Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 60

  1. Deep Impact: Geo-Simulations as a Policy Toolkit for Natural Disasters

    Naqvi, Asjad
    Adverse post-natural disaster outcomes in low-income regions, like elevated internal migration levels and low consumption levels, are the result of market failures, poor mechanisms for stabilizing income, and missing insurance markets, which force the affected population to respond, and adapt to the shock they face. In a spatial environment, with multiple locations with independent but interconnected markets, these transitions quickly become complex and highly non-linear due to the feedback loops between the micro individual-level decisions and the meso location-wise market decisions. To capture these continuously evolving micro-meso interactions, this paper presents a spatially explicit bottom-up agent-based model to analyze natural disaster-like...

  2. Data Integration for Open Data on the Web

    Neumaier, Sebastian; Polleres, Axel; Steyskal, Simon; Umbrich, Jürgen
    In this lecture we will discuss and introduce challenges of integrating openly available Web data and how to solve them. Firstly, while we will address this topic from the viewpoint of Semantic Web research, not all data is readily available as RDF or Linked Data, so we will give an introduction to different data formats prevalent on the Web, namely, standard formats for publishing and exchanging tabular, tree-shaped, and graph data. Secondly, not all Open Data is really completely open, so we will discuss and address issues around licences, terms of usage associated with Open Data, as well as documentation of data provenance. Thirdly, we will discuss issues connected...

  3. Management und Quantenphysik. Das Beispiel TELE

    Camen, Jutta; Müller-Camen, Michael; Stelzmann, Markus
    Die Managementpraxis ist immer noch stark vom Weltbild der klassischen Physik und damit von Reduktionismus, Determinismus und Positivismus geprägt. Ziel dieses Beitrages ist am Beispiel der Wiener Firma TELE zu illustrieren, wie das Paradigma der Quantenphysik in einer Zeit, die durch schnelle Veränderungen und unvorhersehbare Unternehmensumwelten gekennzeichnet ist, Management inspirieren kann. Nach einer kurzen Einführung in die klassische Physik, werden am Beispiel der quantenphysikalischen Phänomene Welle-Teilchen Dualismus, Heisenbergsche Unschärferelation und Feldtheorie Aspekte eines daran orientierten Quantenmanagement illustriert.

  4. Market structure and competition in transition: results from a spatial analysis

    Labaj, Martin; Morvay, Karol; Silanic, Peter; Weiss, Christoph; Yontcheva, Biliana
    The present article provides first microlevel (indirect) empirical evidence on changes in entry barriers, the determinants of firm profitability as well as the nature of competition for a transition economy. We estimate size thresholds required to support different numbers of firms for several retail and professional service industries in a large number of geographic markets in Slovakia. The 3 time periods in the analysis (1995, 2001 and 2010) characterize different stages of the transition process. Specific emphasis is given to spatial spill-over effects between local markets. Estimation results obtained from a spatial ordered probit model suggest that entry barriers have...

  5. Emancipatory economic deglobalisation: a Polanyian perspective

    Novy, Andreas
    The article explores the potential of a Polanyian analysis for overcoming the current Manichean opposition between cosmopolitan globalizers and reactionary nationalists. For long, Karl Polanyi has inspired socio-economic thinking in different ways. First, his reflections on the end of the first period of globalization in the 1930s offer insights for analysing the current political-economic situation. Furthermore, Polanyi contributes to an institutional analysis and utopian thinking towards a civilization for all. His approach enables a combination of a critique of current neoliberal globalization as a renewed version of the "liberal Utopia" with a cultural and ecological critique of capitalism as a...

  6. The Rule of Law and the Effective Protection of Taxpayers' Rights in Developing Countries

    Valderrama, Irma Johanna Mosquera; Mazz, Addy; Schoueri, Luis Eduardo; Quiñones, Natalia; Roeleveld, Jennifer; Pistone, Pasquale; Zimmer, Frederik
    The overall aim of this article is to analyse the taxpayers' rights in relation to the emerging standard of transparency with specific reference to Brazil, Colombia, South Africa and Uruguay. Exchange of information between tax authorities is increasing rapidly all around the world. This global development is largely the result of the introduction of the standard of transparency by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development ("OECD") with the political mandate of the G20 and more recently, in 2013, the introduction of the global standard of automatic exchange of information. Governments have agreed that exchange of information is necessary to...

  7. Law, finance, and the international mobility of corporate governance

    Cumming, Douglas; Filatotchev, Igor; Knill, April; Reeb, David Mitchell; Senbet, Lemma
    We introduce the topic of this Special Issue on the "Role of Financial and Legal Institutions in International Governance", with a particular emphasis on a notion of "international mobility of corporate governance". Our discussion places the Special Issue at the intersection of law, finance, and international business, with a focus on the contexts of foreign investors and directors. Country-level legal and regulatory institutions facilitate foreign ownership, foreign directors, raising external financial capital, and international M&A activity. The interplay between the impact of foreign ownership and foreign directors on firm governance and performance depends on international differences in formal/regulatory institutions. In addition to legal...

  8. Law, finance, and the international mobility of corporate governance

    Cumming, Douglas; Filatotchev, Igor; Knill, April; Reeb, David Mitchell; Senbet, Lemma
    We introduce the topic of this Special Issue on the "Role of Financial and Legal Institutions in International Governance", with a particular emphasis on a notion of "international mobility of corporate governance". Our discussion places the Special Issue at the intersection of law, finance, and international business, with a focus on the contexts of foreign investors and directors. Country-level legal and regulatory institutions facilitate foreign ownership, foreign directors, raising external financial capital, and international M&A activity. The interplay between the impact of foreign ownership and foreign directors on firm governance and performance depends on international differences in formal/regulatory institutions. In addition to legal...

  9. Asia's Materialists: Reconciling Collectivism and Materialism

    Awanis, Sandra; Schlegelmilch, Bodo B.; Chi Cui, Charles
    Materialism has an ugly face. The dominant view of materialism regards materialists as self-prioritizing individuals who oppose collective and prosocial goals in favor of a lifestyle led by money, possessions, and status. The present research argues that there is a side of materialism that is concerned with collective-oriented interests. We examine the nature and consequences of collective-oriented materialism - the belief system that ascribes importance to possessions for their symbolic and signaling capacities to construct desirable social attributes. Drawing from cultural and consumer theories, we find considerable support that materialists espouse a collective-oriented quality to an otherwise self-oriented interest towards...

  10. The Effects of a Tax Allowance for Growth and Investment - Empirical Evidence from a Firm- Level Analysis

    Petutschnig, Matthias; Rünger, Silke
    We contribute to the empirical literature on the debt bias of corporate income taxation through a firm-level evaluation of the European Commission's recent proposal of an Allowance for Growth and Investment (AGI). We use the introduction, the application and the repeal of a similar allowance in Austria during the early 2000s to evaluate the effects of the AGI on corporate equity and profit distribution. Our analysis provides evidence that such an allowance could increase corporate equity ratios by 5.5 percentage points and reduce profit distributions by 7.6 percentage points. These effects are stronger than those the previous literature for traditional...

  11. The Effects of a Tax Allowance for Growth and Investment - Empirical Evidence from a Firm- Level Analysis

    Petutschnig, Matthias; Rünger, Silke
    We contribute to the empirical literature on the debt bias of corporate income taxation through a firm-level evaluation of the European Commission's recent proposal of an Allowance for Growth and Investment (AGI). We use the introduction, the application and the repeal of a similar allowance in Austria during the early 2000s to evaluate the effects of the AGI on corporate equity and profit distribution. Our analysis provides evidence that such an allowance could increase corporate equity ratios by 5.5 percentage points and reduce profit distributions by 7.6 percentage points. These effects are stronger than those the previous literature for traditional...

  12. A Transition to Which Bioeconomy? An Exploration of Diverging Techno-Political Choices

    Hausknost, Daniel; Schriefl, Ernst; Lauk, Christian; Kalt, Gerald
    To date the concept of the bioeconomy - an economy based primarily on biogenic instead of fossil resources - has largely been associated with visions of "green growth" and the advancement of biotechnology and has been framed from within an industrial perspective. However, there is no consensus as to what a bioeconomy should effectively look like, and what type of society it would sustain. In this paper, we identify different types of narratives constructed around this concept and carve out the techno-political implications they convey. We map these narratives on a two-dimensional option space, which allows for a rough classification of narratives and their related imaginaries into...

  13. Income Projections for Climate Change Research: A Framework Based on Human Capital Dynamics

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesus
    The quantitative assessment of the global effects of climate change requires the construction of income projections spanning large time horizons. Exploiting the robust link between educational attainment, age structure dynamics and economic growth, we use population projections by age, sex and educational attainment to obtain income per capita paths to the year 2100 for 144 countries. Such a framework offers a powerful, consistent methodology which can be used to study the future environmental challenges and to address potential policy reactions.

  14. Income Projections for Climate Change Research: A Framework Based on Human Capital Dynamics

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesus
    The quantitative assessment of the global effects of climate change requires the construction of income projections spanning large time horizons. Exploiting the robust link between educational attainment, age structure dynamics and economic growth, we use population projections by age, sex and educational attainment to obtain income per capita paths to the year 2100 for 144 countries. Such a framework offers a powerful, consistent methodology which can be used to study the future environmental challenges and to address potential policy reactions.

  15. Human Capital Accumulation and Long-Term Income Growth Projections for European Regions

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesus; Doppelhofer, Gernot; Huber, Florian; Piribauer, Philipp
    We propose an econometric framework to construct projections for per capita income growth and human capital for European regions. Using Bayesian methods, our approach accounts for model uncertainty in terms of the choice of explanatory variables, the nature of spatial spillovers, as well as the potential endogeneity between output growth and human capital accumulation. This method allows us to assess the potential contribution of future educational attainment to economic growth and income convergence among European regions over the next decades. Our findings suggest that income convergence dynamics and human capital act as important drivers of income growth for the decades...

  16. Ideologia plci w jednojezycznych slownikach jezyka polskiego

    Scheller-Boltz, Dennis

  17. Structural production layer decomposition: a new method to measure differences between MRIO databases for footprint assessments

    Wieland, Hanspeter; Giljum, Stefan; Bruckner, Martin
    Recent empirical assessments revealed that footprint indicators calculated with various multi-regional input-output (MRIO) databases deliver deviating results. In this paper, we propose a new method, called structural production layer decomposition (SPLD), which complements existing structural decomposition approaches. SPLD enables differentiating between effects stemming from specific parts in the technology matrix, e.g. trade blocks vs. domestic blocks, while still allowing to link the various effects to the total region footprint. Using the carbon footprint of the EU-28 in 2011 as an example, we analyse the differences between EXIOBASE, Eora, GTAP and WIOD. Identical environmental data are used across all MRIO databases....

  18. Resource Footprints are Good Proxies of Environmental Damage

    Steinmann, Zoran; Schipper, Aafke; Hauck, Mara; Giljum, Stefan; Wernet, Gregor; Huijbregts, Mark
    Environmental footprints are increasingly used to quantify and compare environmental impacts of for example products, technologies, households, or nations. This has resulted in a multitude of footprint indicators, ranging from relatively simple measures of resource use (water, energy, materials) to integrated measures of eventual damage (for example, extinction of species). Yet, the possible redundancies among these different footprints have not yet been quantified. This paper analyzes the relationships between two comprehensive damage footprints and four resource footprints associated with 976 products. The resource footprints accounted for >90% of the variation in the damage footprints. Human health damage was primarily associated...

  19. To Grow or Not to Grow? That is the Question: Lessons for Social Ecological Transformation from Small-Medium Enterprises

    Leonhardt, Heidi; Jutschen, Maria; Spash, Clive L.
    While research on alternatives to growth at the level of the economy as a whole is accumulating, few studies have related the criticism of growth to the business level. This paper starts to address this gap by investigating mechanisms of growth for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), presenting a case study that applies Q methodology and interviews with owner-managers of both growing and non-growing SMEs in Austria. Some mechanisms stimulating growth are identified across SMEs including contributing to innovativeness and motivation of employees. Others are only of relevance for some SMEs: competition, financial stability and a desire for market power. The owner-managers of non-growing SMEs hold values...

  20. Convergence of the Euler-Maruyama method for multidimensional SDEs with discontinuous drift and degenerate diffusion coefficient

    Leobacher, Gunther; Szölgyenyi, Michaela
    We prove strong convergence of order 1/4 - E for arbitrarily small E > 0 of the Euler-Maruyama method for multidimensional stochastic differential equations (SDEs) with discontinuous drift and degenerate diffusion coefficient. The proof is based on estimating the difference between the Euler-Maruyama scheme and another numerical method, which is constructed by applying the Euler-Maruyama scheme to a transformation of the SDE we aim to solve.

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