Recursos de colección

Repositorio da Universidade dos Açores (9.269 recursos)

O Repositório Institucional da Universidade dos Açores desenvolvido no âmbito do projecto RCAAP.

Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 27

  1. Impact of land-use change on flower-visiting insect communities on an oceanic island

    Picanço, Ana; Rigal, François; Matthews, Thomas J.; Cardoso, Pedro; Borges, Paulo A. V.
    1. Land-use change has profoundly impacted pollinator communities throughout the world. However, the processes through which it acts on pollinator diversity and composition are still poorly understood, especially in highly vulnerable island ecosystems. 2. In this study, we investigated the distribution, abundance, richness and composition of flower-visiting insects to assess their response to land-use change in Terceira Island (Azores). 3. Flower-visiting insects were sampled over 2 years using a standardised protocol along 50 transects across five different habitats corresponding to a landuse gradient. Insect species were classified as indigenous or exotics. We assessed changes across habitats using multiple diversity indices, species abundance...

  2. The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project

    Hudson, Lawrence N.; Newbold, Tim; [...], [...]; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Cardoso, Pedro; [...], [...]; Purvis, Andy
    The PREDICTS project—Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)—has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make freely available this 2016 release of the database, containing more than 3.2 million records sampled at over 26,000 locations and representing over 47,000 species. We outline how the database can help in...

  3. A roadmap for island biology : 50 fundamental questions after 50 years of The Theory of Island Biogeography

    Patiño, Jairo; Whittaker, Robert J.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Ah-Peng, Claudine; Araújo, Miguel B.; Ávila, Sérgio P.; Cardoso, Pedro; Cornuault, Josselin; Boer, Erik J.; Nascimento, Lea; Gil, Artur José Freire; González-Castro, Aarón; Gruner, Daniel S.; Heleno, Ruben; Hortal, Joaquín; Illera, Juan Carlos; Kaiser-Bunbury, Christopher N.; Matthews, Thomas J.; Papadopoulou, Anna; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Price, Jonathan; Santos, Ana C.; Steinbauer, Manuel J.; Triantis, Kostas A.; Valente, Luis; Vargas, Pablo; Weigelt, Patrick; Emerson, Brent C.
    AIMS The 50th anniversary of the publication of the seminal book, The Theory of Island Biogeography, by Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson, is a timely moment to review and identify key research foci that could advance island biology. Here, we take a collaborative horizon-scanning approach to identify 50 fundamental questions for the continued development of the field. LOCATION: Worldwide. METHODS: We adapted a well-established methodology of horizon scanning to identify priority research questions in island biology, and initiated it during the Island Biology 2016 conference held in the Azores. A multidisciplinary working group prepared an initial pool of 187 questions....

  4. Pollination services mapping and economic valuation from insect communities : a case study in the Azores (Terceira Island)

    Picanço, Ana; Gil, Artur José Freire; Rigal, François; Borges, Paulo A. V.
    Insect pollinators provide vital ecosystem services through its maintenance of plant biological diversity and its role in food production. Indeed, adequate pollination services can increase the production and quality of fruit and vegetable crops. This service is currently challenged by land use intensification and expanding human population growth. Hence, this study aims: (1) to assess the pollination services in different land uses with different levels of disturbance through GIS mapping technique using insect pollinators abundance and richness as indicators, and (2) estimate the economic value of pollination by insects in agricultural crops. Our study takes place in a small oceanic...

  5. What can the parameters of the species–area relationship (SAR) tell us? Insights from Mediterranean islands

    Fattorini, Simone; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Dapporto, Leonardo; Strona, Giovanni
    AIM: The species–area relationship (SAR) is often modelled by the linearized power function log S = log c + z log A, where S is species richness, A is area, logc is the intercept and z is the slope. Although investigating how c and z values vary across taxa and archipelagos can provide insights into the biology of the SAR, this approach has many caveats. In this study, we aim to clarify how and why SARs should be properly compared for the same taxon among different areas, or among different taxa in the same area. LOCATION: Mediterranean. We considered 18–46 Tyrrhenian...

  6. Dietary-driven variation effects on the symbiotic flagellate protists communities of the subterranean termite Reticulitermes grassei Clément

    Duarte, Sónia; Duarte, M.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Nunes, Lina
    The ability of subterranean termites to digest lignocellulose relies not only on their digestive tract physiology, but also on the symbiotic relationships established with flagellate protists and bacteria. The objective of this work was to test the possible effect of different cellulose-based diets on the community structure (species richness and other diversity metrics) of the flagellate protists of the subterranean termite Reticulitermes grassei. Termites belonging to the same colony were subjected to six different diets (natural diet, maritime pine wood, European beech, thermally modified European beech, cellulose powder and starvation), and their flagellate protist community was evaluated after the trials....

  7. Oceanic island biogeography through the lens of the General Dynamic Model : assessment and prospect

    Borregaard, Michael K.; Amorim, Isabel R.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Cabral, Juliano S.; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Field, Richard; Heaney, Lawrence R.; Kreft, Holger; Matthews, Thomas J.; Olesen, Jens M.; Price, Jonathan; Rigal, François; Steinbauer, Manuel J.; Triantis, Konstantinos A.; Valente, Luis; Weigelt, Patrick; Whittaker, Robert J.
    The general dynamic model of oceanic island biogeography (GDM) has added a new dimension to theoretical island biogeography in recognizing that geological processes are key drivers of the evolutionary processes of diversification and extinction within remote islands. It provides a dynamic and essentially non-equilibrium framework generating novel predictions for emergent diversity properties of oceanic islands and archipelagos. Its publication in 2008 coincided with, and spurred on, renewed attention to the dynamics of remote islands. We review progress, both in testing the GDM’s predictions and in developing and enhancing ecological–evolutionary understanding of oceanic island systems through the lens of the GDM....

  8. Larval development and growth ratios of Odonata of the Azores

    Lamelas López, Lucas; Florencio, Margarita; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Cordero-Rivera, Adolfo
    To fully understand odonate life cycles, it is vital to analyse the patterns of larval growth, which are tightly associated with variations in environmental factors. However, the identification of larval instars is often difficult, especially for early development stages. We hypothesise that pond hydroperiod influences odonate larval growth, and test this idea with novel information about the environmental characteristics of 12 study ponds in Terceira Island (Azores). This study, which represents the first analysis of larval development of Odonata in the Azores, involved determining the instars of development and growth ratios. We measured the morphological characteristics of 898 Odonata larvae,...

  9. Bees of the Azores : an annotated checklist (Apidae, Hymenoptera)

    Weissmann, Julie A.; Picanço, Ana; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Schaefer, Hanno
    We report 18 species of wild bees plus the domesticated honeybee from the Azores, which adds nine species to earlier lists. One species, Hylaeus azorae, seems to be a single island endemic, and three species are possibly native (Colletes eous, Halictus villosulus, and Hylaeus pictipes). All the remaining bee species are most likely accidental introductions that arrived after human colonization of the archipelago in the 15th century. Bee diversity in the Azores is similar to bee diversity of Madeira and Cape Verde but nearly ten times lower than it is in the Canary Islands.

  10. Trapped in the web of water : groundwater-fed springs are island-like ecosystems for the meiofauna

    Fattorini, Simone; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Fiasca, Barbara; Galassi, Diana M. P.
    We investigated whether the equilibrium theory of island biogeography (ETIB) can be applied to the meiofauna of groundwater-fed springs. We tested whether copepod species richness was related with spring area, discharge, and elevation. Additionally, five hypotheses are tested based on species distribution patterns, dispersal ability, and life-history characteristics of several guilds (stygobiotic, nonstygobiotic, cold stenotherm, and noncold stenotherm species). Thirty springs in the central Apennines (Italy) were considered. A multimodel selection procedure was applied to select best-fit models using both ordinary least-squares regressions and autoregressive models. Mantel tests were used to investigate the impact of spatial autocorrelation in determining interspring...

  11. Assessing genotype-phenotype associations in three dorsal colour morphs in the meadow spittlebug Philaenus spumarius (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae) using genomic and transcriptomic resources

    Rodrigues, Ana S. B.; Silva, Sara E.; Pina-Martins, Francisco; Loureiro, João; Castro, Mariana; Gharbi, Karim; Johnson, Kevin P.; Dietrich, Christopher H.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Quartau, José A.; Jiggins, Chris D.; Paulo, Octávio S.; Seabra, Sofia G.
    BACKGROUND: Colour polymorphisms are common among animal species. When combined with genetic and ecological data, these polymorphisms can be excellent systems in which to understand adaptation and the molecular changes underlying phenotypic evolution. The meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius (L.) (Hemiptera, Aphrophoridae), a widespread insect species in the Holarctic region, exhibits a striking dorsal colour/pattern balanced polymorphism. Although experimental crosses have revealed the Mendelian inheritance of this trait, its genetic basis remains unknown. In this study we aimed to identify candidate genomic regions associated with the colour balanced polymorphism in this species. RESULTS: By using restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing we were...

  12. Assessing the efficiency of protected areas to represent biodiversity : a small island case study

    Vergílio, Marta H. S.; Fonseca, Catarina; Calado, Helena; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Elias, Rui B.; Gabriel, Rosalina; Martins, António; Azevedo, Eduardo B.; Cardoso, Pedro
    Protected areas (PAs) have been selected using either subjective or objective criteria applied to an extremely limited subset of biodiversity. Improved availability of species distribution data, better statistical tools to predict species distributions and algorithms to optimize spatial conservation planning allow many impediments to be overcome, particularly on small islands. This study analyses whether 219 species are adequately protected by PAs on Pico Island (theAzores, Portugal), and if they are as efficient as possible, maximizing species protection while minimizing costs. We performed distribution modelling of species’ potential distributions, proposed individual conservation targets (considering the context of each species in the...

  13. Topography-driven isolation, speciation and a global increase of endemism with elevation

    Steinbauer, Manuel J.; Field, Richard; Grytnes, John-Arvid; Trigas, Panayiotis; Ah-Peng, Claudine; Attorre, Fabio; Birks, H. John B.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Cardoso, Pedro; Chou, Chang-Hung; De Sanctis, Michele; Sequeira, Miguel M.; Duarte, Maria C.; Elias, Rui B.; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Gabriel, Rosalina; Gereau, Roy E.; Gillespie, Rosemary G.; Greimler, Josef; Harter, David E. V.; Huang, Tsurng-Juhn; Irl, Severin D. H.; Jeanmonod, Daniel; Jentsch, Anke; Jump, Alistair S.; Kueffer, Christoph; Nogué, Sandra; Otto, Rüdiger; Price, Jonathan; Romeiras, Maria M.; Strasberg, Dominique; Stuessy, Tod; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Vetaas, Ole R.; Beierkuhnlein, Carl
    AIM: Higher-elevation areas on islands and continental mountains tend to be separated by longer distances, predicting higher endemism at higher elevations; our study is the first to test the generality of the predicted pattern. We also compare it empirically with contrasting expectations from hypotheses invoking higher speciation with area, temperature and species richness. Location Thirty-two insular and 18 continental elevational gradients from around the world. Methods We compiled entire floras with elevation-specific occurrence information, and calculated the proportion of native species that are endemic (‘percent endemism’) in 100-m bands, for each of the 50 elevational gradients. Using generalized linear models,...

  14. Effects of climate change on the distribution of indigenous species in oceanic islands (Azores)

    Ferreira, Maria T.; Cardoso, Pedro; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Gabriel, Rosalina; Azevedo, Eduardo B.; Reis, Francisco; Araújo, Miguel B.; Elias, Rui B.
    Oceanic islands host a high proportion of the world’s endemic species. Many such species are at risk of extinction owing to habitat degradation and loss, biological invasions and other threats, but little is known about the effects of climate change on island native biodiversity. The Azorean archipelago provides a unique opportunity to study species-climatechange relationships. We used ensemble forecasting to evaluate the current and future distribution of well-studied endemic and native bryophytes (19 species), endemic vascular plants (59 species) and endemic arthropods (128 species), for two of the largest Azorean Islands, Terceira and São Miguel. Using a Regional Climate Model...

  15. Mosses and liverworts show contrasting elevational distribution patterns in an oceanic island (Terceira, Azores) : the influence of climate and space

    Henriques, Débora; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Ah-Peng, Claudine; Gabriel, Rosalina
    Due to ongoing global changes, it is essential to establish a baseline record from which to determine future shifts in species distributions and community assembly patterns. In this context, we used digitised historical bryophyte distribution data along a 1021 m elevational gradient in Terceira Island (Azores) to determine how bryophyte species distribution varies with elevation and which spatial and climatic drivers contribute to this variation. We used ordinary least squares analysis to test for climatic and spatial data as explanatory variables for bryophyte richness and Mid-Domain Null simulations to assess the influence of spatial constraints on species distributions. Bryophyte richness...

  16. The role of plant fidelity and land-use changes on island exotic and indigenous canopy spiders at local and regional scales

    Florencio, Margarita; Rigal, François; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Cardoso, Pedro; Santos, Ana C.; Lobo, Jorge M.
    Understanding the processes that lead to successful invasions is essential for the management of exotic species. We aimed to assess the comparative relevance of habitat (both at local and at regional scale) and plant features on the species richness of local canopy spiders of both indigenous and exotic species. In an oceanic island, Azores archipelago, we collected spiders in 97 transects belonging to four habitat types according to the degree of habitat disturbance, four types of plants with different colonisation origin (indigenous vs. exotic), and four types of plants according to the complexity of the vegetation structure. Generalised linear mixed...

  17. Climate threat on the Macaronesian endemic bryophyte flora

    Patiño, Jairo; Mateo, Rubén G.; Zanatta, Florian; Marquet, Adrien; Aranda, Silvia C.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Dirkse, Gerard; Gabriel, Rosalina; Gonzalez-Mancebo, Juana M.; Guisan, Antoine; Muñoz, Jesús; Sim-Sim, Manuela; Vanderpoorten, Alain
    Oceanic islands are of fundamental importance for the conservation of biodiversity because they exhibit high endemism rates coupled with fast extinction rates. Nowhere in Europe is this pattern more conspicuous than in the Macaronesian biogeographic region. A large network of protected areas within the region has been developed, but the question of whether these areas will still be climatically suitable for the globally threatened endemic element in the coming decades remains open. Here, we make predictions on the fate of the Macaronesian endemic bryophyte flora in the context of ongoing climate change. The potential distribution of 35 Macaronesian endemic bryophyte...

  18. Evidence for multiple founding lineages and genetic admixture in the evolution of species within an oceanic island weevil (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) super-radiation

    Faria, Christiana; Machado, António; Amorim, Isabel R.; Gage, Matthew J. G.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Emerson, Brent C.
    AIM: To infer colonization and speciation history for a closely related complex of nine species within the enigmatic Canary Island Laparocerus weevil radiation of 128 species. Using molecular dating and the spatial and temporal context that islands provide, we evaluate the possible explanations of incomplete lineage sorting and gene flow for the origin of shared genetic variation among species from different islands. LOCATION: Canary Islands (Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Palma and El Hierro). METHODS: We collected a total of 173 specimens from 37 sites distributed across the four islands. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial (COII) and nuclear (ITS2) sequence data and molecular dating...

  19. Using species abundance distribution models and diversity indices for biogeographical analyses

    Fattorini, Simone; Rigal, François; Cardoso, Pedro; Borges, Paulo A. V.
    We examine whether Species Abundance Distribution models (SADs) and diversity indices can describe how species colonization status influences species community assembly on oceanic islands. Our hypothesis is that, because of the lack of source-sink dynamics at the archipelago scale, Single Island Endemics (SIEs), i.e. endemic species restricted to only one island, should be represented by few rare species and consequently have abundance patterns that differ from those of more widespread species. To test our hypothesis, we used arthropod data from the Azorean archipelago (North Atlantic). We divided the species into three colonization categories: SIEs, archipelagic endemics (AZEs, present in at...

  20. Cave microbial community composition in oceanic islands : disentangling the effect of different colored mats in diversity patterns of Azorean lava caves

    Riquelme, Cristina; Rigal, François; Hathaway, Jennifer J. Marshall; Northup, Diana E.; Spilde, Michael N.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Gabriel, Rosalina; Amorim, Isabel R.; Dapkevicius, Maria de Lurdes N. E.
    Processes determining diversity and composition of bacterial communities in island volcanic caves are still poorly understood. Here, we characterized colored microbial mats in 14 volcanic caves from two oceanic islands of the Azores using 16S rRNA gene sequences. Factors determining community diversity (α) and composition (β) were explored, namely colored mats, caves and islands, as well as environmental and chemical characteristics of caves. Additive partitioning of diversity using OTU occurrence showed a greater influence of β-diversity between islands and caves that may relate to differences in rare OTUs (singletons and doubletons) across scales. In contrast, Shannon diversity partitioning revealed the...

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