Recursos de colección

Caltech Authors (170.931 recursos)

Repository of works by Caltech published authors.

Group = Tianqiao and Chrissy Chen Institute for Neuroscience

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 32

  1. Engineering Artificial Somatosensation Through Cortical Stimulation in Humans

    Lee, Brian; Kramer, Daniel; Armenta Salas, Michelle; Kellis, Spencer; Brown, David; Dobreva, Tatyana; Klaes, Christian; Heck, Christi; Liu, Charles; Andersen, Richard A.
    Sensory feedback is a critical aspect of motor control rehabilitation following paralysis or amputation. Current human studies have demonstrated the ability to deliver some of this sensory information via brain-machine interfaces, although further testing is needed to understand the stimulation parameters effect on sensation. Here, we report a systematic evaluation of somatosensory restoration in humans, using cortical stimulation with subdural mini-electrocorticography (mini-ECoG) grids. Nine epilepsy patients undergoing implantation of cortical electrodes for seizure localization were also implanted with a subdural 64-channel mini-ECoG grid over the hand area of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). We mapped the somatotopic location and size...

  2. Resting-state functional brain connectivity best predicts the personality dimension of openness to experience

    Dubois, Julien; Galdi, Paola; Han, Yanting; Paul, Lynn K.; Adolphs, Ralph
    Personality neuroscience aims to find associations between brain measures and personality traits. Findings to date have been severely limited by a number of factors, including small sample size and omission of out-of-sample prediction. We capitalized on the recent availability of a large database, together with the emergence of specific criteria for best practices in neuroimaging studies of individual differences. We analyzed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 884 young healthy adults in the Human Connectome Project (HCP) database. We attempted to predict personality traits from the "Big Five", as assessed with the NEO-FFI test, using individual functional connectivity matrices....

  3. A distributed brain network predicts general intelligence from resting-state human neuroimaging data

    Dubois, Julien; Galdi, Paola; Paul, Lynn K.; Adolphs, Ralph
    Individual people differ in their ability to reason, solve problems, think abstractly, plan and learn. A reliable measure of this general ability, also known as intelligence, can be derived from scores across a diverse set of cognitive tasks. There is great interest in understanding the neural underpinnings of individual differences in intelligence, since it is the single best predictor of long-term life success, and since individual differences in a similar broad ability are found across animal species. The most replicated neural correlate of human intelligence to date is total brain volume. However, this coarse morphometric correlate gives no insights into...

  4. Hydrogel-Tissue Chemistry: Principles and Applications

    Gradinaru, Viviana; Treweek, Jennifer; Overton, Kristin; Deisseroth, Karl
    Over the past five years, a rapidly developing experimental approach has enabled high-resolution and high-content information retrieval from intact multicellular animal (metazoan) systems. New chemical and physical forms are created in the hydrogel-tissue chemistry process, and the retention and retrieval of crucial phenotypic information regarding constituent cells and molecules (and their joint interrelationships) are thereby enabled. For example, rich data sets defining both single-cell-resolution gene expression and single-cell-resolution activity during behavior can now be collected while still preserving information on three-dimensional positioning and/or brain-wide wiring of those very same neurons—even within vertebrate brains. This new approach and its variants, as...

  5. The Neuropeptide Tac2 Controls a Distributed Brain State Induced by Chronic Social Isolation Stress

    Zelikowsky, Moriel; Hui, May; Karigo, Tomomi; Choe, Andrea; Yang, Bin; Blanco, Mario R.; Beadle, Keith; Gradinaru, Viviana; Deverman, Benjamin E.; Anderson, David J.
    Chronic social isolation causes severe psychological effects in humans, but their neural bases remain poorly understood. 2 weeks (but not 24 hr) of social isolation stress (SIS) caused multiple behavioral changes in mice and induced brain-wide upregulation of the neuropeptide tachykinin 2 (Tac2)/neurokinin B (NkB). Systemic administration of an Nk3R antagonist prevented virtually all of the behavioral effects of chronic SIS. Conversely, enhancing NkB expression and release phenocopied SIS in group-housed mice, promoting aggression and converting stimulus-locked defensive behaviors to persistent responses. Multiplexed analysis of Tac2/NkB function in multiple brain areas revealed dissociable, region-specific requirements for both the peptide and...

  6. Foraging for foundations in decision neuroscience: insights from ethology

    Mobbs, Dean; Trimmer, Pete C.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Dayan, Peter
    Modern decision neuroscience offers a powerful and broad account of human behaviour using computational techniques that link psychological and neuroscientific approaches to the ways that individuals can generate near-optimal choices in complex controlled environments. However, until recently, relatively little attention has been paid to the extent to which the structure of experimental environments relates to natural scenarios, and the survival problems that individuals have evolved to solve. This situation not only risks leaving decision-theoretic accounts ungrounded but also makes various aspects of the solutions, such as hard-wired or Pavlovian policies, difficult to interpret in the natural world. Here, we suggest...

  7. Proprioceptive and cutaneous sensations in humans elicited by intracortical microstimulation

    Armenta Salas, Michelle; Bashford, Luke; Kellis, Spencer; Jafari, Matiar; Jo, HyeongChan; Kramer, Daniel; Shanfield, Kathleen; Pejsa, Kelsie; Lee, Brian; Liu, Charles Y.; Andersen, Richard A.
    Pioneering work with nonhuman primates and recent human studies established intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) in primary somatosensory cortex (S1) as a method of inducing discriminable artificial sensation. However, these artificial sensations do not yet provide the breadth of cutaneous and proprioceptive percepts available through natural stimulation. In a tetraplegic human with two microelectrode arrays implanted in S1, we report replicable elicitations of sensations in both the cutaneous and proprioceptive modalities localized to the contralateral arm, dependent on both amplitude and frequency of stimulation. Furthermore, we found a subset of electrodes that exhibited multimodal properties, and that proprioceptive percepts on these electrodes...

  8. How cognitive and reactive fear circuits optimize escape decisions in humans

    Qi, Song; Hassabis, Demis; Sun, Jiayin; Guo, Fangjian; Daw, Nathaniel; Mobbs, Dean
    Flight initiation distance (FID), the distance at which an organism flees from an approaching threat, is an ecological metric of cost–benefit functions of escape decisions. We adapted the FID paradigm to investigate how fast- or slow-attacking “virtual predators” constrain escape decisions. We show that rapid escape decisions rely on “reactive fear” circuits in the periaqueductal gray and midcingulate cortex (MCC), while protracted escape decisions, defined by larger buffer zones, were associated with “cognitive fear” circuits, which include posterior cingulate cortex, hippocampus, and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, circuits implicated in more complex information processing, cognitive avoidance strategies, and behavioral flexibility. Using...

  9. Hierarchical neural architecture underlying thirst regulation

    Augustine, Vineet; Gokce, Sertan Kutal; Lee, Sangjun; Wang, Bo; Davidson, Thomas J.; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona; Deisseroth, Karl; Lois, Carlos; Oka, Yuki
    Neural circuits for appetites are regulated by both homeostatic perturbations and ingestive behaviour. However, the circuit organization that integrates these internal and external stimuli is unclear. Here we show in mice that excitatory neural populations in the lamina terminalis form a hierarchical circuit architecture to regulate thirst. Among them, nitric oxide synthase-expressing neurons in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) are essential for the integration of signals from the thirst-driving neurons of the subfornical organ (SFO). Conversely, a distinct inhibitory circuit, involving MnPO GABAergic neurons that express glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP1R), is activated immediately upon drinking and monosynaptically inhibits SFO...

  10. Acoustically Targeted Chemogenetics for Noninvasive Control of Neural Circuits

    Szablowski, Jerzy O.; Lee-Gosselin, Audrey; Lue, Brian; Malounda, Dina; Shapiro, Mikhail G.
    Neurological and psychiatric disorders are often characterized by dysfunctional neural circuits in specific regions of the brain. Existing treatment strategies, including the use of drugs and implantable brain stimulators, aim to modulate the activity of these circuits. However, they are not cell-type-specific, lack spatial targeting or require invasive procedures. Here, we report a cell-type-specific and non-invasive approach based on acoustically targeted chemogenetics that enables the modulation of neural circuits with spatiotemporal specificity. The approach uses ultrasound waves to transiently open the blood–brain barrier and transduce neurons at specific locations in the brain with virally encoded engineered G-protein-coupled receptors. The engineered...

  11. Single-Neuron Representation of Memory Strength and Recognition Confidence in Left Human Posterior Parietal Cortex

    Rutishauser, Ueli; Aflalo, Tyson; Rosario, Emily R.; Pouratian, Nader; Andersen, Richard A.
    The human posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is thought to contribute to memory retrieval, but little is known about its specific role. We recorded single PPC neurons of two human tetraplegic subjects implanted with microelectrode arrays, who performed a recognition memory task. We found two groups of neurons that signaled memory-based choices. Memory-selective neurons preferred either novel or familiar stimuli, scaled their response as a function of confidence, and signaled subjective choices regardless of truth. Confidence-selective neurons signaled confidence regardless of stimulus familiarity. Memory-selective signals appeared 553 ms after stimulus onset, but before action onset. Neurons also encoded spoken numbers, but...

  12. Tracing neuronal circuits in transgenic animals by transneuronal control of transcription (TRACT)

    Huang, Ting-hao; Niesman, Peter; Arasu, Deepshika; Lee, Donghyung; De La Cruz, Aubrie; Callejas, Antuca; Hong, Elizabeth J.; Lois, Carlos
    Understanding the computations that take place in brain circuits requires identifying how neurons in those circuits are connected to one another. We describe a technique called TRACT (TRAnsneuronal Control of Transcription) based on ligand-induced intramembrane proteolysis to reveal monosynaptic connections arising from genetically labeled neurons of interest. In this strategy, neurons expressing an artificial ligand ('donor' neurons) bind to and activate a genetically-engineered artificial receptor on their synaptic partners ('receiver' neurons). Upon ligand-receptor binding at synapses the receptor is cleaved in its transmembrane domain and releases a protein fragment that activates transcription in the synaptic partners. Using TRACT in Drosophila...

  13. Neuropeptide Y Regulates Sleep by Modulating Noradrenergic Signaling

    Singh, Chanpreet; Rihel, Jason; Prober, David A.
    Sleep is an essential and evolutionarily conserved behavioral state whose regulation remains poorly understood. To identify genes that regulate vertebrate sleep, we recently performed a genetic screen in zebrafish, and here we report the identification of neuropeptide Y (NPY) as both necessary for normal daytime sleep duration and sufficient to promote sleep. We show that overexpression of NPY increases sleep, whereas mutation of npy or ablation of npy-expressing neurons decreases sleep. By analyzing sleep architecture, we show that NPY regulates sleep primarily by modulating the length of wake bouts. To determine how NPY regulates sleep, we tested for interactions with...

  14. The representation of colored objects in macaque color patches

    Chang, Le; Bao, Pinglei; Tsao, Doris Y.
    An important question about color vision is how does the brain represent the color of an object? The recent discovery of “color patches” in macaque inferotemporal (IT) cortex, the part of the brain responsible for object recognition, makes this problem experimentally tractable. Here we recorded neurons in three color patches, middle color patch CLC (central lateral color patch), and two anterior color patches ALC (anterior lateral color patch) and AMC (anterior medial color patch), while presenting images of objects systematically varied in hue. We found that all three patches contain high concentrations of hue-selective cells, and that the three patches...

  15. The representation of colored objects in macaque color patches

    Chang, Le; Bao, Pinglei; Tsao, Doris Y.
    An important question about color vision is how does the brain represent the color of an object? The recent discovery of “color patches” in macaque inferotemporal (IT) cortex, the part of the brain responsible for object recognition, makes this problem experimentally tractable. Here we recorded neurons in three color patches, middle color patch CLC (central lateral color patch), and two anterior color patches ALC (anterior lateral color patch) and AMC (anterior medial color patch), while presenting images of objects systematically varied in hue. We found that all three patches contain high concentrations of hue-selective cells, and that the three patches...

  16. Deep tissue optical focusing and optogenetic modulation with time-reversed ultrasonically encoded light

    Ruan, Haowen; Brake, Joshua; Robinson, J. Elliott; Liu, Yan; Jang, Mooseok; Xiao, Cheng; Zhou, Chunyi; Gradinaru, Viviana; Yang, Changhuei
    Noninvasive light focusing deep inside living biological tissue has long been a goal in biomedical optics. However, the optical scattering of biological tissue prevents conventional optical systems from tightly focusing visible light beyond several hundred micrometers. The recently developed wavefront shaping technique time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) focusing enables noninvasive light delivery to targeted locations beyond the optical diffusion limit. However, until now, TRUE focusing has only been demonstrated inside nonliving tissue samples. We present the first example of TRUE focusing in 2-mm-thick living brain tissue and demonstrate its application for optogenetic modulation of neural activity in 800-μm-thick acute mouse brain...

  17. Deep tissue optical focusing and optogenetic modulation with time-reversed ultrasonically encoded light

    Ruan, Haowen; Brake, Joshua; Robinson, J. Elliott; Liu, Yan; Jang, Mooseok; Xiao, Cheng; Zhou, Chunyi; Gradinaru, Viviana; Yang, Changhuei
    Noninvasive light focusing deep inside living biological tissue has long been a goal in biomedical optics. However, the optical scattering of biological tissue prevents conventional optical systems from tightly focusing visible light beyond several hundred micrometers. The recently developed wavefront shaping technique time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) focusing enables noninvasive light delivery to targeted locations beyond the optical diffusion limit. However, until now, TRUE focusing has only been demonstrated inside nonliving tissue samples. We present the first example of TRUE focusing in 2-mm-thick living brain tissue and demonstrate its application for optogenetic modulation of neural activity in 800-μm-thick acute mouse brain...

  18. FMRFamide-like peptides expand the behavioral repertoire of a densely connected nervous system

    Lee, James Siho; Shih, Pei-Yin; Schaedel, Oren N.; Quintero-Cadena, Porfirio; Rogers, Alicia K.; Sternberg, Paul W.
    Animals, including humans, can adapt to environmental stress through phenotypic plasticity. The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can adapt to harsh environments by undergoing a whole-animal change, involving exiting reproductive development and entering the stress-resistant dauer larval stage. The dauer is a dispersal stage with dauer-specific behaviors for finding and stowing onto carrier animals, but how dauers acquire these behaviors, despite having a physically limited nervous system of 302 neurons, is poorly understood. We compared dauer and reproductive development using whole-animal RNA sequencing at fine time points and at sufficient depth to measure transcriptional changes within single cells. We detected 8,042...

  19. Social behaviour shapes hypothalamic neural ensemble representations of conspecific sex

    Remedios, Ryan; Kennedy, Ann; Zelikowsky, Moriel; Grewe, Benjamin F.; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Anderson, David J.
    All animals possess a repertoire of innate (or instinctive) behaviours, which can be performed without training. Whether such behaviours are mediated by anatomically distinct and/or genetically specified neural pathways remains unknown. Here we report that neural representations within the mouse hypothalamus, that underlie innate social behaviours, are shaped by social experience. Oestrogen receptor 1-expressing (Esr1+) neurons in the ventrolateral subdivision of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl) control mating and fighting in rodents. We used microendoscopy to image Esr1+neuronal activity in the VMHvl of male mice engaged in these social behaviours. In sexually and socially experienced adult males, divergent and characteristic neural...

  20. The Jellyfish Cassiopea Exhibits a Sleep-like State

    Nath, Ravi D.; Bedbrook, Claire N.; Abrams, Michael J.; Basinger, Ty; Bois, Justin S.; Prober, David A.; Sternberg, Paul W.; Gradinaru, Viviana; Goentoro, Lea
    Do all animals sleep? Sleep has been observed in many vertebrates, and there is a growing body of evidence for sleep-like states in arthropods and nematodes. Here we show that sleep is also present in Cnidaria, an earlier-branching metazoan lineage. Cnidaria and Ctenophora are the first metazoan phyla to evolve tissue-level organization and differentiated cell types, such as neurons and muscle. In Cnidaria, neurons are organized into a non-centralized radially symmetric nerve net that nevertheless shares fundamental properties with the vertebrate nervous system: action potentials, synaptic transmission, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters . It was reported that cnidarian soft corals and box...

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