promote climate change mitigation and structure them based on their primary mode of impact on GHG emissions. The framework targets consumer practices and focuses on ambitious, but technically and socioeconomically feasible strategies for consumers to lower their carbon footprint. Four...

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