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The KnowledgeBank at OSU (75.279 recursos)
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Cook & Fujisawa (2006) point out that, contrary to the predictions of psychoacoustic models, the diminished triad is more consonant and prevalent in western tonal music than the augmented. A possible simple explanation is that the diminished triad often functions as an incomplete dominant (major-minor) seventh chord, the most prevalent tetrad in mainstream tonal music.
Mashinter’s (2006) mathematical model of sensory dissonance neglects the dependence of roughness on waveform, the role of masking, the distribution of roughness across critical bands, the possible positive contribution of fusion or toneness to euphony, and the familiarity and music-theoretical functions of a sonority. Of course not all these aspects can reasonably be included in a model, but they can affect the data with which its predictions are compared.
Electrophysiological measures of expectancy violation processing by the brain, such as the P300 component of the event-related potential, have provided insight into the way in which humans with varying amounts of musical experience maintain representations of musical information, in particular tonal representations. Bischoff Renninger and colleagues (2006) seek to extend this work by examining the P300 in the context of the very interesting topic of cross-cultural music perception, using Western listeners who either have or have not undergone training in Javanese music. Their study highlights the myriad issues and complexities of experimental design and analysis that must be addressed if one is to conduct an ethologically compelling and...
Bischoff Renninger, Laura; Wilson, Michael P.; Donchin, Emanuel
The current study extends the efforts of Bischoff Renninger, Granot and Donchin (2003) to non-Western musical systems and focuses specifically on Event-Related Potential (ERP) responses to scalar deviations within the Javanese pélog scale by groups of musicians trained within the Western and Javanese systems. The principal aim is to ascertain whether results found in previous experiments may be obtained cross-culturally. Participants include five subjects trained in the Western system only (control group) and five subjects trained in both the Western and Javanese systems (experimental group). Tasks include identifying scalar deviations within the Western diatonic scale, identifying scalar deviations within the...
review of Eric Clarke’s "Ways of Listening: An Ecological Approach to the Perception of Musical Meaning"
In line with musical “common sense” (but contrary to the century-old tradition of musical psychophysics), we show that harmony is an inherently three-tone phenomenon. Previous attempts at explaining the affective response to major/minor chords and resolved/unresolved chords on the basis of the summation of interval dissonance have been notably unsuccessful, but consideration of the relative size of the intervals contained in triads leads directly to solutions to these historical problems. At the heart of our model is Leonard Meyer’s idea from 1956 concerning “intervallic equidistance” – i.e., the perception of “tension” inherent to any three-tone combination that has two intervals...
While the concept of the perceptual “pitch frame” resembles leading theories of pitch structure in music in some respects, it contains some innovative elements that are discussed in this commentary. Additionally, the commentary focuses on the question of whether the “pitch frame” is a temporal or atemporal construct.
In our history we have recognized scales of some variety as keystones to music’s pitch structure. And yet, empirical studies of perception and archeological appraisals of human evolution confirm an unchanging cognitive/perceptual ground for the musical experience; they render the ragas and modes and tonoi and scales of the past to be understood only as "local" explanations for things better understood by the space/time kinetics of limited elements rather than by frozen note paradigms. This paper concludes that an empirical study of music from a broad variety of times and cultures argues for a more elemental basis: thus coinage of...
The phenomena of consonance and dissonance are thought to involve both learned and innate components. Work by Greenwood (1961) and Plomp and Levelt (1965) established that an aspect of dissonance perception can be traced to unique physiological properties of the hearing organ. This aspect of dissonance is commonly referred to as sensory dissonance. Two computable models of sensory dissonance are described and discussed—those of Kameoka and Kuriyagawa (1969a; 1969b) and Hutchinson and Knopoff (1978). Software implementations of both models are provided, and their behaviors explored. Both models exhibit a number of conceptual and technical problems.
This commentary examines Huron and Veltman’s article from the perspective of historical musicology. The following issues are discussed: • The authors regard modes as conceptual categories of the medieval listener, which seems unlikely on historical and theoretical grounds. • Pitch class profiles are not a good way of capturing the melodic nature of the modes. • The diatonic rather than the chromatic scale should be employed as the reference pitch system for the modes. • The tentative explanation of the transition from modality to tonality ignores the fundamental differences between modes and keys, and the role of polyphony in this...
A random sample of 98 Gregorian chants was used to assemble “mode profiles”—pitch-class distributions for each of eight medieval modes in the manner of Krumhansl’s and Kessler’s (1982) key profiles. These profiles are shown to be useful in predicting the conventional modal designation for individual chants. An analysis of the eight mode profiles suggests that modes 3, 5 and 8 (Phrygian, Lydian and Hy-pomixolydian) are highly similar and can be distinguished from a more heterogeneous group consisting of the remaining modes. A cluster analysis of profiles for individual chants gives further evidence that these three modes form a supramodal category....
Empiricism should not be seen to provide an overarching criterion of meaningfulness for musicological concepts nor a single comprehensive methodology for music research. Understood as methodological concern with observation (perception, experience, etc.), it is rather a possible orientation that may receive various degrees of emphasis. Empiricism is not opposed to theoretical systematization, but it can rather be seen as an inclination towards theories which are capable of empirical adequacy. The empirical, or observational component of research may nevertheless be understood in slightly different ways, depending on whether there is only one observer (or many), and depending on whether the observations...
In the early twentieth century systematic musicology, which was based on the comparative method, played a prominent role in the discipline: however it was appropriated by the Nazis and fell out of favour after the war. It was replaced by ethnomusicology and structuralist music theory, both of which emphasized the individual context (cultural or structural) and eschewed comparison between contexts. Both also developed an epistemology based on the generation of meaning through the act of "experiencing and understanding music" (Titon 1997: 87): this epistemology, characteristic of cultural musicology and theory (CMT) in general, is quite distinct from that of the...
The author responds to points raised in David Temperley’s commentary, which appeared in Vol. 1, No. 2 of Empirical Musicology Review. The response includes a discussion of strengths and limitations of atemporal models of musical perception, with particular attention to presentations such as those of Carol Krumhansl and Fred Lerdahl.
The commentary asserts the importance of conducting additional research on additive dissonance, and points to the need for terminological precision in discussions of sensory versus systemic (i.e. learned, context-dependent) dissonance.
Morton, Eugene S.
Increasingly, the Arts and Humanities and Science fields are finding common ground, as illustrated in Huron et al.’s fine paper. My commentary discusses the origin of the idea that pitch and motivation have an evolved relationship. Their finding that loudness and aggression are related has been little studied in animals and I suggest an explanation from the biological literature.
information on the audio file format used by the Empirical Musicology Review
Bolinger, Ohala, Morton and others have established that vocal pitch height is perceived to be associated with social signals of dominance and submissiveness: higher vocal pitch is associated with submissiveness, whereas lower vocal pitch is associated with social dominance. An experiment was carried out to test this relationship in the perception of non-vocal melodies. Results show a parallel situation in music: higher-pitched melodies sound more submissive (less threatening) than lower-pitched melodies.
Patel, Aniruddh D.
Music and speech both feature structured melodic patterns, yet these patterns are rarely compared using empirical methods. One reason for this has been a lack of tools which allow quantitative comparisons of spoken and musical pitch sequences. Recently, a new model of speech intonation perception has been proposed based on principles of pitch perception in speech. The “prosogram” model converts a sentence's fundamental frequency contour into a sequence of discrete tones and glides. This sequence is meant to represent a listener's perception of pitch in connected speech. This article briefly describes the prosogram and suggests a few ways in which...