The Dunxian Mongolian text described in this paper is a famous folklore in the area of Mongolia. The person who tells this folklore is Mr. Ma, a native speaker of Dunxian Mongolian. He was born and raised in Pingzhuangshe, Baijia village, Suonan city, Dongxiang Autonomous County in the Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, a province of Gansu of the People's Republic of China. The text described here is transliterated by Chinese characters. As far as Ik now, the Dunxian text which is transliterated by Chinese characters can't be seen in other materials. With this regard, this text is considered to be...
This paper presents the transcription of a conversation between two such native speakers, recorded at Jiejinkou village in Heilongjiang Province, China on August 20, 2015. You Wenlan, a Kilen dialect speaker, was born in 1946 in Qindeli village; He Shuzhen, also a Kilen dialect speaker, was born in 1937 in Fujin village. The duration of the conversation reported in this paper is approximately 1lm inutes and the topics are as follows: (1) Ms. He's granddaughter is a kind girl. (2) The son of Ms. He's granddaughter, a 2-year-old boy is very cute. (3) It is better to have two or...
Subordinate subjects in Written Manchu can be in nominative, accusative or genitive forms. Genitive subjects have the function not only of introducing information in focus in the subordinate clauses but also of implying stylistic features seen in verse. ○si-men-king(nom.) boodejihe seme donjirejakade, "They heard Si-men King came home, and then". There is no mention about the event, i.e. the return home of Si-men King, in context around this utterance, and the author thinks that this is an example of unmarked information. ○si-men-king be(acc.)jihe seme donjifi, "They heard Si-men King came, and".
This paper describes the anaphoric use and the discourse deictic use of so called 'proximal','close'and'invisible'demonstratives in Nivkh (East-Sakhalin dialect). The main points mentioned in this paper are as follows: 1. Some of the East-Sakhalin dialect demonstratives have anaphoric and discourse deictic functions. 2. The choice of demonstratives in the anaphoric use depends on whether the speaker directs the attention of the listener to the reference in previous discourse. 3. The choice of demonstratives in the discourse deictic use depends on whether a speaker considers the discourse content as his/her mental area or not.
This paper analyzes evidential nominalizer in the Horobetsu dialect of Ainu. In the dialect, evidential nominalizer may function as a marker of complement clause and adverbial clause. This versatile nommahzat10n may be interpreted as the grammaticalization of evidential nominalizer.
In this study, I examined the attributive structure of the syntactic functions of participles and verbal nouns in Uzbek from morphological and syntactic standpoints; I investigated whether the syntactic functions have an adjectival property or a nominal property as well as whether an attributive structure of a participle in Uzbek indicates identity apposition (Johanson 1990: 190). Johanson (2006: 76) identifies an attributive structure of a participle, such as in kelgen kiii'a/the person who has come'in Altay as identity apposition. Uzbek and Altay belong to the Turkic languages. Therefore, Ia ssumed that participle+ head noun in Uzbek also indicates identity apposition....
Tyvan reflexive voice has a seemingly wide range of use. This paper divides the Tyvan reflexive into two uses: reflexive and anticausative. This classification is not only based on the semantic properties of the reflexive but also corresponds to its morpho-syntactic behaviors. In reflexive use, the reflexive suffix can be attached to an intransitive stem,and the clause may have an accusative NP as its direct object. The derivative verb is not semantically predictable from the base, since it covers non-prototypical meanings such as "patientless" and "possibility." In anticausative use, in contrast, the reflexive suffix cannot be attached to an intransitive...
The main objective of this paper is to study distinctions of auxiliary verbs in Tungusic from the perspective of areal linguistics. In spite of some previous typological studies conducted in this regard, the specific difference of auxiliary verb development within the Tungusic languages has not been fully discussed so far. Thus, this paper examines seven auxiliary verbs in Tungusic and its neighboring languages (Sakha, Kolyma Yukaghir, Mongolian, and Chinese). The auxiliary verbs in question are as follows; inceptive, completive, capable, progressive, attemptive, benefactive, and perfective. In conclusion, this study shows that variations in these auxiliary verbs among Tungusic in accordance...
In the present paper I examined the "reflexive pronouns" of Turkish, Mongolian, Nanai, Korean and Japanese by elicitation in order to reveal their range of function. The "reflexive pronouns" of these languages show such similarities and differences as seen below (Table 1). I proposed the hypothesis that these features are derived from the feature of the long-distance binding which these languages share.
Koryak copula sentences are formed by either personal copulas, which are derived from independent personal pronouns, or the copula verbs it'be'or tva'exist'with the predicate nominal marked in the essive case. The present paper examines the conditionality of the switch between the two types of copulas. According to Stassen (2003), this is a type of nominal and locational switching and can be interpreted as a case of'Permanency Parameter', which induces an opposition between'essence'and contingence. However, in Koryak, even the personal copula, which is not expected to co-occur with temporal adverbs such as'now','temporarily','yet','for three years', and'in this year', can co-occur with such...
The main objective of this paper is to clarify possibilities and limitations on
Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) in linguistics, taking the (dis-) similarity data in Hattori and Chiri (1960) as an example. The present author first shows the advantages of MDS, which can transform the dissimilarity data into multidimensional coordinate systems, and we can interpret those plots with the linguistic knowledge. However, MDS is an approach, which cannot be recommended from statistical point of view, in which the dissimilarity or distance matrix is calculated directly from the cognacy data. In this paper, the author then demonstrates that such method can omit the...
This paper analyzes causative suffix in the Horobetsu dialect of Ainu. In the dialect, causative construction correlates with switch-reference. In the coordinate clause, causative construction may function as a different-subject marker. In the subordinate clause, causative construction may function as a same-subject marker.
This paper defines sentence-final particles (SFPs) in Mongolic as dependent words which can be placed after a finite verb suffix, and discusses SFPs in Dagur. According to our investigation on SFPs in Dagur, three properties can be pointed out; first, interrogative markers obtained a feature of SFP more than other Mongolic languages and achieves the character as an SFP; second, the usage of =dee, the similar form of which can be found in Mongolian, is more complex and may beused for representing validity of speaker's attitude; third, inferential particles are placed before the predicative personal marker, and it reveals the...
As demonstrated by extant studies, the Khalkha Mongolian suffix -x can be attached to some case suffixes or the postposition xürtel 'up to, as far as,' and the words formed with this suffix can be used as nominals or adnominals. This article aims to review the previous works on this suffix, and to demonstrate the following four points. (i) -x can also be attached to -tal, one of the converb suffixes (a group of verbal conjugational suffixes that are employed to form adjunct clauses) as well as to case suffixes and the
postposition xürtel. (ii) Although -tal has two meanings, namely,...
In the present paper I examined some converbial forms of Turkic, Khalkha Mongolian, Korean and Japanese by elicitation in order to reveal their range of function and the criteria to make proper use of them. From the crosslinguistic viewpoint, a typical conditional form tends not to be used for an event such as mado=o aketara tumetai kaze=ga haitte kita (When I opened the window, a cold wind came in). However, the Altaic-type languages such as Japanese often have so-called pseudo-conditional forms which are multi-functional and realize a wide meaning not only of conditional but also temporal, causal and concessive. On...
This paper examines difference in phonology and morphosyntax between the two cognate languages, Sakha and Tyvan. It is concluded that the two languages differ in a consistent way. First, Sakha exhibits regularity in its phonological rules (the nasal alternation of suffix-initial consonants, the accent rule, and the vowel harmony rule) while Tyvan shows some exceptions under the apparently same rules. In other words, the regularity in Sakha phonological rules is interpreted as 'leveling'. Secondly, Sakha grammatical elements tend to be explicit or obligatory in such morphosyntactic properties as 3rd person plural subject marking, dative marking for goal, the adverbializing suffix,...
Koryak and Itelmen have been considered, tentatively, to belong to the same genealogical group, the Chukchi-Kamchatkan language family. Previous studies have argued that the Koryak participle "verbal GE form" (Ɣe-/ Ɣa-) corresponds to the Itelmen participle "K--KNEN form" (k-..-knen/-knin/-knan). However, few studies have made this argument in detail. The present study clarifies the similarities and dissimilarities between the two forms from syntactic and morphological perspectives. The results of the comparison of the two forms are as follows: 1) Syntactically, both forms shares common features: both can be used as an attributive, a predicate in the main clause, or a complement....
This paper aims to present a text of the Northern Dialect of Uilta (formerly called
Orok) spoken in the northeastern part of Sakhalin Island. The text was provided by
Elena Bibikova (1940- ) in Nogliki (Sakhalin oblast, Russia) in December 16th and
20th, 2010. She told about the life of the late Gisiktauda (Marija Mikheeva,
1910?-1993), a famous successor of the Uilta culture and language.
The present text shows the following information about Gisiktauda’s family,
her character etc. Gisiktauda was born in a nomadic family, who followed their
reindeer herd along the Mopi River (a branch of the Tym’ River)....
The data for the present collection of Udihe sentences were provided by Aleksandr A.
Kanchuga (1934- ), who is a speaker/writer of Bikin dialect of the language.
According to my request, he filled the questionnaire for grammatical analysis designed
by Seoul National University team (2006). He translated the Russian sentences into
Udihe, transcribed them in Russian script, and read them aloud for recording. On the
basis of his transcription and recording, I processed the data in Roman phonemic
transcription with some comments on the data and the questionnaire.
Hezhen is a Tungusic language spoken by the Hezhen living in Heilongjiang Province
in China. The Hezhen population is currently reported as 5354. Less than 10 Hezhen
can speak their native language.
This paper presents the transcription of a conversation between two such native
speakers, You Wenlan and He Shuzhen, recorded at Jiejinkou village in Heilongjiang
Province, China on August 31, 2014. You Wenlan, a Kilen dialect speaker, was born in
1946 in Qindeli village; and He Shuzhen, also a Kilen dialect speaker, was born in 1937
in Fujin village.
The duration of the conversation reported in this...