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Caltech Authors (144.724 recursos)
Repository of works by Caltech published authors.
Group = Synchrotron Laboratory
Repository of works by Caltech published authors.
Group = Synchrotron Laboratory
Ruderman, H.; Gomez, R.; Tollestrup, A. V.
Two identical large lead glass shower detectors, or Cerenkov counters, have been built to detect and measure the energies of decay photons from neutral pions. This method of detecting high energy gamma rays has the advantage of 100 percent efficiency, good energy resolution, linearity of response, insensitivity to heavy charged particles, and short time resolution. In addition, the physical size of the detector need only increase logarithmically with the energy of the incident particle to preserve linearity and resolution.
Mullins, J. H.
The following is an analytic investigation, using first order theory only, of a proposed achromatic inflector for the Caltech Synchrotron. Nothing new in principle is involved in any of the theory presented below, and similar types of analyses have been carried out by others). The investigation was prompted by the need to find a specific achromatic inflector to couple a 10 MeV electron linac to the Caltech synchrotron. In particular, it was desired to find a system such that the injector was placed in a convenient location, and, if any electrostatic elements were used, that they have reasonably low required...
Watson, Keith R.; Hankins, Denis
Recent theoretical investigations of high energy nucleon-nucleon collisions support the two-center model of multiple meson production as discussed by Ciok, et al. To facilitate a prediction of the most probable distribution of shower particles as a function of laboratory energy, Farley's kinematical treatment of the "two-fireball" model is employed. A statistical determination of the multiplicity of pion (including neutrals) production per collision is assumed to be valid with possible corrections suggested through restrictions imposed by experimental values of the inelasticity, Κ_π.
Glashow, Sheldon L.; Gell-Mann, Murray
The possibility of generalizing the Yang-Mills trick is examined. Thus we seek theories of vector bosons invariant under continuous groups of coordinate-dependent linear transformations. All such theories may be expressed as superpositions of certain "simple" theories; we show that each "simple" theory is associated with a simple Lie algebra. We may introduce mass terms for the vector bosons at the price of destroying the gauge-invariance for coordinate-dependent gauge functions. The theories corresponding to three particular simple Lie algebras — those which admit precisely two commuting quantum num- bers — are examined in some detail as examples. One of them might play...
Peterson, Vincent Z.
This report is an examination of the principal characteristics of a vacuum system for the proposed 300 Bev cascade synchrotron 1). In par- ticular, we wish to see whether the small aperture and large circumference of the Main Ring present vacuum difficulties. Gas scattering losses, eddy currents in the vacuum chamber wall, and cost of a 5-mile vacuum system are of special interest. Attention has been directed primarily toward the Main Ring. The 10 Gev Booster Ring 1) has vacuum requirements similar to existing accelerators, and it is presumed that duplication or modification of such vacuum systems will be practical. Our...
Barna, Arpad; Marshall, Howard J.
A distributed amplifier with a stable gain of 10, risetime of 2.5 nanoseconds for 125 ohm load impedance is described. The maximum output voltage is 3.2 volts with negative polarity. The amplifier consists of 2 stages of 6 Philco 2N1742 transistors each and an emitter follower using a 2N1500. Design formulae are derived and detailed performance of a specific amplifier is given.
The purpose of this note is to study the effects on betatron frequencies -- in particular, their variation with particle energy — due to non-linear magnet fields. The idea is to determine whether non- linearities can be introduced deliberately in such a way that ν, the number of betatron wavelengths in the circumference, is independent of particle energy for energies near the equilibrium energy. The result is that non-linearities of a magnitude such that the field index n varies by about 1 per cent per cm will suffice.
Design of transistor circuits, particularly those operating in the nanosecond time range necessitated the measurement of some transistor parameters usually not specified by the manufacturers. Collector to base capacitance, gain-bandwidth product, beta and base spreading resistance of the transistors of Table 1 were measured.
Transient responses, input and output impedances have been derived for the use of the circuit designer. A hybrid equivalent circuit was assumed to be correct and has been used as the basis of the derived relationships. Grounded emitter, grounded base, grounded collector and emitter degenerated configurations are discussed.
Tollestrup, A. V.
If a low energy synchrotron is to be used as an injector for a 300 Bev machine, the problem may arise of synchronizing the two R.F. systems at transfer time in order that a bunch of protons in the injector may be transferred to a bucket in the main machine without loss of particles. A possible synchronization scheme is proposed and investigated here.
Gell-Mann, Murray; Zachariasen, Fredrik
There is no question that broken symmetries are of the highest importance in particle physics. We are familiar with the conservation of the isotopic spin current, which is violated by electromagnetism, and the conservation of the strangeness or hypercharge current, which is violated by the weak interactions. In both of these cases, the violations are small.
Barna, Arpad; Marshall, J. Howard
In the past, linear gate circuits for gating pulses of photomultiplier tubes have been mostly based on semiconductor diodes. Using diffused base transistors as a gate in an emitter input configuration provides favorable linearity and feedthrough properties. The circuit described here is an improved version of one developed by A. V. Tollestrup.
Barna, Arpad; Marshall, J. Howard; Sands, Matthew
A versatile coincidence-anticoincidence circuit in the 50 nsec time range is described capable of being used with large number of counters. Basic considerations with detailed circuits, operation and performance are given.
Walker, Robert L.
The problems of beam transfer from the booster to the main ring of the cascade synchrotron may be divided into two classes. The first consists of problems connected with the physical transfer of the beam from the booster ring to the main ring. These problems are: (a) ejection from the booster ring without deterioration of the optical quality of the beam, (b) transport of the beam to the main ring including lenses for matching the region of phase space occupied by the beam to the region appropriate for the main ring, and (c) injection into the main ring.
Robinson, Kenneth W.
An investigation has been made of a radio-frequency system for a 300-Gev proton synchrotron, using the constant frequency, phase - shifting method.
Quantitative criteria are proposed for distinguishing "high" and "low" injection fields in high-energy accelerators. The distinction depends on the aperture scale as well as the synchrotron energy.
The problem of high-energy multi-turn injection into a constant gradient electron synchrotron from a linear accelerator has been studied. The injected beam is characterized by a constant current with a well defined duration, a uniform energy distribution, and unspecified distributions in vertical and radial phase space. Calculations yielding the optimum synchrotron parameters and surfaces of capture efficiency over the radial phase space have been made assuming an idealized synchrotron with the design parameters of the Caltech machine. On the basis of these calculations and the parameters of a commercially available linac, an upper limit of 10^(12) captured electrons for 10...
Blewett, M. H.
One cannot, of course, make any sort of detailed cost estimate until a fairly comprehensive design study has been completed. However, a first approximation can be made by scaling the general order of magnitude of costs of components of already existing machines. For this study, the machine design has been assumed to be that outlined in Report SL-10. Furthermore, it has been assumed that the 10-Bev Booster magnet is pulsed at 10 cps and that the injector for the Booster Ring is a 100 Mev Linac, similar to the Brookhaven design. Costs for the Booster machine were scaled from those outlined...
Hulsizer, Robert I.
An earlier report, "A Proton Synchrotron for 300 Gev,"1 has shown that a 300 Gev Alternating Gradient Synchrotron could be operated if the magnets could be positioned, and held in position, well enough so that the short range random derivations of the magnets from a circle would be less than 0.1 mm. A misplaced magnet tends to deflect the orbit of the beam of protons and a series of errors in the placement of the magnets can very well deflect the beam out of the vacuum tube aperture. Two A.G. synchrotrons with l/8th mile diameters have been constructed to similar...
Until 1959 it was stated, and was generally accepted, that the achievement by artificial acceleration of very high interaction energies in the center-of-momentum framr of two nucleons would be practical in the immediatr future only with colliding-beam accelerator systems. Proposals were advanced for colliding-beam accelerators which would provide intensities of protons at about 10 Gev sufficient to obtain significant rates of proton-proton interactions. (Center-of-momentum energies of about 20 Gev.) Detailed consideration of colliding-beam devices at thr MURA laboratories has shown that these devices are indeed feasible. It is, however, clear that they will be both complex and costly.