Magee, Christopher; de Weck, Olivier
The use of terms such as “Engineering Systems”, “System of systems” and others have been coming into greater use over the past decade to denote systems of importance but with implied higher complexity than for the term systems alone. This paper searches for a useful taxonomy or classification scheme for complex Systems. There are two aspects to this problem: 1) distinguishing between Engineering Systems (the term we use) and other Systems, and 2) differentiating among Engineering Systems. Engineering Systems are found to be differentiated from other complex systems by being human-designed and having both significant human complexity as well as...
Campbell, Ronald B. Jr.
Innovating is essential to sustained industrial growth and profitability. But experience amply demonstrates how difficult innovation is, especially for large companies. The synthesis of valued offerings by aligning customer needs with technology possibilities lies at the heart of innovation. System architects working at the strategic level are ideally positioned, as a consequence of their experience and training, to play a key and even a leadership role in enabling, energizing, and leading this synthesis. The scope of the architecting effort must include the process architecture of the entire value chain as well as the more conventional product architecture to address all...
The paper is concerned with communication within a team of players trying to coordinate in response to information dispersed among them. The problem is nontrivial because they cannot communicate all information instantaneously, but have to send longer or shorter sequences of messages, using coarse codes. We focus on the design of these codes and show that members may gain compatibility advantages by using identical codes, and that this can support the existence of several, more or less efficient, symmetric equilibria. Asymmetric equilibria may exist only if coordination across different sets of members is of sufficiently different importance. The results are...
Holmes, Maurice; Ronald, Campbell
Improving product development processes along three key vectors leads to greatly improved business performance.
Salminen, Vesa; Pillai, Balan
Newton’s second law as written appears simple, but how to use the law perceptually is a complex task. Most of the
cases it is good for conceptual discussion or development. Normally the sign convention is not shown and has problems
to solve. Due to this fact, many do not fully understand Newton’s second law. Modeling complex behavior is like the
Newtonian law; people tend to misuse. In this article, it is experienced modeling the complex behavior simply with
embedded system engineering scheme, which is conceptually a new approach. In cases where applied Newton’s second
law for the center of gravity G but the correct point...
I empirically study the effect of venture capital (VC) on product development and
commercialization strategy of start-up organizations. In doing so, I segment entrant
commercialization strategies into two camps according to competitive effect: to
“cooperate” is to license-out technology or be acquired, while to “compete” is to develop
technology independently. Building on the work of Gans, Hsu, and Stern (2000) on the
drivers of entrant commercialization strategy, this paper examines the direct and indirect
effects of VC on product development and competition. I start with two important
determinants of start-up commercialization strategy: (1) the entrant’s relative investment
cost of acquiring and controlling complementary assets needed to successfully
de Figueiredo, John; Kyle, Margaret
In this paper, we examine the product life cycle in the desktop laser printer industry, from its inception in 1984 through 1996. During this time, the industry experienced a significant degree of innovation, as well as an enormous amount of product introduction and subsequent exit. The relative roles of market structure, innovation,
and firm effects are explored in more detail using a multidimensional product space. We introduce a very detailed product-level dataset on the desktop laser printer industry. We have a number of findings: (1) product portfolios of
firms are growing larger on average, as fewer firms offer more products; (2) products...
Otto, Kevin; Tang, Victor; Seering, Warren
This chapter has two key themes: (1) a list of customer needs is interesting, but insufficient for many development decisions, (2) establishing a quantified, dollar value for each requirement is more helpful. To that end, we present an approach and method to establishing the quantitative monetary value for new product features and performance. This approach is targeted to product development managers and engineers engaged at the “front-end” of the product development process when the decisions about selection and trade-off of product functions and features are made. This approach examines the customer’s business operations and essentially establishing their business case for...
de Figueiredo, John; Kyle, Margaret
Why do products exit markets? This paper integrates rationale for product exit from a number of different literatures and compares the statistical and substantive effect of these explanations. We use a novel dataset covering
every product introduced into the desktop laser printer industry since its inception. Using hedonic models, hazard rate models, and count models, this study generates three main findings. First, innovation does not drive products
out of market per se. Managers do not pull products off the market when they innovate. Rather they seem to keep the incumbent products on the market and add the newer, more innovative products to...
Takala, Roope; Hölttä, Katja
Metrics for product concept evaluation and screening is a relatively unstudied topic of product development.
Having a clearly documented set of metrics for concept screening decisions is a prerequisite for an educated and traceable decision making process. Measuring product concepts and comparing the results of pervious products and their success rates to the metrics documented for their screening provides a basis on which to improve the efficiency of product development work. In this study a list of product concept screening metrics, or issues if you please, is put forth. This list is priorized according to the importance of the metrics. The...
Tang, Victor; Salminen, Vesa
To be presented at the 13 th International Conference on Engineering Design, Glasgow, Scotland, August 2001.
Organizations must establish processes for managing knowledge across boundaries because of the specialized and task-dependent forms of knowledge required to deliver products and services. To address this challenge an integrative framework is developed that identifies and integrates the value of different approaches to managing knowledge in organizations that are often presented as incompatible in the literature. The framework describes three progressively complex types of boundaries: syntactic, semantic and pragmatic. Each increasingly complex boundary requires a
more complex process to facilitate communication and innovation across specialized forms of
knowledge. The framework categorizes types of boundaries, gauges their complexity, and then
describes the processes involved...