Mostrando recursos 1 - 8 de 8

  1. A harmonized dataset on global educational attainment between 1970 and 2060 - An analytical window into recent trends and future prospects in human capital development

    Goujon, Anne; K.C., Samir; Speringer, Markus; Barakat, Bilal; Potancoková, Michaela; Eder, Jakob; Striessnig, Erich; Bauer, Ramon; Lutz, Wolfgang
    We hereby present a dataset produced at the Wittgenstein Centre (WIC) containing comprehensive time series on educational attainment and mean years of schooling (MYS). The dataset is split by 5-year age groups and sex for 171 countries and covers the period between 1970 and 2010. It also contains projections of educational attainment to 2060 based on several scenarios of demographic and educational development. The dataset is constructed around collected and harmonized empirical census and survey data sets for the projection base year. The article present the principles and methodology associated with the reconstruction and the projection, and how it differs from several previous exercises. It also proposes...

  2. Der soziale Brutkasten: Wie gesellschaftliche Innovationen besser gelingen. Bedingungen der Entstehung, Umsetzung und Verbreitung, am Beispiel des österreichischen Gesundheitssektors

    Rameder, Paul; Millner, Reinhard; Moder, Clara Maria; Christanell, Anja; Vandor, Peter; Meyer, Michael

  3. Die Nutzung natürlicher Ressourcen - Bericht für Deutschland 2016

    Lutter, Franz Stephan; Giljum, Stefan; Lieber, Mirko; Manstein, Christopher
    Mit dem Bericht "Die Nutzung natürlicher Res­sourcen - Bericht für Deutsch­land 2016" beleuchtet das Um­welt­bundes­amt die ak­tuelle Situ­ation der Res­sourcennutzung in Deutsch­land. Der Fokus des er­sten UBA-Res­sourcen-Berichts liegt dabei auf nachwach­senden sowie nicht-n­achwach­senden Rohstof­fen. Der in­halt­liche Bo­gen wird von der Rohstof­fent­nahme über den Rohstoff­han­del, der Ver­wendung von Rohstof­fen in der deutschen Wirtschaft bis hin zum Rohstoffkon­sum gespannt. Weit­ere Res­sourcen wie Wasser, Fläche oder strömende Res­sourcen wer­den in einem sep­ar­aten Kapitel be­han­delt. Um ein vollständi­ges Bild zu zeichnen, wird nicht nur eine na­tionale Per­spekt­ive ein­gen­om­men, son­dern auch in­ter­na­tionale Aspekte wie Ver­sor­gungs­sich­er­heit und in­direkte Rohstoffnutzung ausführ­lich be­han­delt.

  4. Should I stay or should I go? Bayesian inference in the threshold time varying parameter (TTVP) model

    Huber, Florian; Kastner, Gregor; Feldkircher, Martin
    We provide a flexible means of estimating time-varying parameter models in a Bayesian framework. By specifying the state innovations to be characterized trough a threshold process that is driven by the absolute size of parameter changes, our model detects at each point in time whether a given regression coefficient is constant or time-varying. Moreover, our framework accounts for model uncertainty in a data-based fashion through Bayesian shrinkage priors on the initial values of the states. In a simulation, we show that our model reliably identifies regime shifts in cases where the data generating processes display high, moderate, and low numbers...

  5. Investment under Uncertainty in Electricity Generation

    Gugler, Klaus; Haxhimusa, Adhurim; Liebensteiner, Mario; Schindler, Nora
    The recent transformation of European electricity markets with increasing generation from intermittent renewables brings about many challenges. Among them, decaying wholesale prices, partly due to support schemes for renewables, may send insufficient investment signals for other technologies. We investigate the investment decision in a structural equation based on the Tobin's q-model, which we extend by both industry- and firm-technology-specific uncertainty. We utilize rich and novel data at the disaggregated firm generation technology level of European electricity generating firms for the period 2006-2014. Our results show that investment in any generation technology follows market incentives despite sunk and irreversible capital, confirming...

  6. The Returns to Preschool Attendance

    Fessler, Pirmin; Schneebaum, Alyssa
    Preschool attendance is widely recognized as a key ingredient for later socioeconomic success, mothers' labor market participation, and leveling the playing field for children from disadvantaged backgrounds. However, the empirical evidence for these claims is still relatively scarce, particularly in Europe. Using data from the 2011 Austrian European Union Statistics of Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC), we contribute to this literature in all mentioned dimensions. In particular, we investigate the effect of preschool attendance on an individual's later educational attainment, the probability that they work full time and their hourly wages, the likelihood of the mother working when the child...

  7. The Gender Wealth Gap Across European Countries

    Schneebaum, Alyssa; Rehm, Miriam; Mader, Katharina; Hollan, Katarina
    This paper studies the gap in wealth between male and female single households using 2010 Household Finance and Consumption Survey data for eight European countries. In the raw data, a large gap emerges at the upper end of the unconditional distribution. While OLS estimates show no difference in average net wealth levels, quantile regressions at the 95th percentile yield mixed evidence for the gender wealth gap in different specifications. Labour market characteristics and participation in asset and debt categories largely explain the differences between male and female single households. We show that the gender gap in net wealth is driven...

  8. Should I Stay or Should I Go? Bayesian Inference in the Threshold Time Varying Parameter (TTVP) Model

    Huber, Florian; Kastner, Gregor; Feldkircher, Martin
    We provide a flexible means of estimating time-varying parameter models in a Bayesian framework. By specifying the state innovations to be characterized trough a threshold process that is driven by the absolute size of parameter changes, our model detects at each point in time whether a given regression coefficient is con stant or time-varying. Moreover, our framework accounts for model uncertainty in a data-based fashion through Bayesian shrinkage priors on the initial values of the states. In a simulation, we show that our model reliably identifies regime shifts in cases where the data generating processes display high, moderate, and low...

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