Koizumi, Nobuo; Yasutomi, Ichiro
Anderson, Mark; Barr, Bradd; Rowe, Joan; Conrad, Patricia
Despite 60 years of vaccination, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections remain a
source of significant economic loss for producers in the United States. Control program
design in the United States varies by region based on the incidence of BVDV, density of
animal populations, animal movement, contact with wildlife populations, level of producer
compliance, variation among circulating BVDV strains, prevalent type of production unit
or industry and support offered by state institutions. The Upper Peninsula BVDV
Eradication Program in Michigan, the Montana BVD-PI Herd Biosecurity Project, the
Washington State BVDV Testing program and the Alabama Voluntary BVD Control
Program illustrates four different regional approaches. All four programs are...
Ståhl, Karl; Alenius, Stefan
Infections with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) are endemic in cattle populations
worldwide and result in major economic losses. For long, attempts to control BVDV were
limited to prophylactic vaccination practices, implemented primarily to reduce or prevent
clinical disease on a herd basis. However, the benefit of preventing clinical disease in
transiently infected animals is negligible when considering the overall losses of the disease.
Another more systematic strategy to control evolved during the 1990s within eradication
programmes in the Scandinavian countries. This was based on an initial determination of
herd BVDV status, followed by implementation of systematic zoo-sanitary measures at a
regional or national scale (without the use...
Paratuberculosis (Ptb), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is a
chronic and progressive granulomatous enteritis that affects many livestock and wild
animals worldwide. The clinical disease is called Johne’s disease (JD). In Japan, all dairy
cattle (harf million head) are examined for Ptb every five years. About 1000 the officially
examined cattle are diagnosed annually as positive for Ptb, but most of these exhibit only
minor or no clinical signs and typical lesions in recent years. In contrast to the situation in
Japan, the disease prevalence in western countries is very high. We have used ELISA and a
culture examination of Map, and recently real-time PCR...
Carter, Michael A.
The United States of America (U.S.) has made several attempts over the years to develop a
producer accepted voluntary program. The focus of the U.S. Voluntary Bovine Johne’s
Disease Control Program (VBJDCP) is to provide producers with the tools to control
Johne’s disease on their farms and identify herds with a low risk for the presence of
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection. The VBJDCP includes
an evaluation of producers’ operations to identify practices that could allow the
transmission of MAP among animals or between premises. Once risky practices have been
identified, a herd management plan is developed to assist the producer in correcting risky
practices. In addition...
Khol, Johannes Lorenz; Baunmgartner, Walter
Paratuberculosis, or Johne’s disease (JD), is caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies
paratuberculosis (MAP), is found in ruminants worldwide and can cause considerable
economic losses in cattle.
Control efforts and programs for JD in cattle are very diverse among European states, in
Austria clinical JD is rated as a notifiable disease since 2006. The voluntary control
programs established in many European countries, show different aims, measurements and
Most control programs for JD are based on a test and cull strategy, combined with hygienic
precautions. Unfortunately, the willingness to participate in such programs by farmers and
veterinarians is limited due to high costs, intensive workload, long duration and limited