Since the demise of the Cartesian dualist view of the self a number of possible definitions of what the self could be, if indeed it can be said to be anything, have been put forward but no consensus has yet been reached. In fact, such seems a long way off. In what follows four accounts of the self that are representative of the broad trends in the literature are analyzed for theoretical vigor and empirical accuracy in light of recent advances in cognitive studies and the findings of psychological research into behavior and decision-making. The self-concepts examined are of both...
This article discusses the phenomena of Cyberevenge, sexbullying, and sextortion, especially among young people. The discussion, based on extensive review of books, research reports, newspapers, journal articles and pertinent websites, analyzes these challenges. The article suggests some remedies to counter these online social ills which pertain to promoting responsibility of netcitizens, schools, governments, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and social networking sites.
The subject of this article is the “ethical justification” of a code of conduct. How does a code of conduct become an ethical code? The article focuses on the principlist approach in a broad sense, assessing its comparative advantages. Many scholarly critics are unhappy with the chaotic methods of grounding and writing ethical codes. They therefore stress the necessity of reducing this harmful abundant diversity. This paper does not support the monistic (single principle only) justification of an ethical code; instead, it proposes a pluralist justification based on “principlism”. The core of the article is a sketch of the conceptual...
Schuster, Alfons Josef
Fundamentally, any system consists of objects and relationships between these objects. A major goal in ‘systems theory’ concerns the systematic discovery of general patterns or principles that are broadly applicable across a wide range of domains. From this perspective, we investigate the patterns and other relationships that may emerge between computer networks and organizations of human society. Our investigation emphasizes not only that computer networks reflect human society in various ways, but also that new ways of organizing human society inspired by technological structures may be emerging.
How applied should applied ethics be? I take up that question not because it belongs to the past of applied ethics (though it does), but because, given the present, it seems likely to be a part of the future of applied ethics as well. Consider, for example, a recent debate in the journal Bioethics: One of the four papers was titled, “Why Moral Philosophers Are Not and Should Not Be Moral Experts”; another, “Moral Philosophers Are Moral Experts!” In that debate, a “moral expert” was a philosopher who used his knowledge of philosophy to speak with authority on practical questions....
Churchill, Robert Paul
Kirsch, Julie E.
Botts, Tina Fernandes
Rose, David Edward
The following article concerns the ethics of the treatment of cadavers and the duty that some
agents may have with respect to the furtherance of knowledge via medical research. According
to the argument which follows, a patient who benefits from medical treatment has an imperfect
(or general) duty to contribute to the furtherance of medical knowledge and, in the specific case
of treatment, a perfect (or defined) duty to allow one’s body to be the object of research which
will contribute to that technique or intervention. The intention is to open a discussion which
may lead to various applications of consent and recognitions of related duties...
The paper develops a conception of “professional loyalties” and then reviews several challenges
that professional loyalties encounter. The conception of professional loyalty is developed against
George Fletcher’s attempt to marginalize such loyalties. Instead of being viewed primarily as
loyalty to clients, it is characterized as loyalty to the ends of the profession. That conception
gives rise to several challenges, which are then discussed in turn: (1) whether professions have
enough unity to enable a coherent account of professional loyalty to be given; (2) whether the
loyalty that professions warrant is only contingent or should be seen as integral to their nature;
(3) whether professional loyalties have characteristics...
My thesis is that any course in professional ethics —even in a philosophy department —is, all
else equal, better without moral theory than with it. In defending this thesis, I shall return to a
debate I had with Bernie Gert and Ed Harris a few years ago, itself the culmination of almost
four decades of teaching professional ethics and more than two decades of teaching others to
do the same. I am, I should make clear, not against moral theory (the attempt to understand
morality as a reasonable undertaking). Indeed, not only do I enjoy teaching a course in moral
theory every few years and publish...
The Ford Pinto’s fuel tank was prone to rupture in collisions above 20 mph, sometimes resulting
in burn deaths. An infamous Ford memo estimated the cost of a shield correcting the problem
at $11. Should Ford have installed the shield, holding public safety paramount, or, respecting
consumer autonomy, have made the shield an option?
Answering this question requires distinguishing between three kinds of autonomy: merechoice
autonomy (deciding something for oneself, regardless of the content of the choice),
proclamative autonomy (making a choice that holds up a value or standard, commitment to
which is partly definitive of who one is), and high-impact autonomy (making a choice that
Cyber warfare is challenging traditional paradigms about what constitutes a just war. It is an
emerging phenomenon that needs to be addressed separately in order to create reasonable
regulations on its use and proper responses to the same. Some of these challenges refer to first
what might constitute an act of war as opposed to a case of criminal sabotage. Other difficulties
concern issues of sovereignty, the right to remain neutral, and proportionate responses to
attack. Several recent examples of cyber-attack are brought forth and analyzed within this
framework. The paper proposes that the traditional just war paradigm needs to be expanded to
account for the anomalies...
The freedom to create and disseminate pornography has often been defended based on a
liberal claim that the free speech of pornographers would be violated if pornography were
censored. The classic defense of free speech, given by John Stuart Mill, is often invoked to
defend this position. In opposition, many feminist theorists have advocated arguments for
regulatory measures against pornography. Some of these authors have also utilized the writings
of Mill. They have argued that, contrary to the liberal defense of free speech, Mill’s arguments
are compatible with, or even require, the forced regulation of pornography. Logically, unless
Mill’s writings are contradictory, they should not be invoked...
Among the various issues in Global Justice that I
address in Morality and Global Justice: Justifications
and Applications (2011-a), international immigration is
one of the most important. Gabriel Palmer-Fernandez
and Julie Kirsch have written sensitive queries about my
position that I will address in order .
Kirsch, Julie E.
In Morality and Global Justice, Michael Boylan
presents us with a set of solutions to some of the world’s
most pressing moral issues. Boylan claims that his
solutions are not utopian; instead, they are practical,
workable policy recommendations that governments
and other organizations should adopt. For the most part,
Boylan is correct; there are no obviously insurmountable
obstacles to implementing many of his recommendations.
But, as he himself admits, his position on immigrants
and refugees borders on the utopian (Boylan 2011,
204). In what follows, I will discuss two concerns
that I have about his position. The first concern (1) is
consequentialist: I fear that implementing a policy of
open borders may lead...