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The KnowledgeBank at OSU (79.989 recursos)

Knowledge Bank contains collections of presentations, publications and reports related to Ohio State University.

2016-17 Mershon Center Speakers

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 31

  1. The Crisis of Liberal Democracy

    Diamond, Larry
    For the past decade, the world has been in a modest but persistent recession of freedom and democracy. As more democracies in recent years have slipped back onto an authoritarian path--including Turkey, Thailand, Bangladesh, and Nicaragua--analysts have debated whether we might be a risk of a "reverse wave" of democratic breakdowns. But with the rise of right-wing, nativist, populist movements and candidates in Europe and the United States, a bigger concern has emerged: That liberal democracy (and perhaps democracy altogether) may be threatened in the core of the democratic system. This lecture will review the trends in freedom and democracy...

  2. Transparency, Protest, and Democratic Stability

    Rosendorff, Peter
    Democratic rule is maintained so long as all relevant actors in the political system comply with the institutional rules of the game – democratic institutions must be self-enforcing. We examine the role of transparency in supporting a democratic equilibrium. Transparency improves the functioning of elections: In transparent polities, elections more effectively resolve adverse selection problems between the public and their rulers. Transparency increases popular satisfaction with democracy and inhibits challenges to the democratic order. We provide a game-theoretic model, test these claims, and find they enjoy empirical support. Transparency is associated with a reduction in both the probability of democratic...

  3. Promise & Perils of a Politics of Peace: How the Report from Iron Mountain exposed the Absurdity of Cold War Militarism

    Goedde, Petra
    The "Report from Iron Mountain," was published in 1967 as an alleged leaked study by an unnamed U.S. government task force regarding the "possibility and desirability of peace" with the Soviet Union. Though a complete fabrication, the study as well as the public debate it generated marked a turning point in the public discourse on peace in the United States. This talk takes the report as a point of departure for an exploration of the interconnections between public peace advocacy and the politics of peace during the 1960s and early 1970s. It is part of a larger study of the...

  4. Translocal Relations of Climate Change in East Asia

    Lee, Taedong
    Why do local governments become actively engaged in the issue of global climate change? How do global factors influence local governments' choices, policies, and interactions? These questions are puzzling in that local governments have been regarded as public service providers in the domestic arena; and studies on cities and climate change have primarily focused on domestic drivers to explain local governments' climate change policies. In this talk, I discuss translocal relations of cities that have made an international effort to collectively tackle climate change. Compared to state-centric terms, inter-national or trans-national relations, trans-local relations look at policies, politics, and interactions...

  5. The Law of War and the Treatment of Prisoners of War during the World Wars

    Morrow, James
    International humanitarian law on prisoners of war and other issues has grown extensively over the last century and a half. I lay out a general argument about how the law can aid warring parties in limiting violence during wartime. The patterns of compliance and violations during the World Wars illustrate both the strengths and limitations of law to protect prisoners. During the First World War, all parties wanted to follow the war but disagreed about what it required. As a result, conduct deteriorated during the war. In the Second World War, some parties wanted to follow the law while others...

  6. Troops or Cash? Analyzing the Interdependencies Between Security & Financial Cooperation

    Bunte, Jonas
    How are defense cooperation and economic cooperation related? Research into this important question has focused primarily on trade and militarized conflict or, more relevantly, trade and military alliances. Yet, these approaches suffer from "apples to oranges" comparisons. Militarized conflict and defense pacts are both intergovernmental phenomena, monopolized by public actors, while trade is largely the realm of private economic actors. Furthermore, existing research is limited to bilateral relations, ignoring the more complex ways in which economics and defense influence one another. This paper introduces two broad innovations. First, we shift attention from trade and conflict to defense cooperation agreements (DCAs)...

  7. The Geopolitics of Feminism: International Women's Year, the United Nations, and the Globalization of Social Policy

    Olcott, Jocelyn
    This talk considers the case of the 1975 UN International Women's Year Conference in Mexico City to discuss the ways that 1970s feminism and the explosion of women's organizing around the world reoriented global policies around a host of issues ranging from population and food security to labor policies and environmental accords. These debates were refracted through 1970s geopolitics -- détente, decolonization, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Sino-Soviet split -- but also created vehicles through with feminist movements and women's organizations shaped international policies and practices.

  8. Network Topology and the Democratic Peace

    Cranmer, Skyler
    The democratic peace is one of the few empirical findings in International Relations that has acquired a law-like status. Many attempts have been made to fully understand the theoretical mechanisms at work, increasingly focusing less upon regime type alone, and more upon collinear explanations such as trade, economic openness, interests, and IGOs along with joint regime type. We take a network-based perspective on the democratic peace, holding that democracies are often on the same side of conflicts against autocratic states and because of this, do not fight one another. We find strong evidence of interdependence in the conflict network, that...

  9. Did Women Have a Great War? Gender and the Global Conflict of 1914-1918

    Grayzel, Susan
    The title of my talk pays homage to a classic and pioneering essay in women's history: Joan Kelly's 1977 "Did Women Have a Renaissance?" Kelly's intent was to see if -- by asking a question that placed women at the center of a world event -- we could challenge (as she put it) "accepted schemes of periodization." Following Kelly, the question "Did women have a Great War?" offers a starting point to consider whether or not we can separate the collective wartime and postwar experiences of women from those of their male counterparts. If so, how might a female-centered perspective...

  10. Combat and Historiography in the Battle of Sangshak

    Barkawi, Tarak
    Produced by soldiers and veterans, the materials through which we seek to understand war carry war's antagonisms; they are shaped by fighting, by specific battles, by old debts and lost arguments between commanders, invoiced in the lives of their soldiers. In a way, military historiography is too close to its own subject matter. Clarity demands an exacting reflexivity, of a kind evident in the life and work of Louis Allen, a Japanese-speaking British military intelligence officer who participated in the Burma campaign and wrote its standard account, Burma: The Longest War 1941-45. Between the first and second editions of that...

  11. Permeation of Global Governance by Pressure Groups

    Johnson, Tana
    n domestic politics, pressure groups are viewed warily. The founders of the United States, for instance, warned about the “mischiefs of faction” and strived to create a political system that would moderate their influence. But international politics is very different. There, the United Nations and other intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) regularly solicit participation from pressure groups, often in the hopes of connecting with the grassroots, obtaining diverse input, and boosting IGO legitimacy. In this regard, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are particularly important pressure groups. After all, regardless of whether a particular NGO is known more for service delivery or advocacy of particular...

  12. Illiberal Modernity and National Populism in the BRICS and the West

    Snyder, Jack
    In both developed and developing states, challenges to the liberal order are converging on a single main competitor, populist nationalism, which is a response to the tension between two central elements of liberal modernity: free markets and mass participation in politics. When popular self-determination is expressed through the nation-state, mass public grievances against the "creative destruction" caused by free markets in goods, capital, and labor often take the form of populist nationalism. Whereas in late developers this contradiction is caused by the mismatch between market economics and clientelistic political institutions, in consolidated democracies it is caused by economic policies of...

  13. Work, Energy, and the Value of Nature: From Planetary Conquest to Epochal Crisis in the Capitalist World-Ecology

    Moore, Jason
    Where and when do we find the origins of today’s planetary crisis? In this lecture, Moore argues that rise of capitalism in the centuries after 1450 marked an environment-making revolution greater than any since the dawn of agriculture. Arguing that capitalism develops not only through economic process but by cultural and territorial conquests, Moore shows how the modern world was forged in a peculiar – and destructive – relation of work and energy. In this account, the work of human and extra-human natures is foregrounded, implicating the creation of “Nature” and “Humanity” – including the powerfully racialized and gendered expulsions...

  14. Prisons of the Forgotten: King on Ghettos and Economic Justice

    Shelby, Tommie
    King believed that racial injustice and economic injustice have always been linked in America. Tommie Shelby takes up the race-class nexus by considering King's analysis of ghetto poverty. Like Jim Crow segregation, ghetto conditions are a threat to dignity. But they are also incompatible with economic fairness and non-exploitative labor relations. Shelby discusses King's practical proposals for ending poverty in the United States and considers four principles of economic justice (each found in King's writings) that might justify these recommended remedies. He also takes up the question of what kind of egalitarian King was and whether he is best described...

  15. A National Security Conversation with the Honorable Eric Fanning, 22nd Secretary of the Army

    Fanning, Erik; Mears, Zachary
    The United States has been fortunate over its relatively short history to attract the best and the brightest to public service, providing America with its true competitive advantage: its people. But we cannot take this for granted. Changes in demographics, labor markets, the key drivers of the U.S. and global economies, and new technologies are forcing the Department of Defense, the Army, and the other military services to think creatively about how they more effectively attract the next generation of Americans to a life of public service. Eric Fanning, the 22nd Secretary of the Army, will share his story, discuss...

  16. A Neurally-Informed Model of Habit in Consumer Choice

    Camerer, Colin
    Colin F. Camerer is the Robert Kirby Professor of Behavioral Finance and Economics at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., where he teaches cognitive psychology and economics. Camerer earned a bachelor's degree in quantitative studies from Johns Hopkins in 1977, and an MBA in finance (1979) and Ph.D. in decision theory (1981, at age 22) from University of Chicago Graduate School of Business. Before coming to Caltech in 1994, Camerer worked at the Kellogg, Wharton, and University of Chicago business schools. He studies both behavioral and experimental economics.

  17. Race Place and Capital Workshop

    Guzman, Andres; Lund, Joshua; Rosenthal, Olimpia; Cohen, Amy; Asutosh, Ishan; Alexander, Leslie; Nemser, Daniel; Akbar, Amna; Valdez, Ines; Speer, Jessie; Rodriguez Arguelles, Sara
    Mershon Center for International Security Studies

  18. Ruling the Market: Economic Geography, Electoral Institutions, and Redistribution

    Rickard, Stephanie
    Why do politicians in some democracies redistribute more than in others? I examine this question in the context of particularistic economic policies, which selectively assist small groups of citizens at the expense of many. Government-funded subsidies, for example, help people employed in the subsidized industry but do so at the expense of taxpayers. While the political motivations behind such policies are well understood, the cross-national variation is not. Why do elected leaders enact generous particularistic economic policies in some democracies but not others? Industrial subsidies, for example, vary significantly across democracies, despite international restrictions on their use in both WTO...

  19. Faculty Research Presentation: Moving Towards A Middle Ground: The Psychological Effect of Motion on Conflict Resolution

    Libby, Lisa
    More than 60 million people are now either refugees or internally displaced because of conflict and violence, while more than one-third of the world's peace agreements and ceasefires since the 1950s have relapsed into violence within five years (UNHCR, 2016). Our research seeks insight into how individuals’ perceptions of their group’s role in ongoing conflict can be modified to promote intergroup understanding and lasting conflict resolution. Acknowledging the role that one’s group has played in perpetuating conflict, and thereby experiencing collective guilt, can facilitate openness to conflict resolution (Schori-Eyal et al., 2015). In order to experience collective guilt one must...

  20. Recipe for Success: Basic Ingredients for Undergraduate Research

    Schoon, Eric; Dragostinova, Theodora; Mitzen, Jennifer
    A panel of Mershon Center discussion on the basic ingredients of a good undergraduate research project. Panel members will cite examples of good undergraduate research projects and address such questions as: How do you develop good research questions? What types of methodologies should you use in your research? What foundation do you need to have before undertaking a research project? What theories and facts do you need to know? What classes do you need to take? How can undergraduates work with the Institutional Review Board? How can undergraduates make connections with faculty members? This event is designed for students in...

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