Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 109

  1. Paradoxes of Social Impact Bonds

    Maier, Florentine; Barbetta , Gian Paolo; Godina, Franka
    Social Impact Bonds (SIBs) have alternatively been portrayed as a promising tool to improve the functioning of welfare systems, or as an instrument of neoliberalism that threatens to undermine them. Recently, a more nuanced understanding of the promises as well as pitfalls of SIBs has developed, as both practical experiences and published empirical evidence about implemented SIBs have increased in number. We aim to contribute to the development of such an understanding by means of a combination of qualitative and quantitative text analysis. In doing so, we analyse a comprehensive sample of 51 practitioner reports on SIBs. We identify two...

  2. The spatial autocorrelation problem in spatial interaction modelling: A comparison of two common solutions

    Griffith, Daniel; Fischer, Manfred M.; LeSage, James P.
    Spatial interaction models of the gravity type are widely used to describe origin-destination flows. They draw attention to three types of variables to explain variation in spatial interactions across geographic space: variables that characterize the origin region of interaction, variables that characterize the destination region of interaction, and variables that measure the separation between origin and destination regions. A violation of standard minimal assumptions for least squares estimation may be associated with two problems: spatial autocorrelation within the residuals, and spatial autocorrelation within explanatory variables. This paper compares a spatial econometric solution with the spatial statistical Moran eigenvector spatial filtering...

  3. The Value of Time: Its Commodification and a Reconceptualization

    Fellner, Wolfgang
    The discourse about commodification of time indicates that under the current socio-economic regime important values get systematically ignored. This paper reviews literature about the value of time in classical political economy, neoclassical economics, the household production approach, household economics, and activity models. Starting with neoclassical economics, all these approaches are largely in accordance with utilitarian methodology. Utilitarian methodology turns out to be incapable of explaining the value of time. The debate about "quality work" allows us to identify the following intrinsic values: power, playfulness, a sense of meaning, and a sense of belonging. These intrinsic values match with the "five...

  4. The potential role of employers in promoting sustainable mobility in rural areas: evidence from Eastern Austria

    Soder, Michael; Peer, Stefanie
    In industrialized countries, mobility represents one of the most important sources of CO2 emissions. Most research on promoting sustainable, climate-friendly modes of transportation has focused on urban areas. Rural areas-although characterized by high dependency on individual car ownership and usage-have received less attention. This article explores the potential role of rural employers in supporting sustainable alternatives to commuting by (single-occupied) motorized vehicles among their employees. We conduct a collective case study that considers five employers located in Eastern Austria (Burgenland), drawing from multiple data sources including structured surveys, expert interviews, focus groups, and site visits. Our analysis shows that employers have little incentive to implement measures that...

  5. A Diachronic Index and Glossary to What Is Justice? Collected Essays by Hans Kelsen

    Prebble QC, John; Opacic, Nina
    "What is Justice?" is a compilation of essays by Hans Kelsen that deal with problems of justice and their relationship to law, philosophy, and science. The broad scope and applicability of "What is Justice?" makes it a valuable source for research and writing across jurisdictions and in almost any area of law. Access to the English translation of "What is Justice?" is challenging because the book has no index. This present Index aims to provide scholars with a way in to Kelsen's work. Kelsen's tightly packed generalisations and conceptual arguments, which are intended to apply generally to all laws and legal...

  6. How many old people have ever lived?

    Sánchez-Romero, Miguel; Ediev, Dalkhat; Feichtinger, Gustav; Prskawetz, Alexia
    Background: Uninformed generalizations about how many elderly people have ever lived, based on a poor understanding of demography, are found in a surprising number of important publications. Objective: We extend the methodology applied to the controversial question "how many people have ever been born?" initiated by Fucks, Winkler, and Keyfitz, to the proportion of people who have ever reached a certain age y and are alive today (denoted as TT(y, T ))). Methods: We first analyze the fraction TT(y, T )) by using demographic data based on UN estimates. Second, we show the main mathematical properties of TT(y, T )) by age...

  7. Network migration: do neighbouring regions matter?

    Nowotny, Klaus; Pennerstorfer, Dieter
    This paper analyses the role of the spatial structure of migrant networks in the location decision of migrants to the European Union at the regional level. Using a random parameters logit specification, a significant positive effect of migrant networks in neighbouring regions on migrants' location decisions is found. Although this spatial spillover effect is smaller than the effect of networks in the host regions, omitting to control for this spatial dependence results in a 40% overestimation of the effect of regional migrant networks on the location decision of newly arriving migrants.

  8. Knowledge bases, innovation and multi-scalar relationships - Which kind of territorial boundedness of industrial clusters?

    Tödtling, Franz; Auer, Alexander
    Innovation is nowadays a highly interdependent process where firms rely on distributed knowledge sources at various spatial scales. It has been argued that innovation interactions are shifting increasingly from local/regional towards global scales and that the region as a space for supporting innovation and competitiveness of firms is losing in importance. We suggest, however, that firms and clusters rely on various kinds of knowledge bases and factors for their development that differ in their geographical mobility and territorial boundedness. Whereas codified knowledge as well as many kinds of goods and services, investment capital, and people have become mobile at a global scale due to improvements of transport-...

  9. Arbeitszeitverkürzung in der Praxis. Innovative Modelle in österreichischen Betrieben

    Gerold, Stefanie; Soder, Michael; Schwendinger, Michael
    Die vorliegende Studie beschäftigt sich mit Arbeitszeitverkürzung auf betrieblicher Ebene, ein Aspekt, der in der bisherigen Forschungsliteratur eher vernachlässigt wurde. Im ersten Teil der Studie werden sieben unterschiedliche Modelle betrieblicher Arbeitszeitverkürzung in Österreich beleuchtet. Dabei wird analysiert, welche Probleme den Anstoß zu einer Reduzierung der Arbeitszeit gaben, welche Aspekte und Motive diesen Prozess unterstützt haben, welche Barrieren und Risiken zutage traten und welche Faktoren schlussendlich zu einer erfolgreichen Umsetzung und Beibehaltung der Modelle beitrugen. Im zweiten Teil wird eines der untersuchten Modelle - die Freizeitoption - aus Perspektive der Beschäftigten analysiert. Dabei werden die Art der Verwendung sowie die subjektiven Auswirkungen auf Vereinbarkeit von Beruf und Familie, Lebensqualität und...

  10. Cross-sectional dependence model specifications in a static trade panel data setting

    LeSage, James P.; Fischer, Manfred M.
    The focus is on cross-sectional dependence in panel trade flow models. We propose alternative specifications for modeling time invariant factors such as socio-cultural indicator variables, e.g., common language and currency. These are typically treated as a source of heterogeneity eliminated using fixed effects transformations, but we find evidence of cross-sectional dependence after eliminating country-specific effects. These findings suggest use of alternative simultaneous dependence model specifications that accommodate cross-sectional dependence, which we set forth along with Bayesian estimation methods. Ignoring cross-sectional dependence implies biased estimates from panel trade flow models that rely on fixed effects.

  11. Der digitalisierte Forscher

    Kröll, Thomas
    Im 21. Jahrhundert ist der akademische Forscher nicht nur zunehmend digital informiert; die gesetzlich gebotene Evaluierung seiner Forschungsleistungen ist mitunter auch eine digital abgestützte. Dies bedeutet nicht nur Vorteile, sondern auch Risiken für den akademischen Forscher.

  12. Opportunities for knowledge co-production across the energy-food-water nexus: Making interdisciplinary approaches work for better climate decision making

    Monasterolo, Irene; Howarth, Candice
    The relationship between the energy-food-water nexus and the climate is non-linear, multi-sectoral and time sensitive, incorporating aspects of complexity and risk in climate related decision-making. This paper seeks to explore how knowledge co-production can help identify opportunities for building more effective, sustainable, inclusive and legitimate decision making processes on climate change. This would enable more resilient responses to climate risks impacting the nexus while increasing transparency, communication and trust among key actors. We do so by proposing the operationalization of an interdisciplinary approach of analysis applying the novel methodology developed in Howarth and Monasterolo (2016). Through a bottom-up, participative approach,...

  13. Trojan Horses or Local Allies: Host-country National Managers in Developing Market Subsidiaries

    Müllner, Jakob; Klopf, Patricia; Nell, Phillip C.
    We investigate a multinational corporation's (MNC) decision to appoint host-country national (HCN) managers to foreign subsidiaries based on the institutional context of and familiarity with the host country. HCN managers are commonly associated with specialized knowledge, superior responsiveness, and higher legitimacy. Yet, we argue that local familiarity of HCNs can also be perceived as risky or harmful by MNC parents. We analyze how formal and informal institutions affect the trade-off between positive effects and potential costs associated with HCN managers ("Local allies" vs. "Trojan horses"). We find that legal institutions protect foreign MNCs from potential costs, encourage the use of...

  14. How "space" and "place" influence subsidiary host country political embeddedness

    Klopf, Patricia; Nell, Phillip C.
    As a part of multinational corporations (MNCs), subsidiaries operate in distinct host countries and have to deal with their external context. Host country political embeddedness, in particular, helps subsidiaries to obtain knowledge and understanding of the regulatory and political context, and to get access to local networks. Moreover, they get some guidance and support from their headquarters. Distance between MNC home and host countries, however, alienates subsidiaries from the MNC and influences the extent of subsidiary host country political embeddedness. We suggest that the host country political and regulatory context moderates the effect of distance on subsidiary host country political embeddedness by reducing the need and/or value...

  15. The dynamic response process to conflicting institutional demands in MNC subsidiaries - An inductive study in the Sub-Saharan African e-commerce sector

    Holm, Alison E.; Decreton, Benoit; Nell, Phillip C.; Klopf, Patricia
    In this paper, we examine responses to the conflicting institutional demands faced by an e-commerce subsidiary located in Sub-Saharan Africa and headquartered in Europe. Following an inductive approach, we gathered data from a 6-month participant-observation study and interviews with local managers. Our findings show that the subsidiary managers responded to conflicting institutional demands in a dynamic way, taking one response after the other. In some cases, the subsidiary managers responded in a way that they thought would be satisfactory but subsequent pressures from their headquarters or their local environment pushed them to adopt a new response. In other cases, the...

  16. "Turn Left after the WC, and Use the Lift to Go to the 2nd Floor" - Generation of Landmark-Based Route Instructions for Indoor Navigation

    Fellner, Irene; Huang, Haosheng; Gartner, Georg
    People in unfamiliar environments often need navigation guidance to reach a destination. Research has found that compared to outdoors, people tend to lose orientation much more easily within complex buildings, such as university buildings and hospitals. This paper proposes a category-based method to generate landmark-based route instructions to support people's wayfinding activities in unfamiliar indoor environments. Compared to other methods relying on detailed instance-level data about the visual, semantic, and structural characteristics of individual spatial objects, the proposed method relies on commonly available data about categories of spatial objects, which exist in most indoor spatial databases. With this, instructions like "Turn right after the second door, and use...

  17. Vom politischen Vorfeld zu Gegnern. Über das Verhältnis von Bürgerprotesten, Bewegungen und Parteien

    Butzlaff, Felix

  18. Vulnerable yet relevant: the two dimensions of climate-related financial disclosure

    Monasterolo, Irene; Battiston, Stefano; Janetos, Anthony C.; Zheng, Zoey
    Market-based solutions to climate change are widely advocated by financial actors and policy makers in order to foster a smooth transition to a low-carbon economy. A first important limiting factor to this approach is widely recognized to be the imperfect information on investors' portfolios' exposure to climate-related risks. While better disclosure of climaterelevant information is often recommended as a remedy, the current lack of concise and comparable measures of portfolios' exposure to climate risk fails to provide major investors with the full incentives to reallocate their portfolios. A second limiting factor arises from the fact that in the context of the low-carbon transition, it is not clear...

  19. Vulnerable yet relevant: the two dimensions of climate-related financial disclosure

    Monasterolo, Irene; Battiston, Stefano; Janetos, Anthony C.; Zheng, Zoey
    Market-based solutions to climate change are widely advocated by financial actors and policy makers in order to foster a smooth transition to a low-carbon economy. A first important limiting factor to this approach is widely recognized to be the imperfect information on investors' portfolios' exposure to climate-related risks. While better disclosure of climaterelevant information is often recommended as a remedy, the current lack of concise and comparable measures of portfolios' exposure to climate risk fails to provide major investors with the full incentives to reallocate their portfolios. A second limiting factor arises from the fact that in the context of the low-carbon transition, it is not clear...

  20. Problematizing socioemotional wealth in family firms: a systems-theoretical reframing

    Hasenzagl, Rupert; Hatak, Isabella; Frank, Hermann
    The concept of socioemotional wealth (SEW) seeks to present an independent paradigmatic basis for family-firm research, and in doing so aims to establish a sound basis for the scientific legitimacy of family-firm research. Establishing that legitimacy requires scholars to demonstrate that SEW is based on coherent assumptions on several theoretical levels. This paper uses the problematization methodology to challenge the coherence of the theoretical assumptions underpinning SEW and to advance theory development. The results of this problematization show that SEW is built on a theoretical level close to the object of research (in-house assumptions), but that more deeply-rooted theoretical levels (e.g. paradigmatic assumptions) are not sufficiently elaborated. Moreover, the original conceptualization is...

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