Recursos de colección

Caltech Authors (167.915 recursos)

Repository of works by Caltech published authors.

Group = Tianqiao and Chrissy Chen Institute for Neuroscience

Mostrando recursos 1 - 9 de 9

  1. The Neuropeptide Tac2 Controls a Distributed Brain State Induced by Chronic Social Isolation Stress

    Zelikowsky, Moriel; Hui, May; Karigo, Tomomi; Choe, Andrea; Yang, Bin; Blanco, Mario R.; Beadle, Keith; Gradinaru, Viviana; Deverman, Benjamin E.; Anderson, David J.
    Chronic social isolation causes severe psychological effects in humans, but their neural bases remain poorly understood. 2 weeks (but not 24 hr) of social isolation stress (SIS) caused multiple behavioral changes in mice and induced brain-wide upregulation of the neuropeptide tachykinin 2 (Tac2)/neurokinin B (NkB). Systemic administration of an Nk3R antagonist prevented virtually all of the behavioral effects of chronic SIS. Conversely, enhancing NkB expression and release phenocopied SIS in group-housed mice, promoting aggression and converting stimulus-locked defensive behaviors to persistent responses. Multiplexed analysis of Tac2/NkB function in multiple brain areas revealed dissociable, region-specific requirements for both the peptide and...

  2. Foraging for foundations in decision neuroscience: insights from ethology

    Mobbs, Dean; Trimmer, Pete C.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Dayan, Peter
    Modern decision neuroscience offers a powerful and broad account of human behaviour using computational techniques that link psychological and neuroscientific approaches to the ways that individuals can generate near-optimal choices in complex controlled environments. However, until recently, relatively little attention has been paid to the extent to which the structure of experimental environments relates to natural scenarios, and the survival problems that individuals have evolved to solve. This situation not only risks leaving decision-theoretic accounts ungrounded but also makes various aspects of the solutions, such as hard-wired or Pavlovian policies, difficult to interpret in the natural world. Here, we suggest...

  3. Proprioceptive and cutaneous sensations in humans elicited by intracortical microstimulation

    Armenta Salas, Michelle; Bashford, Luke; Kellis, Spencer; Jafari, Matiar; Jo, HyeongChan; Kramer, Daniel; Shanfield, Kathleen; Pejsa, Kelsie; Lee, Brian; Liu, Charles Y.; Andersen, Richard A.
    Pioneering work with nonhuman primates and recent human studies established intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) in primary somatosensory cortex (S1) as a method of inducing discriminable artificial sensation. However, these artificial sensations do not yet provide the breadth of cutaneous and proprioceptive percepts available through natural stimulation. In a tetraplegic human with two microelectrode arrays implanted in S1, we report replicable elicitations of sensations in both the cutaneous and proprioceptive modalities localized to the contralateral arm, dependent on both amplitude and frequency of stimulation. Furthermore, we found a subset of electrodes that exhibited multimodal properties, and that proprioceptive percepts on these electrodes...

  4. Single-Neuron Representation of Memory Strength and Recognition Confidence in Left Human Posterior Parietal Cortex

    Rutishauser, Ueli; Aflalo, Tyson; Rosario, Emily R.; Pouratian, Nader; Andersen, Richard A.
    The human posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is thought to contribute to memory retrieval, but little is known about its specific role. We recorded single PPC neurons of two human tetraplegic subjects implanted with microelectrode arrays, who performed a recognition memory task. We found two groups of neurons that signaled memory-based choices. Memory-selective neurons preferred either novel or familiar stimuli, scaled their response as a function of confidence, and signaled subjective choices regardless of truth. Confidence-selective neurons signaled confidence regardless of stimulus familiarity. Memory-selective signals appeared 553 ms after stimulus onset, but before action onset. Neurons also encoded spoken numbers, but...

  5. The representation of colored objects in macaque color patches

    Chang, Le; Bao, Pinglei; Tsao, Doris Y.
    An important question about color vision is how does the brain represent the color of an object? The recent discovery of “color patches” in macaque inferotemporal (IT) cortex, the part of the brain responsible for object recognition, makes this problem experimentally tractable. Here we recorded neurons in three color patches, middle color patch CLC (central lateral color patch), and two anterior color patches ALC (anterior lateral color patch) and AMC (anterior medial color patch), while presenting images of objects systematically varied in hue. We found that all three patches contain high concentrations of hue-selective cells, and that the three patches...

  6. The representation of colored objects in macaque color patches

    Chang, Le; Bao, Pinglei; Tsao, Doris Y.
    An important question about color vision is how does the brain represent the color of an object? The recent discovery of “color patches” in macaque inferotemporal (IT) cortex, the part of the brain responsible for object recognition, makes this problem experimentally tractable. Here we recorded neurons in three color patches, middle color patch CLC (central lateral color patch), and two anterior color patches ALC (anterior lateral color patch) and AMC (anterior medial color patch), while presenting images of objects systematically varied in hue. We found that all three patches contain high concentrations of hue-selective cells, and that the three patches...

  7. Deep tissue optical focusing and optogenetic modulation with time-reversed ultrasonically encoded light

    Ruan, Haowen; Brake, Joshua; Robinson, J. Elliott; Liu, Yan; Jang, Mooseok; Xiao, Cheng; Zhou, Chunyi; Gradinaru, Viviana; Yang, Changhuei
    Noninvasive light focusing deep inside living biological tissue has long been a goal in biomedical optics. However, the optical scattering of biological tissue prevents conventional optical systems from tightly focusing visible light beyond several hundred micrometers. The recently developed wavefront shaping technique time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) focusing enables noninvasive light delivery to targeted locations beyond the optical diffusion limit. However, until now, TRUE focusing has only been demonstrated inside nonliving tissue samples. We present the first example of TRUE focusing in 2-mm-thick living brain tissue and demonstrate its application for optogenetic modulation of neural activity in 800-μm-thick acute mouse brain...

  8. Deep tissue optical focusing and optogenetic modulation with time-reversed ultrasonically encoded light

    Ruan, Haowen; Brake, Joshua; Robinson, J. Elliott; Liu, Yan; Jang, Mooseok; Xiao, Cheng; Zhou, Chunyi; Gradinaru, Viviana; Yang, Changhuei
    Noninvasive light focusing deep inside living biological tissue has long been a goal in biomedical optics. However, the optical scattering of biological tissue prevents conventional optical systems from tightly focusing visible light beyond several hundred micrometers. The recently developed wavefront shaping technique time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) focusing enables noninvasive light delivery to targeted locations beyond the optical diffusion limit. However, until now, TRUE focusing has only been demonstrated inside nonliving tissue samples. We present the first example of TRUE focusing in 2-mm-thick living brain tissue and demonstrate its application for optogenetic modulation of neural activity in 800-μm-thick acute mouse brain...

  9. The Code for Facial Identity in the Primate Brain

    Chang, Le; Tsao, Doris Y.
    Primates recognize complex objects such as faces with remarkable speed and reliability. Here, we reveal the brain’s code for facial identity. Experiments in macaques demonstrate an extraordinarily simple transformation between faces and responses of cells in face patches. By formatting faces as points in a high-dimensional linear space, we discovered that each face cell’s firing rate is proportional to the projection of an incoming face stimulus onto a single axis in this space, allowing a face cell ensemble to encode the location of any face in the space. Using this code, we could precisely decode faces from neural population responses...

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