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Working Papers in Linguistics: Volume 50 (July 1997)

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 20

  1. Front Matter (Volume 50, July 1997)


  2. Front Matter (Volume 50, July 1997)


  3. A cross-linguistic study of diphthongs in spoken word processing in Japanese and English

    Yoneyama, Kiyoko
    This paper investigates the proper treatment of diphthongs in Japanese and English in terms of spoken word processing. Three phoneme-monitoring experiments were conducted with three different groups of language users: Japanese monolinguals, English monolinguals and semi-bilingual Japanese speakers of English; both English and Japanese materials were used. The results showed that English monolinguals treat diphthongs as single units during language processing, while Japanese monolinguals treat them as two separate units. The processing of Japanese and English diphthongs by semi-bilingual Japanese speakers of English is also discussed.

  4. A cross-linguistic study of diphthongs in spoken word processing in Japanese and English

    Yoneyama, Kiyoko
    This paper investigates the proper treatment of diphthongs in Japanese and English in terms of spoken word processing. Three phoneme-monitoring experiments were conducted with three different groups of language users: Japanese monolinguals, English monolinguals and semi-bilingual Japanese speakers of English; both English and Japanese materials were used. The results showed that English monolinguals treat diphthongs as single units during language processing, while Japanese monolinguals treat them as two separate units. The processing of Japanese and English diphthongs by semi-bilingual Japanese speakers of English is also discussed.

  5. Japanese ToBI Labelling Guidelines

    Venditti, Jennifer J.
    The work reported in this paper was supported in part by a Title VI Foreign Language Area Studies Fellowship, and by a university relations summer fellowship from AT&T Bell Telephone Laboratories.

  6. Japanese ToBI Labelling Guidelines

    Venditti, Jennifer J.
    The work reported in this paper was supported in part by a Title VI Foreign Language Area Studies Fellowship, and by a university relations summer fellowship from AT&T Bell Telephone Laboratories.

  7. Production and perception of individual speaking styles

    Johnson, Keith; Beckman, Mary E.
    As explanation of between-speaker differences in speech production moves beyond sex-and age-related differences in physiology, discussion has focused on individual vocal tract morphology. While it is interesting to relate, say, variable recruitment of the jaw to extent of palate doming, there is a substantial residue of arbitrary differences that constitute the speaker's "style". Style differences observed across a well-defined social group indicate group membership. Other style differences are idiosyncratic "habits" of articulation, individual solutions to the many-to-many mapping between motoric and acoustic representations and to the many different attentional trading relationships that can exploit the typical patterns of redundant variation...

  8. Production and perception of individual speaking styles

    Johnson, Keith; Beckman, Mary E.
    As explanation of between-speaker differences in speech production moves beyond sex-and age-related differences in physiology, discussion has focused on individual vocal tract morphology. While it is interesting to relate, say, variable recruitment of the jaw to extent of palate doming, there is a substantial residue of arbitrary differences that constitute the speaker's "style". Style differences observed across a well-defined social group indicate group membership. Other style differences are idiosyncratic "habits" of articulation, individual solutions to the many-to-many mapping between motoric and acoustic representations and to the many different attentional trading relationships that can exploit the typical patterns of redundant variation...

  9. The auditory/perceptual basis for speech segmentation

    Johnson, Keith
    Language is temporal in two ways. Words and sentences occur in time, each utterance having a beginning and end. But, also the learner's experience of language occurs over time, the items that are crucial for defining linguistic structure are experienced over the course of years. These two observations are addressed in an exemplar model of phonological learning and word recognition. Major features of the model are described and its operation is illustrated in two simulations.

  10. The auditory/perceptual basis for speech segmentation

    Johnson, Keith
    Language is temporal in two ways. Words and sentences occur in time, each utterance having a beginning and end. But, also the learner's experience of language occurs over time, the items that are crucial for defining linguistic structure are experienced over the course of years. These two observations are addressed in an exemplar model of phonological learning and word recognition. Major features of the model are described and its operation is illustrated in two simulations.

  11. Syntactically-Governed Accentuation in Balinese

    Herman, Rebecca
    In Balinese there is a consistency of alignment between F0 peaks and particular syntactic positions such as "final syllable of the head of the phrase" or "final syllable of the phrase." This becomes apparent from F0 measurements taken from sentences recorded from a Balinese speaker which include measurements from sentences with different syntactic constructions and different length words in each syntactic position. Thus, the placement of F0 peaks in Balinese is not distinctive and in fact, there is no word-level accentuation in Balinese. Rather, placement of F0 peaks occurs at the phrasal level and hence serves a delimitative function.

  12. Syntactically-Governed Accentuation in Balinese

    Herman, Rebecca
    In Balinese there is a consistency of alignment between F0 peaks and particular syntactic positions such as "final syllable of the head of the phrase" or "final syllable of the phrase." This becomes apparent from F0 measurements taken from sentences recorded from a Balinese speaker which include measurements from sentences with different syntactic constructions and different length words in each syntactic position. Thus, the placement of F0 peaks in Balinese is not distinctive and in fact, there is no word-level accentuation in Balinese. Rather, placement of F0 peaks occurs at the phrasal level and hence serves a delimitative function.

  13. The Northern Cities Shift in the Heartland? A Study of Radio Speech in Columbus, Ohio

    Keiser, Steve Hartman; Hinskens, Frans; Migge, Bettina; Strand, Elizabeth A.
    Variation in vowel height and diphthongal/monophthongal character of the vowels /æ/ and /a/ are studied in the speech of two speakers from central Ohio in order to measure their participation in the sequence of vowel system changes commonly referred to as the Northern Cities Shift (Labov, 1994). The data were gathered from radio shows for which the speakers served as announcers. Determinations of vowel height and diphthongal nature of vowels were made by auditory judgment of the researchers and were correlated with acoustic measurements of F1 and F2 frequencies. The results suggest that the vowel system of the central Ohio...

  14. The Northern Cities Shift in the Heartland? A Study of Radio Speech in Columbus, Ohio

    Keiser, Steve Hartman; Hinskens, Frans; Migge, Bettina; Strand, Elizabeth A.
    Variation in vowel height and diphthongal/monophthongal character of the vowels /æ/ and /a/ are studied in the speech of two speakers from central Ohio in order to measure their participation in the sequence of vowel system changes commonly referred to as the Northern Cities Shift (Labov, 1994). The data were gathered from radio shows for which the speakers served as announcers. Determinations of vowel height and diphthongal nature of vowels were made by auditory judgment of the researchers and were correlated with acoustic measurements of F1 and F2 frequencies. The results suggest that the vowel system of the central Ohio...

  15. Breadth of focus, modality and prominence perception in Neapolitan Italian

    D'Imperio, Mariapaola
    This study explores the notions of "nuclear stress", "accent placement" and "breadth of focus" in the Neapolitan variety of Italian. The predictions of standard generative theories about their interrelationships are tested through a perceptual study employing statements and questions with varying focus structure. The results show that broad focus statements are more ambiguous than late narrow focus ones as to the extraction of intended focus pattern. Broad focus questions are, in turn, less ambiguous than broad focus statements for the same purpose. The results suggest the importance of the role of accent type differences.

  16. Breadth of focus, modality and prominence perception in Neapolitan Italian

    D'Imperio, Mariapaola
    This study explores the notions of "nuclear stress", "accent placement" and "breadth of focus" in the Neapolitan variety of Italian. The predictions of standard generative theories about their interrelationships are tested through a perceptual study employing statements and questions with varying focus structure. The results show that broad focus statements are more ambiguous than late narrow focus ones as to the extraction of intended focus pattern. Broad focus questions are, in turn, less ambiguous than broad focus statements for the same purpose. The results suggest the importance of the role of accent type differences.

  17. Near-Merger in Russian Palatalization

    Diehm, Erin; Johnson, Keith
    This study investigates the palatalized consonants of Russian in environments which prove difficult for second language learners of Russian. To this end, we conducted a production and a perception study. In the production experiment, native and nonnative speakers demonstrated different patterns of contrast. Results of the perception experiment are surprising because the nonnative speakers were able to distinguish more phonetic contrasts than native speakers. The native-speakers' performance provides supportive evidence of a 'near merger', where a contrast is maintained in production but lost in perception.

  18. Near-Merger in Russian Palatalization

    Diehm, Erin; Johnson, Keith
    This study investigates the palatalized consonants of Russian in environments which prove difficult for second language learners of Russian. To this end, we conducted a production and a perception study. In the production experiment, native and nonnative speakers demonstrated different patterns of contrast. Results of the perception experiment are surprising because the nonnative speakers were able to distinguish more phonetic contrasts than native speakers. The native-speakers' performance provides supportive evidence of a 'near merger', where a contrast is maintained in production but lost in perception.

  19. Perception of Consonant Clusters and Variable Gap Time

    Cahill, Mike
    In every case in which measurements of labial-velar stops [kp, gb] have been made, it has been found that the labial and velar gestures are not strictly simultaneous, but rather that the velar gesture slightly precedes the labial one (thus [kp] and not [pk]). One possible explanation for this is that [kp] is more perceptually salient than [pk]. This paper reports an attempt to test this hypothesis by observing listeners' identifications of [apka] and [akpa] with variable gap times inserted between the consonantal onset and release. The results showed that [apka] was more readily identified than [akpa], effectively showing that...

  20. Perception of Consonant Clusters and Variable Gap Time

    Cahill, Mike
    In every case in which measurements of labial-velar stops [kp, gb] have been made, it has been found that the labial and velar gestures are not strictly simultaneous, but rather that the velar gesture slightly precedes the labial one (thus [kp] and not [pk]). One possible explanation for this is that [kp] is more perceptually salient than [pk]. This paper reports an attempt to test this hypothesis by observing listeners' identifications of [apka] and [akpa] with variable gap times inserted between the consonantal onset and release. The results showed that [apka] was more readily identified than [akpa], effectively showing that...

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