Mostrando recursos 1 - 19 de 19

  1. Regulatory Compensation Limits and Business Performance - Evidence from the National Football League

    Petutschnig, Matthias
    Executives' compensation has been on the forefront of the public and political debate since the recent financial crisis. One of the measures publicly discussed is a general upper boundary to top management compensation packages ("salary cap", "maximum wage"). While such measures are novelties to the corporate world, the North American major sports leagues have been using maximum compensation regulations for decades. This paper exploits the 23-year experience with salary cap regulations from the National Football League (NFL). The results show a significant negative relation between the success of NFL teams and the amount of the net (after-tax) salary cap represented by the personal income tax rate of the...

  2. Learn from the Past, Prepare for the Future: Impacts of Education and Experience on Disaster Preparedness in the Philippines and Thailand

    Hoffmann, Roman; Muttarak, Raya
    This study aims at understanding the role of education in promoting disaster preparedness. Strengthening resilience to climate-related hazards is an urgent target of Goal 13 of the Sustainable Development Goals. Preparing for a disaster such as stockpiling of emergency supplies or having a family evacuation plan can substantially minimize loss and damages from natural hazards. However, the levels of household disaster preparedness are often low even in disaster-prone areas. Focusing on determinants of personal disaster preparedness, this paper investigates: (1) pathways through which education enhances preparedness; and (2) the interplay between education and experience in shaping preparedness actions. Data analysis is based on face-to-face surveys...

  3. The Multi-Functionality of Professional and Business Associations in a Transitional Context: Empirical Evidence from Russia

    Ivanova, Ekaterina; Neumayr, Michaela
    In the literature it is generally assumed that activities of voluntary membership based associations operating in stable institutional environments are multi-faceted, contributing simultaneously to societal, economic and political spheres. This article, drawing on the concept of functions of non-profit organizations investigates, whether the multi-functional character of associations holds true in the context of transitional Russia. The paper examines the relative importance of the advocacy, community building and service delivery functions, fulfilled by different types of associations. The original empirical data from exploratory interviews with 15 leading experts on associational activities was triangulated by a confirmatory survey of 215 associations across Russia. The results confirm that the absolute majority of the...

  4. Evolutionary Political Economy: Content and Methods

    Hanappi, Hardy; Scholz-Wäckerle, Manuel
    In this paper we present the major theoretical and methodological pillars of evolutionary political economy. We proceed in four steps. Aesthetics: In chapter 1 the immediate appeal of evolutionary political economy as a specific scientific activity is described. Content: Chapter 2 explores the object of investigation of evolutionary political economy. Power: The third chapter develops the interplay between politics and economics. Methods: Chapter 4 focuses on the evolution of methods necessary for evolutionary political economy.

  5. Structural indicators for inclusive systems in and around schools. Analytical Report

    Downes, Paul; Nairz-Wirth, Erna; Rusinaite, Viktorija
    International evidence indicates that school systems need to change in order to tackle early school leaving and improve social inclusion in education and society. Policy-makers and school actors require practical tools to assist them in this process, made all the more urgent by the EU2020 headline target to reduce early school leaving. This report develops such practical tools; it is designed to inform strategic policy and practice by offering an innovative framework of structural indicators for early school leaving prevention and inclusion in school. It draws upon key European Council and Commission policy documents on early school leaving prevention, and...

  6. Theories of (Un)sustainable Consumption

    Spash, Clive L.; Dobernig, Karin
    In this discussion paper we review and contrast alternative theories of consumption in terms of the intellectual basis they provide for understanding sustainable behaviours. A defining aspect of the modern literature in this field is the emphasis on the individual as a volitional agent who engages wilfully in the decision to consume. This is in stark contrast to earlier literature that concentrated on the structural lock-in of individuals to undesirable consumption patterns and the powers of corporations in creating consumer demand for their products and services. We argue that, in order to unravel consumption in its full complexity, and as a matter of utmost importance, understanding must...

  7. Performance Measures and the Uncertainties of Planning: Current Practice at Transportation Planning Organizations

    Hartell, Ann
    Transportation planning in the United States is moving to widespread use of performance-based planning methods as new federal requirements for Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) are implemented. In addition to requirements for measures of safety and infrastructure, many MPOs are adopting performance measures for other issues. This study explores current planning practice in using a performance-based approach to tackle a complex planning issue: location affordability, defined as the combined household cost burdens of housing and transportation. A review of long-range transportation plans at 20 large MPOs provides information on how location affordability is represented in regional transportation plans, how it is defined and measured, and how it is integrated...

  8. Preventing Tax arbitrage via Hybrid Mismatches: BEPS Action 2 and Developing Countries

    Kuzniacki, Blazej; Turina, Alessandro; Dubut, Thomas; Mazz, Addy; Quiñones, Natalia; Schoueri, Luís Eduardo; West, Craig; Pistone, Pasquale; Zimmer, Frederik
    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) under Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) Action 2 indicated that tax arbitrage via hybrid mismatch arrangements "result in a substantial erosion of the taxable bases of the countries concerned" and "have an overall negative impact on competition, efficiency, transparency and fairness." The relevant action allowing for neutralising the effects of hybrid mismatch arrangements is therefore needed and justified. To achieve that purpose, the OECD developed different anti-hybrid rules under BEPS Action 2. In that regard, however, one may ask whether addressing tax arbitrage via hybrid mismatches as proposed by the OECD is of interest and relevance for developing...

  9. Environmental Values in Conservation: Ethics, Economics and Pragmatism

    Spash, Clive L.
    Series: SRE - Discussion Papers

  10. International project finance: review and implications for international finance and international business

    Müllner, Jakob
    This literature review analyzes the global phenomenon of international project finance (PF) as both a management and finance instrument, allowing practitioners to realize large scale infrastructure projects in high risk contexts. After describing the characteristics of PF, its historical origins and its unique benefits for empirical inquiry, I summarize the findings of academic research from an interdisciplinary perspective. Based on this integration of Finance, Management and International Business research, I discuss the theoretical implications for each field that emanate from PF. Finally, I identify possibilities for future research and propose a more balanced, interdisciplinary academic treatment of PF.

  11. Spacey Parents and Spacey Hosts in Foreign Direct Investment

    Badinger, Harald; Egger, Peter
    Shocks on FDI of some parent country in a host affect the same parent's FDI in other hosts. Shocks on a parent's FDI in some host affect other parents' FDI in the same host. In general equilibrium, shocks on FDI between any country pair will affect all country pairs' FDI. Using cross-sectional data on FDI among 22 OECD countries in 2000, we use a spatial estimation framework to allow for all three modes of interdependence simultaneously, thereby distinguishing between market-size-related and remainder interdependence. Our results highlight the complexity of multinational enterprises' investment strategies and the interconnectedness of the world investment system.

  12. Determinants of fiscal rules

    Badinger, Harald; Reuter, Wolf Heinrich
    This paper empirically assesses determinants of countries' fiscal rules suggested by the political science, sociology, and economics literature. We find several of these variables to be related to the stringency of fiscal rules, providing indirect evidence for the relevance of governments' deficit bias. These determinants may also serve as instruments in models with (endogenous) fiscal rules as explanatory variable.

  13. How to reveal people's preferences: Comparing time consistency and predictive power of multiple price list risk elicitation methods

    Csermely, Tamás; Rabas, Alexander
    The question of how to measure and classify people's risk preferences is of substantial importance in the field of economics. Inspired by the multitude of ways used to elicit risk preferences, we conduct a holistic investigation of the most prevalent method, the multiple price list (MPL) and its derivations. In our experiment, we find that revealed preferences differ under various versions of MPLs as well as yield unstable results within a 30-minute time frame. We determine the most stable elicitation method with the highest forecast accuracy by using multiple measures of within-method consistency and by using behavior in two economically relevant games as benchmarks. A derivation of the...

  14. The direct and indirect costs of tax treaty policy - Evidence from Ukraine

    Balabushko, Oleksii; Beer, Sebastian; Loeprick, Jan; Vallada, Felipe
    We combine macro and micro data to quantify the revenue effects of Double Tax Treaties (DTT). First, drawing on administrative information, we estimate the tax sensitivity of income flows (dividend, interest and royalty payments) at an aggregate level. We find important direct revenue costs linked to treaty restrictions on taxing rights, in particular with respect to flows into a small number of major investment hubs. Importantly, however, high elasticities of income flows also suggest that increases of withholding rates at the individual treaty partner level would not necessarily result in more revenue collection. Second, we use firm-level information to estimate the sensitivity of reported profitability to...

  15. The direct and indirect costs of tax treaty policy - Evidence from Ukraine

    Balabushko, Oleksii; Beer, Sebastian; Loeprick, Jan; Vallada, Felipe
    This study combines macro and micro data to quantify the revenue effects of double tax treaties. First, drawing on administrative information, the study estimates the tax sensitivity of income flows (dividend, interest, and royalty payments) at an aggregate level. The analysis finds important direct revenue costs linked to treaty restrictions on taxing rights, especially for flows into a few major investment hubs. However, high elasticities of income flows also suggest that increases in withholding rates at the individual treaty partner level would not necessarily result in more revenue collection. Second, the study uses firm- level information to estimate the sensitivity...

  16. Indifference pricing of natural gas storage contracts.

    Löhndorf, Nils; Wozabal, David
    Natural gas markets are incomplete due to physical limitations and low liquidity, but most valuation approaches for natural gas storage contracts assume a complete market. We propose an alternative approach based on indifference pricing which does not require this assumption but entails the solution of a high- dimensional stochastic-dynamic optimization problem under a risk measure. To solve this problem, we develop a method combining stochastic dual dynamic programming with a novel quantization method that approximates the continuous process of natural gas prices by a discrete scenario lattice. In a computational experiment, we demonstrate that our solution method can handle the...

  17. Appendix to "A Sectoral Net Lending Perspective on Europe"

    Glötzl, Florentin; Rezai, Armon
    This appendix contains supplementary material to the paper "A sectoral net lending perspective on Europe". It includes information on the data provenance and processing, the statistical and algebraic framework applied in the study as well as supplementary figures for all countries in the sample. Moreover, it provides robustness checks for the cyclicality analysis of sectoral net lending flows.

  18. Approach to solving the e-waste problem - case study Ghana

    Höltl, Andrea; Brandtweiner, Roman; Müller, Roman
    The market for electrical devices still continues to increase all over the world and as a consequence the quantity of waste in the category of electronics rises. A huge proportion of the electronic waste is exported from the industrial countries to developing countries, in order to save costs, and also because of too few recycling plants in industrial countries. The significant environmental and social problem in this context is that the electronic devices are mostly recycled in informal plants. Thereby the burden for the people as well as the environment increases because e-waste includes a lot of toxic substances. The...

  19. Towards a Knowledge-Based Theory of Developing Sustainable Visions: The Theory Wave

    Kaiser, Alexander
    Although research and practice agree that visions are essential for organizations, the process of vision development remains elusive in academic literature. Presenting the "theory wave", this paper proposes a knowledge-based theory for developing sustainable visions to guide the creation of measures and actions in the future. Central to the theory wave, we suggest three features that characterize the development of sustainable visions; (1) learning from an envisioned future, (2) need orientation and (3) a wavelike process combining top-down and bottom-up approaches. Furthermore, by enhancing the creation of different kinds of knowledge, the theory-wave entails aspects of research on knowledge creation...

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