The main objective of this paper is to clarify possibilities and limitations on
Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) in linguistics, taking the (dis-) similarity data in Hattori and Chiri (1960) as an example. The present author first shows the advantages of MDS, which can transform the dissimilarity data into multidimensional coordinate systems, and we can interpret those plots with the linguistic knowledge. However, MDS is an approach, which cannot be recommended from statistical point of view, in which the dissimilarity or distance matrix is calculated directly from the cognacy data. In this paper, the author then demonstrates that such method can omit the...
This paper analyzes causative suffix in the Horobetsu dialect of Ainu. In the dialect, causative construction correlates with switch-reference. In the coordinate clause, causative construction may function as a different-subject marker. In the subordinate clause, causative construction may function as a same-subject marker.
This paper defines sentence-final particles (SFPs) in Mongolic as dependent words which can be placed after a finite verb suffix, and discusses SFPs in Dagur. According to our investigation on SFPs in Dagur, three properties can be pointed out; first, interrogative markers obtained a feature of SFP more than other Mongolic languages and achieves the character as an SFP; second, the usage of =dee, the similar form of which can be found in Mongolian, is more complex and may beused for representing validity of speaker's attitude; third, inferential particles are placed before the predicative personal marker, and it reveals the...
As demonstrated by extant studies, the Khalkha Mongolian suffix -x can be attached to some case suffixes or the postposition xürtel 'up to, as far as,' and the words formed with this suffix can be used as nominals or adnominals. This article aims to review the previous works on this suffix, and to demonstrate the following four points. (i) -x can also be attached to -tal, one of the converb suffixes (a group of verbal conjugational suffixes that are employed to form adjunct clauses) as well as to case suffixes and the
postposition xürtel. (ii) Although -tal has two meanings, namely,...
In the present paper I examined some converbial forms of Turkic, Khalkha Mongolian, Korean and Japanese by elicitation in order to reveal their range of function and the criteria to make proper use of them. From the crosslinguistic viewpoint, a typical conditional form tends not to be used for an event such as mado=o aketara tumetai kaze=ga haitte kita (When I opened the window, a cold wind came in). However, the Altaic-type languages such as Japanese often have so-called pseudo-conditional forms which are multi-functional and realize a wide meaning not only of conditional but also temporal, causal and concessive. On...
This paper examines difference in phonology and morphosyntax between the two cognate languages, Sakha and Tyvan. It is concluded that the two languages differ in a consistent way. First, Sakha exhibits regularity in its phonological rules (the nasal alternation of suffix-initial consonants, the accent rule, and the vowel harmony rule) while Tyvan shows some exceptions under the apparently same rules. In other words, the regularity in Sakha phonological rules is interpreted as 'leveling'. Secondly, Sakha grammatical elements tend to be explicit or obligatory in such morphosyntactic properties as 3rd person plural subject marking, dative marking for goal, the adverbializing suffix,...
Koryak and Itelmen have been considered, tentatively, to belong to the same genealogical group, the Chukchi-Kamchatkan language family. Previous studies have argued that the Koryak participle "verbal GE form" (Ɣe-/ Ɣa-) corresponds to the Itelmen participle "K--KNEN form" (k-..-knen/-knin/-knan). However, few studies have made this argument in detail. The present study clarifies the similarities and dissimilarities between the two forms from syntactic and morphological perspectives. The results of the comparison of the two forms are as follows: 1) Syntactically, both forms shares common features: both can be used as an attributive, a predicate in the main clause, or a complement....
This paper aims to present a text of the Northern Dialect of Uilta (formerly called
Orok) spoken in the northeastern part of Sakhalin Island. The text was provided by
Elena Bibikova (1940- ) in Nogliki (Sakhalin oblast, Russia) in December 16th and
20th, 2010. She told about the life of the late Gisiktauda (Marija Mikheeva,
1910?-1993), a famous successor of the Uilta culture and language.
The present text shows the following information about Gisiktauda’s family,
her character etc. Gisiktauda was born in a nomadic family, who followed their
reindeer herd along the Mopi River (a branch of the Tym’ River)....
The data for the present collection of Udihe sentences were provided by Aleksandr A.
Kanchuga (1934- ), who is a speaker/writer of Bikin dialect of the language.
According to my request, he filled the questionnaire for grammatical analysis designed
by Seoul National University team (2006). He translated the Russian sentences into
Udihe, transcribed them in Russian script, and read them aloud for recording. On the
basis of his transcription and recording, I processed the data in Roman phonemic
transcription with some comments on the data and the questionnaire.
Hezhen is a Tungusic language spoken by the Hezhen living in Heilongjiang Province
in China. The Hezhen population is currently reported as 5354. Less than 10 Hezhen
can speak their native language.
This paper presents the transcription of a conversation between two such native
speakers, You Wenlan and He Shuzhen, recorded at Jiejinkou village in Heilongjiang
Province, China on August 31, 2014. You Wenlan, a Kilen dialect speaker, was born in
1946 in Qindeli village; and He Shuzhen, also a Kilen dialect speaker, was born in 1937
in Fujin village.
The duration of the conversation reported in this...
This is a Shinekhen Buryat text which is spoken in northern Inner Mongolia, China.
This story was told by Ms. Dogarmaa, a Buryat woman who was born in 1933. I
recorded the story on 13th Aug, 2005 in Shinekhen West Village, Hölönbuir City, Inner
This is a folktale called ‘ulʲger’ in their genre of folklore. Its plot is as follows:
Two boys who were to be offered as sacrifices ran away from their home country.
On the way, they stole two magical pieces of clothing from ghosts: a hat that renders the
wearer invisible and a pair of...
It has already been crosslinguistically shown how animate subjects are preferred in
marked voice sentences (e.g. passive or causative). However, few studies have
crosslinguistically investigated the extent to which an animate agent should be a subject
in unmarked voice sentences. In this paper I examine this problem through a
questionnaire (19 pairs of sentences) in 13 languages of different areas and different
language families. Then I consider the following questions.
 Are the languages classified into the two extreme types, i.e., the animate
subject-oriented languages and the languages almost without restriction?
 Does the inclination/disinclination to animate subjects of...
This paper analyzes negation in the Tokachi dialect of Ainu. In the dialect, negation of
subordinate clause shows asymmetric structure. I suggest that this asymmetry correlates
with grammatical dependency of polarity and aspect.
This study attempts to examine the difference of third person marking on finite
indicative forms in Tungusic from the perspective of areal typology. According to
number distinction in third person, this study employs the following typological
parameters of person marking: (i) obligatorily distinct marking, (ii) optionally distinct
marking, (iii) non-distinct marking, and (iv) non-person marking.
The analysis will show that third person marking on finite indicative endings in
Tungusic varies in accordance with geographical distribution, showing similarities
with neighboring languages. First, North Tungusic (i.e. Evenki, Even, and Negidal) is
considered obligatory distinct type and this is consistent with contiguous...
It is supposed that there are two allomorphs of the reflexive suffix and also two allomorphs of the
passive suffix in Sakha. Contrary to this traditional explanation, this paper provides a new analysis:
The author argues that the reflexive, the anticausative, and the passive suffixes should be
distinguished as distinct morphemes.
The reflexive suffix and the anticausative suffix show semantic differences as well as
morphophonological, morphotactic, and syntactic differences in a consistent way. The
anticausative suffix and the passive suffix should be distinguished since impersonal passive
constructions are possible only with the passive suffix.
Turkic languages have a...
This paper investigates the ergative alignment pattern in non-finite clauses in
Kolyma Yukaghir. The main points of this paper are as follows:
1. The ergative pattern is mainly attested in texts collected by W. Jochelson at the
end of the 19th century and the very beginning of the 20th century. However,
contemporary Kolyma Yukaghir also exhibits a small number of similar
2. In Jochelson’s data, the ergative pattern is observed in both agreement and
core-argument marking of the action nominal and result nominal clauses. On the
other hand, finite clauses always show the accusative pattern. Therefore,
The purpose of the present paper is to examine two types of verb marking in adverbial clauses, that is, the nominalizing type and the non-nominalizing type, in the Chukchi-Kamchatkan language, Koryak.
Besides the exclusive use of so-called converb forms, Siberian languages are well known for making rich use of case morphology to mark a range of functional types of subordinate clauses. With regard to case-marked subordination, there are two basic formal subtypes. In one type, the nominalizing type, the case affix attaches to a nominalized form of the verb. Meanwhile, in the other—the non-nominalizing type—the case affix attaches to either a...
The Khorchin Mongolian text described here is a collection of basic sentences that were provided by Mr. Chog(Chi. Chaoke), a native Khorchin speaker born in Mankhan village, Khüree banner, Tongliao city, Inner Mongolia. Khorchin Mongolian, which is one of the main dialects of Mongolian, is spoken primarily in Tongliao city and Xin'an league in Inner Mongolia. It is well known that the Khorchin dialect has been heavily influenced by Chinese.
In order to collect the sentences, I used the questionnaire "Translation of daily conversation" that the research group for the ongolic Languages of Inner Mongolia University prepared in the 1980s. This...
This paper aims to present a text of the Northern Dialect of Uilta (formerly called Orok) spoken in the northeastern part of Sakhalin Island. The text was provided by Ms. Irina Fedjaeva (1940- ) in village Val (Sakhalin oblast, Russia) in November 24th, 2010. She tried retelling a short story narrated by her mother, the late Ms. Olga Semenova.
The story was about ogre called dǝpčigiri in Uilta. In this story a man encountered an ogre on a trip to hunting with his child. The ogre appeared from bonfire in their camp at night. It warned the man not to speak...
Hezhen is a Tungusic language spoken by the Hezhen living in Heilongjiang Province in China. The Hezhen population is 5354 according to the census in 2010. Less than 10 Hezhen can speak their native language.
This paper presents the transcript of a conversation between two such native speakers, You Wenlan and Fu Xingzhen, recorded at Tongjiang city in Heilongjiang Province in China on August 16, 2013. You Wenlan, a Kilen dialect speaker, was born in 1946 in Qindeli village; and Fu Xingzhen, also a Kilen dialect speaker, was born in 1941 in Bacha village. Ms Fu died in spring 2014. We...