Rodríguez Navarro, Pablo; Gil Piqueras, Teresa; Verdiani, Giorgio
[EN] For years we have approached the architectural heritage through the traditional drawings, based on data
collection taken from sketches and point to point measurements; however, today we can rely on
different systems that make necessary to consider not only the phases of the elevation but the
methodology to follow, constituting in itself a study that needs to be addressed from the knowledge of
advanced data collection techniques. Thus we must analyze what is special about the work and what are
our research needs, which will give rise to a list of products to be obtained and will result in a number of
plans to scale,...
Iborra Bernad, Federico; Sebastiá Esteve, Mª Amparo; Aguilella Arzo, Gustavo
[EN] The manor house of Betxí, currently in the process of recovery, is one of the forgotten jewels of the
Valencian Renaissance. Leisure residence of the powerful family of Cardona, admirals of Aragon, it
would be remodeled in the mid-sixteenth century by incorporating an unfinished Renaissance courtyard
and four small bastions, very damaged nowadays. Curiously, although the plant design is correct,
miniature bastions seem to be too low to serve as defense, and it is still unclear their connection to the
building. Somehow it recalls the model of the Villa Farnese in Caprarola, where the bastions have lost
their function. Therefore the question arises: Are we...
Torres Barchino, Ana María; Serra Lluch, Juan de Ribera; Llopis Verdú, Jorge; Higón Calvet, José Luis; Saiz Mauleón, María Begoña; Villaplana Guillén, Ramón Vicente
[EN] The communication presents the methodology and conclusions of the study developed by the Color
Group of the Instituto Universitario de Restauración del Patrimonio of the Universitat Politècnica de
València, in the context of the restoration of the Torres de Quart of Valencia (XV century). In this
intervention, it was conducted a comprehensive study of the original coatings, both regarding to their
mineral composition and their colors. This study included the determination of the original color
chemical characteristics, an exhaustive physical color measurement of the remnants of pigments on the
outer facades, over three coating layers with different nature, and also a study of the color...
Climent Simón, José Manuel; Giner García, Maria Isabel; Rodrigo Molina, Ángeles
[EN] The strategic location of most of the fortifications has led to the use throughout history of many
settlements, carrying out numerous renovations to adapt them to the defense needs of each period.
The privileged location of the Cullera Castle, from which a vast territory south to the Júcar river
including coastal and river areas can be controlled, has justified that from its origins in the tenth century
to the mid-eighteenth century it would be used as a fortified enclosure.
Due to its long history, this defensive enclave boasts numerous examples of architectural elements from
different ages. Therefore, it constitutes, a wealth of great historical interest,...
López González, María Concepción
[EN] During the Middle Ages in Valencia (Spain) innumerable castles, which eventually were abandoned and
forgotten with the consequent ruin of their structures were built. Most of the construction material was
reused in nearby homes. However, some of them continued inhabited, adapting to new social needs,
which involved establishing spatial restructuring, extensions to locate new uses, specific reforms and
opening new holes or divisions stays. To this must be added the reforms designed to increase comfort
and beautification through factories based polychrome ornaments or decorative elements. The patios of
weapons become arcaded courtyards and guard posts in private rooms. There are great examples of this
Gil Piqueras, Teresa; Rodríguez Navarro, Pablo
[EN] The Grau Vell tower, located in the municipality of Sagunto, is a part of a defensive group developed
between the XVI and XVIII centuries for protecting and defending the coast of the Valencian Kingdom.
The geographic features of the place and the Confirmation in 1459 of Grau as the unique harbor to ship
products of Murviedro, are the key of the election this place as strategic, documental and graphic point
to analyze the real state of the tower and the battery. The work methodology is based on
photogrammetric draws of the set as the base of constructive analyzing and its materials. The results
Rey Aynat, Juan Miguel Del
[EN] At the end of the 16th century the Vice-Chancellor Frigola, in communication with the Valencian
Councils, proposed to build a new fortress in a uncertain place next to the Castle of Bellaguarda-Altea.
He ordered the study three experienced engineers and architects: Cristobal Antonelli, Fray Carmelo and
Pedro de Valencia. They advised him to build a castle, several bastions and a farm house for the new
village of Altea. These facilities allowed securing the place for the coast and facilitate the economic
development of the Valley of Algar.
The fortress, walled enclosure, bastions and castle were intervened by the Crown through the letter of
refunding; These actions...
[EN] Medieval fortifications placed in the inner part of the Valencian Country or even around its borders, are
usually designed with simple shapes such as squares, rectangles or circles. Polygonal shapes appeared as
well when it comes to the main towers of some fortresses like Puertomingalvo or Zafra, both close to
the Aragon frontiers. The remains of the tower called “la Torreta” in Castielfabib (Valencia) remind us
the pentagonal buildings quoted before, but according to the engraving made by Manfredo Fanti in 1840
this tower had an hexagonal design. Since no archaeological intervention has been done yet to clarify
this issue, factors like: the lack of...
Casar Furio, Maria Emilia; Broseta Palanca, Maria Teresa
[EN] Along the sixteenth century, Valencian coasts used to suffer continuous attacks by Berber pirates, which
brought an extensive network of watchtowers to warn against the invaders. In the case of Mascarell, a
small town located 4km away from the coast, a walled enclosure with two doors and four towers is the
option to ensure the safety of its inhabitants.
Many restoration works have been developed along the time; although they were not always according
to preservation criteria at the earlier periods, other good later preservation policies have been established
like the special protection plan for the old quarter, the reconstruction of the fallen pieces, and...
Viñals Blasco, Mª José; MARTÍNEZ SANCHIS, IMMA
[EN] Historic defence buildings have intrinsic value in their own right as the fabric of human achievement in
arts, design and construction but they were built for a use that no longer exists today and, therefore, they
are closed, even administratively abandoned, and the passage of time has caused their deterioration.
It is known that the best way to conserve historic buildings is to find viable and compatible new uses
that all historical buildings to retain their historic character conserve significant fabric and keep them in
good repair into the future. This idea lies into the concept of the heritage adaptive reuse and successful
Juan Vidal, Francisco
[EN] The paper refers to the network of watchtowers of the Valencian coast, built during the sixteenth
century, and proposes the evaluation of their values as heritage with a conceptual methodology based on
an operational tool: the evaluation matrix.
Delcampo Carda, Anna; Torres Barchino, Ana María; García Codoñer, Ángela
[EN] With the passing of years and in this period of profound change at the turn of the century, historical
centres of our cities and their society have undergone alterations of several natures. Calp is a
Mediterranean city located in Alicante, and it is a perfect example of this fact: Its historical centre has a
characteristic double historical fortification, but nowadays, it has basically disappeared. The present
study is based on the compilation, comprehension and analysis of the collected information, such as
historical documents, cartographies, photographies, etc. with the goal of generate a graphical production
of the development of the Calp historical double fortification and its...
Balaguer Dezcallar, Mª Josefa
[EN] Peniscola's fortification is the will of two of the greatest experts in military architecture who worked for
Felipe II: Vespasiano Gonzaga, Prince of Sabbioneta, and the engineer Bautista Antonelli. Both of them
projected fortifications of great beauty, strength and efficacy and devoted most of their life to the
defence of the coastline and borders of the territory of the Spanish monarchy in the second half of the
XVI century. The result of this collaboration is described in these pages, together with some drawings of
their preserved work and the interpretation of how some elements may have been transformed or even
lost according to researchers conducted...
Mileto, Camilla; Vegas López-Manzanares, Fernando; Lerma García, José Luis
[EN] The study carried out at the castle of Monzón (Huesca) while developing the Master Plan for the
preservation of the site clearly aims at efficient interaction between different studies by several groups
of experts in various disciplines. The various studies were coordinated jointly in order to offer a
comprehensive analysis of the monument, intertwining approaches and points of views. Among the
techniques used, thermography was especially interesting because of its flexibility and adaptability in
several applications: from helping to identify materials to the detection of hidden pathologies. The
efficiency of thermography for emphasizing different phenomena can only be improved by combining
with other survey and analysis...
Ruiz Checa, José Ramón; Cristini, Valentina; Russo, Valentina
[EN] The historical strong relationship between the eastern coast of Spain and southern part of Italian
Peninsula has been a common issue over different civilizations from Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans
up to the most recent modern kingdoms. Considering this set of connections based on trade routes and
territorial bilateral interests, the western shores of Mare Nostrum have been key-points of a dense
network of military and economical strategies. The dynamics of extensive territorial control have left
interesting examples of costal watchtowers both in the Sorrento Peninsula, near Naples (Italy) and in the
East coast of Valencia (Spain). The process of towers construction begins at early stages...
Lillo Giner, Santiago; Rodríguez-Navarro, Pablo
[EN] The tower named “del Rey” is one of the most clear examples of the fortification called “de transición”
in the area of the eastern spanish coast that was, as in the present case, through the addition of new
technological resources, a model of the adaptation of the old medieval defensive types to a new
conception of the military architecture that appeared as a result of the development of the artillery.
Built by Joan de Cervelló in 1534 in Punta de les Lances of Oropesa (Castellón), an especially
vulnerable emplacement to the attacks of the barbary pirates of the time, it owes its origin to...
Gimeno Romero, Luis
[EN] The use of soil as a construction material has been very important in order to build defensive walls in
coherence with the offensive methods. The need of digging moats brings to the military engineer lots of
soil that can be used to construct walls. Well known are the wall and adobe techniques but less known
are the fatigues and sod walls. Due to their fastness, economy, high availability of materials, and easy
construction this two techniques were used to build walls and also by sappers to build trenches and close
broken walls. Soil plus some woody plants or fodder, is able to form strong...
[EN] The fort of Santa Cruz in Oran (Algeria) represents the peak of the iceberg of a very huge and
developed defence system. Its strategic situation has been the key of the failure and the success of this
system. In 1708 the Turkish army took control of Oran by mining the escarpment of Santa Cruz. When
Spanish returned in 1732 their first goal was to secure the city by securing the fort of Santa Cruz. In this
way the Spanish kings sent many famous engineers of that moment to develop Santa Cruz project
thinking in a very original solution which was sculpting a gorge in...
[EN] This works has the goal to locate the organisation and the evolution of the systems of costal towers in
the Kingdom of Sardinia, integrated in the defence organization of the Spanish Kingdom. The
development of the defence system went through huge difficulties, including financial problems and
from the enemy attacks. This required many times, some work on the towers, to keep them in a good
state, or to solve other kind of problems, related to the use of bad materials and other illegitimate and
illegal actions. Some natural causes also where the reason for the deterioration of the defence and
military places, like natural causes...
Peñalver Martínez, María Jesus; Maciá Sánchez, Juan Francisco
[EN] The building works which presented the greatest technical and human challenge among all of those
carried out during the construction of the Arsenal of Cartagena in 18th century are those of the quay
surrounding the artificial dock. What is most complex and interesting about the construction of this
structural element is, among other things, the depth at which cement was to be laid under the sea, the
nature of the ground and the relief of the location. The structural solution for resolving this challenge
evolved over the course of almost a century, as building knowledge, the skills of the head engineers and
knowledge of the...