As shown in Baek (2011), Udihe WH correlatives have both characteristics of Chinese WH correlatives (WH-WH type) and Russian WH correlatives (WH-DEM type). Extending the scope of study to the whole Tungusic languages, this paper aims to contemplate on the distribution of WH correlative in the Tungusic languages from a typological view. Referring to the grammatical and textual materials of the Tungusic languages, the author attempts to classify WH correlative of the Tungusic languages in two types (WH-WH type, WH-DEM type). In addition, second focus is placed on syntactic construction of the first correlative clause to verify whether it could...
This paper examines morphosyntactic and semantic characteristics of the proprietive suffix -LEEx of Sakha (Yakut). The suffix -LEEx is highly productive and its resultant functions as adnominal phrases or predicates (i.e. predicative possession), as well as noun phrases or adverbials. Semantically, the suffix -LEEx often implies possession at that very moment. The suffix -LEEx has been described as an adjectivizing suffix, but this suffix shows uniqueness as a derivational suffix in that the suffix -LEEx can attach after a plural suffix, which is inflectional and to a verbal noun which retains its accusative argument.
This paper provides the introduction and overview for the special issue
“Proprietive Affixes in the Languages of North-Eastern Eurasia.” The papers on five
languages examine mainly the semantics of the proprietives as well as their
morphosyntactic behaviors. The proprietives in common often imply such connotations
as specialty of the possessee or possession at that very moment. Though the
proprietives are derivational affixes, the base nouns still have their autonomy. The five
languages have also abessive forms, which are semantically contrastive to the
Hezhen is one of the Tungusic languages spoken by the Hezhen who are living in Heilongjiang Province, China. Their population currently is about 4600, and 10 or less of them can speak the native Hezhen language according to the author’s survey. This paper presents an interview text written by the author based on an interview taken at Bacha village, Heilongjiang Province, China on September 4th, 2008. The interviewee is Zhang Shuzhen, a Kilen dialect speaker who was born in 1926 and now is living in Bacha village. The interview was taken as follows: The speaker answered questions asked by the...
This paper aims to show that intra-clausal syntax is crucially related to inter-clausal syntax and the development of insubordination. It also examines Evans’s (2007) claim that the insubordination phenomenon often pertains to evidential and modal meaning. The term “Altaic-type language” (Kamei, Koono, and Chino 1996: 499) refers to a typologically coherent group of languages rather than to a genetically related group of languages. In this study, I use this term for the group of languages where the modifier always precedes the head, and most importantly, the predicate comes sentence-final. The languages examined in this study can be classified into two...
Based on previously attained data, the present paper examines the cognate and functional equivalents of the Koryak property predicative circumfix n-..-qin/-qen (N form) in cognate languages of the Chukchi-Kamchatkan family such as Itelmen, Alutor, and Chukchi. The results reveal, (1) Itelmen shows features different from other cognate languages in that adjective forms and property predicative forms break into separate morphological types, that is, the suffix -la･ proper to adjectives and k’-..-･ in/-･ an proper to property predication. (2) Koryak and Chukchi are similar to each other in that N forms in both languages are derived not only from adjective stems...
Haida has two causative prefixes, ･･･- and ･･･- (of which the latter is extended from the instrumental meaning “by hand”), and one causative suffix, -･･. The present study reveals the differences among these three affixes, which can be observed both morphosyntactically and semantically. Morphosyntactically, the valence of the base verb constrains these causative affixes; ･･･- can be freely added to any two-argument verb, while -･･ is added to a relatively small number of two-argument verbs. ･･･- is never added to two-argument verbs. Another difference at the morphosyntactic level can be seen in terms of animacy of causers and causees. ･･･-...
This article, one of the papers featuring “Semantic and syntactic analyses of proprietive affixes in the languages of North-Eastern Eurasia”, aims to provide an overview of the proprietive suffix -TAJ in Khalkha Mongolian, and then to examine some aspects of the suffix. The main topics to be discussed in the latter part of the article are as follows: Firstly, it is claimed that the proprietive suffix, which has been classified as a derivational suffix, shares some characteristics with inflectional suffixes. Secondly, we explore the relationship between the proprietive and the comitative suffixes: one topic that has long been under discussion...
Alutor (Paleosiberian, Chukchi-Kamchatkan family) has two proprietive constructions formed with affixes -lʔ (L-form) and ɣa-...-lin(a) (G-form). In this paper, I will describe morphological, syntactical and semantic features of possessee nouns in each construction and demonstrate that the L-form is preferred when there is a particularly close semantic relationship between the possessor and possessee. The G-form, in contrast, is used when a speaker is interested in the existence of a possessee, and often expresses a temporal possession. Additionally, I will show the difference between the proprietive forms and an existential construction, illustrate the co-occurrence of L-form with comitative prefixes and give...
This paper discusses the characteristics of the proprietive suffix -n’e/-n’ in Kolyma Yukaghir. The suffix -n’e/-n’ derives denominal verbs that roughly mean “have N.” The derived verb has three syntactic functions: predicative function (in independent form), adnominal function (in participle form), and adverbial function (in converb form). A derived verb sometimes has an existential meaning, “N exists.” The main points of this paper are as following: (1) The meaning of N (possessee noun) concerns the syntax and the semantics of -n’e/-n’: (a) With an inalienable possesee noun, especially an “everyone”-type possesee noun (Tsunoda 1995), N-n’e/-n’ is usually used with a...