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Working Papers in Linguistics: Volume 44 (April 1994)

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 21

  1. Front Matter (Volume 44, April 1994)


  2. Front Matter (Volume 44, April 1994)


  3. The influence of syntax on prosodic structure in Japanese

    Venditti, Jennifer J.
    This paper examines the relationship between the syntactic and prosodic structures of utterances which are structurally ambiguous. Two experiments were conducted involving ambiguous noun phrases (right-versus left-branching) and relative clause constructions containing an adjunct with ambiguous scope of modification. Results of careful examination of the F0 contours and downstepping patterns reveal that inter-and intra-speaker variability as well as depth of syntactic embedding are important factors in determining the prosodic phrasing.

  4. The influence of syntax on prosodic structure in Japanese

    Venditti, Jennifer J.
    This paper examines the relationship between the syntactic and prosodic structures of utterances which are structurally ambiguous. Two experiments were conducted involving ambiguous noun phrases (right-versus left-branching) and relative clause constructions containing an adjunct with ambiguous scope of modification. Results of careful examination of the F0 contours and downstepping patterns reveal that inter-and intra-speaker variability as well as depth of syntactic embedding are important factors in determining the prosodic phrasing.

  5. Effects of Prosodic Position and Tonal Context on Taiwanese Tones

    Peng, Shu-hui
    The present study investigates the effects of prosodic position and following tone on duration and fundamental frequency of voicing (F0) pattern for the Taiwanese tones. The results showed that Taiwanese tones were acoustically influenced by prosodic position and to a certain extent by tonal context. Prosodic position had strong effects on both the F0 and duration of tones. Final lengthening and final lowering were found in the utterance-final and to a somewhat lesser extent in phrase-final positions. Pitch range was substantially affected by prosodic position, but in general, the tone shape was not changed. Tone sandhi in Taiwanese was not...

  6. Effects of Prosodic Position and Tonal Context on Taiwanese Tones

    Peng, Shu-hui
    The present study investigates the effects of prosodic position and following tone on duration and fundamental frequency of voicing (F0) pattern for the Taiwanese tones. The results showed that Taiwanese tones were acoustically influenced by prosodic position and to a certain extent by tonal context. Prosodic position had strong effects on both the F0 and duration of tones. Final lengthening and final lowering were found in the utterance-final and to a somewhat lesser extent in phrase-final positions. Pitch range was substantially affected by prosodic position, but in general, the tone shape was not changed. Tone sandhi in Taiwanese was not...

  7. Is there 'dephrasing' of the accentual phrase in Japanese?

    Maekawa, Kikuo
    An experiment was carried out in order to examine two putative cases of 'dephrasing' of the accentual phrase in Japanese. The result revealed that it was possible to detect the accentedness of seemingly 'dephrased' accentual phrases in most of the cases. Although f0 contours of the accentual phrases in question are quasi-linear, we can detect their accentedness through the statistical examination of slope and intercept values of the regression lines fitted to the f0 contours.

  8. Is there 'dephrasing' of the accentual phrase in Japanese?

    Maekawa, Kikuo
    An experiment was carried out in order to examine two putative cases of 'dephrasing' of the accentual phrase in Japanese. The result revealed that it was possible to detect the accentedness of seemingly 'dephrased' accentual phrases in most of the cases. Although f0 contours of the accentual phrases in question are quasi-linear, we can detect their accentedness through the statistical examination of slope and intercept values of the regression lines fitted to the f0 contours.

  9. Asymmetry of prosodic effects on the-glottal gesture in Korean

    Jun, Sun-Ah
    Many languages have different allophones for voiced or voiceless stops depending on position within the word or the phrase (Keating et al. 1983). However, such effects are not always symmetrical. In this paper, I examined the voicing of the word final lenis stop when it comes at the end of the Accentual Phrase. By contrast to the word initial lenis stop, which is almost always voiceless at the beginning of the Accentual Phrase (Jun 1990a,b, 1993), the word final lenis stop was voiced at the resyllabified Accentual Phrase initial position. The data showed that the voicing of lenis stop depends...

  10. Asymmetry of prosodic effects on the-glottal gesture in Korean

    Jun, Sun-Ah
    Many languages have different allophones for voiced or voiceless stops depending on position within the word or the phrase (Keating et al. 1983). However, such effects are not always symmetrical. In this paper, I examined the voicing of the word final lenis stop when it comes at the end of the Accentual Phrase. By contrast to the word initial lenis stop, which is almost always voiceless at the beginning of the Accentual Phrase (Jun 1990a,b, 1993), the word final lenis stop was voiced at the resyllabified Accentual Phrase initial position. The data showed that the voicing of lenis stop depends...

  11. Asymmetry of prosodic effects on the glottal gesture in Korean

    Jun, Sun-Ah
    Many languages have different allophones for voiced or voiceless stops depending on position within the word or the phrase (Keating et al. 1983). However, such effects are not always symmetrical. In this paper, I examined the voicing of the word final lenis stop when it comes at the end of the Accentual Phrase. By contrast to the word initial lenis stop, which is almost always voiceless at the beginning of the Accentual Phrase (Jun 1990a,b, 1993), the word final lenis stop was voiced at the resyllabified Accentual Phrase initial position. The data showed that the voicing of lenis stop depends...

  12. Rate Effects on German Unstressed Syllables

    Jannedy, Stefanie
    German is characterized by the rhythmic alternation of strong and weak syllables. Weak syllables contain short or reduced vowels like schwa. In some instances, the unstressed weak syllable nucleus can be the only difference between words that underlyingly contain a consonant cluster. Examples in German are Kannen 'cans, pitchers' contrasting with kann 'can (V)' or beraten 'to advise' contrasting with braten 'to fry'. In some instances, in a faster rate of speech for example, weakening of the unstressed syllable nucleus is observed which can eventually result in the neutralization between such pairs of words. In slower speech, one might find...

  13. Rate Effects on German Unstressed Syllables

    Jannedy, Stefanie
    German is characterized by the rhythmic alternation of strong and weak syllables. Weak syllables contain short or reduced vowels like schwa. In some instances, the unstressed weak syllable nucleus can be the only difference between words that underlyingly contain a consonant cluster. Examples in German are Kannen 'cans, pitchers' contrasting with kann 'can (V)' or beraten 'to advise' contrasting with braten 'to fry'. In some instances, in a faster rate of speech for example, weakening of the unstressed syllable nucleus is observed which can eventually result in the neutralization between such pairs of words. In slower speech, one might find...

  14. The Influence of Orthography and Sentence Constraint on the Processing of Nouns in Japanese

    Darnell, Kim; Boland, Julie; Nakayama, Mineharu
    Utilizing a word-by-word reading paradigm, we investigated the role of orthographic familiarity in the processing of Japanese nouns by comparing the reading times of words that were kanji dominant (the kanji form is preferred by native speakers), kana dominant (the kana form is preferred), and orthographically neutral (both forms are equally acceptable). Target words appeared in kana or kanji, and were embedded in highly constraining (Experiment 1) or unconstraining (Experiment 2) carrier sentences. The results suggest that orthography does not affect reading time unless the sentence is highly constraining, in which case the most familiar orthography is faster.

  15. The Influence of Orthography and Sentence Constraint on the Processing of Nouns in Japanese

    Darnell, Kim; Boland, Julie; Nakayama, Mineharu
    Utilizing a word-by-word reading paradigm, we investigated the role of orthographic familiarity in the processing of Japanese nouns by comparing the reading times of words that were kanji dominant (the kanji form is preferred by native speakers), kana dominant (the kana form is preferred), and orthographically neutral (both forms are equally acceptable). Target words appeared in kana or kanji, and were embedded in highly constraining (Experiment 1) or unconstraining (Experiment 2) carrier sentences. The results suggest that orthography does not affect reading time unless the sentence is highly constraining, in which case the most familiar orthography is faster.

  16. The Relationship between Syntactic and Semantic Processes in Sentence Comprehension

    Boland, Julie E.
    Two experiments investigate how lexically ambiguous input is handled by the sentence processing system and shed light on the relationship between syntactic and semantic processing. Sentence contexts containing ambiguous verbs (e.g., Which salad/baseball did Janet toss... probe-word: Bill) are used to investigate how subcategorization and thematic role information is used by the sentence processing system. The results are consistent with a model in which the syntactic processing system uses subcategorization information to compute all "legal" structures in parallel, without consideration of semantic information from the context. Meanwhile, the semantic processing system uses contextual information to pursue the single most likely...

  17. The Relationship between Syntactic and Semantic Processes in Sentence Comprehension

    Boland, Julie E.
    Two experiments investigate how lexically ambiguous input is handled by the sentence processing system and shed light on the relationship between syntactic and semantic processing. Sentence contexts containing ambiguous verbs (e.g., Which salad/baseball did Janet toss... probe-word: Bill) are used to investigate how subcategorization and thematic role information is used by the sentence processing system. The results are consistent with a model in which the syntactic processing system uses subcategorization information to compute all "legal" structures in parallel, without consideration of semantic information from the context. Meanwhile, the semantic processing system uses contextual information to pursue the single most likely...

  18. When is a Syllable not a Syllable?

    Beckman, Mary E.
    This paper reviews evidence for unifying two seemingly disparate types of syllable reduction phenomena: the elision of reduced vowels in English and German, and the devocalization of high vowels in Japanese, Korean, and Montreal French. Both types of "casual speech rule" can be understood as extreme endpoints of a phonetic continuum of gestural overlap. The vowel is seemingly deleted or devoiced when the gestures of neighboring consonants encroach so completely into the space for the affected vowel that the relevant vowel gesture(s) leave no salient acoustic trace. However, in some cases in some of these languages, the reduction has been...

  19. When is a Syllable not a Syllable?

    Beckman, Mary E.
    This paper reviews evidence for unifying two seemingly disparate types of syllable reduction phenomena: the elision of reduced vowels in English and German, and the devocalization of high vowels in Japanese, Korean, and Montreal French. Both types of "casual speech rule" can be understood as extreme endpoints of a phonetic continuum of gestural overlap. The vowel is seemingly deleted or devoiced when the gestures of neighboring consonants encroach so completely into the space for the affected vowel that the relevant vowel gesture(s) leave no salient acoustic trace. However, in some cases in some of these languages, the reduction has been...

  20. Discourse functions of pitch range in spontaneous and read speech

    Ayers, Gayle M.
    Functions of intonation and pitch range were compared in matched spontaneous and read speech discourses. Two casual conversations were recorded, and the same speakers read scripts prepared from the original conversations. Sections with one primary speaker were examined. An intonational analysis showed that the locations of accents, phrase boundaries, and pauses differed between the spontaneous and read versions. A discourse segmentation determined that the topic structures were also different, although less so for the second conversation and its read version. Measures of pause and segment durations (as a reflection of speech rate) were made and related to the discourse segmentation...

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