ETD at Indian Institute of Science
Repository of Theses and Dissertations of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India. The repository has been developed to capture, disseminate and preserve research theses of Indian Institute of Science.
Insights Into The Contribution Of Hfq In Salmonella Pathogenesis : Possible Role In Immune Evasion And Vaccine Development - Allam, Uday Sankar
Chapter I Introduction Salmonellae are facultative Gram-negative intracellular pathogens. Different serovars of it causes a variety of diseases in multiple hosts with different disease outcomes. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and Typhimurium (STM) can infect domestic animals causing gastroenteritis or typhoid like fever. Typhoid fever in humans which is actually caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi still remains a significant health problem in many parts of the world with an estimated annual incidence of nearly 16 million cases and about 600,000 deaths. The infection begins via the orofecal route following which it invades the intestinal mucosa through several ways, namely by...
Mechanistic And Functional Insights Into Mycobacterium Bovis BCG Induced Expression Of Cyclooxygenase-2 : Implications For Immune Evasion Strategies - Bansal, Kushagra
Mycobacteria are multifaceted pathogens capable of causing both acute disease as well as an asymptomatic latent infection. Protective immunity against pathogenic mycobacteria depends principally on cell-mediated immunity executed by efficient anti-infectious functions of type 1 T helper (Th1) subset of CD4+ T cells. The polarization of Th1 responses is orchestrated by IL-12 secreted by antigen presenting cells (APCs) such as macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). A hallmark of Th1 type CD4+ T cells is the production of IFN-γ that activates plethora of innate cell-mediated immunity. It is well
known that cytokines such as IFN-γ, IL-12 and TNF-α are required for...
Identification Of GAL102 Encoded UDP-Glucose 4, 6 Dehydratase Activity, As A Novel Virulence Factor In Candida Albicans - Sen, Manimala
Among fungal pathogens responsible for opportunistic infections, species of the genus Candida have a major role (Mitchell, 1998). Various Candida species cause superficial infections which can be cured by the currently available antifungal arsenal (Noble and Johnson, 2007). However, species of the genus Candida are also responsible for life-threatening systemic infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients with weakened immune system. Among Candida species, C. albicans, which can also be a commensal of the skin and the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts, is responsible for the majority of Candida bloodstream infections. However, there is an increasing incidence of infections caused by C. glabrata...
Modulation Of Bacterial Pathogenesis By Curcumin - Marathe, Sandhya
Foodborne diseases are one among the diseases with high morbidity and mortality rate. The concern is raised with the emergence of pathogenic strains that are resistant to the available set of antibiotics. Conventional regimens fail to treat the infections caused by these pathogens prolonging the sickness leading to increased morbidity and mortality. The situation can get further complicated with the dietary intake of the host. Of late it has been understood that the dietary flavonoids play an important role in regulating the immune system. Curcumin, a pigment from turmeric, is one among such bioflavonoid with an immunomodulatory potential.
Host-Pathogen Interaction Between Staphylococcus Aureus And Murine Macrophages - Ananthalakshmi, T K
Chapter 1: Introductionn
Staphylococci are gram positive rotund bacteria that grow in clusters; and hence get their name. The genus of Staphylococcus comprises of over 30 species of which S. epidermidis and S.aureus are significant in their interaction with humans and are known to cause diseases. S.aureus invades various soft tissues and causes a vast multitude of diseases spanning from simple boils and abscesses to osteomyelitis and endocarditis, which can become fatal upon the onset of bacteremia and toxic shock. S. aureus has also been established as one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections especially because of their multi-drug resistant...
Delineation Of Signaling Events Regulating Mycobacterium Bovis BCG Induced Expression Of MMR-9 And SPI6 : Possible Implications For Immune Subversion Mechanisms - Kapoor, Nisha
One key to the pathogenic potential of the mycobacteria lies in their capacity to resist destruction by infected macrophages and dendritic cells. Robust host immune responses during mycobacterial infection often involve a potent CD4, CD8 and gamma delta T cell mediated effector responses including lysis of mycobacteria infected host cells, secretion of variety of cytokines like IFN-γ etc. However, pathogenic mycobacteria survives for prolonged periods in the phagasomes of infected macrophages within the host in an asymptomatic, latent state and can reactivate years later if the host’s immune system wanes. One of the most devastating consequences of infection with mycobactreia...
Influence Of FtsH Protease On The Medial FtsZ Ring In Escherichia Coli - Bhatt, Brijesh Narayan
FtsH is an essential AAA family Zn++ metalloprotease of Escherichia coli, possessing ATPase-dependent chaperon activity and ATP-dependent protease activity. Heat shock transcription factor Sigma32, LpxC, SecY, and bacteriophage protein CII are some of the substrates of FtsH. Although FtsH is known to influence several cellular processes, the role of FtsH in bacterial cell division had not been identified. FtsZ is the principal cell division protein that marks the cell division site at mid-cell by forming a ring structure. Using a pair of ftsH-null and isogenic wild type strain of E. coli, earlier studies in the laboratory had demonstrated that proteolytic...
Unravelling The Regulators Of Translation And Replication Of Hepatitis C Virus - Ray, Upasana
Unravelling the regulators of translation and replication of Hepatitis C virus
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive sense, single stranded RNA virus belonging to the genus Hepacivirus and the family Flaviviridae. It infects human liver cells predominantly. Although, the treatment with α interferon and ribavirin can control HCV in some cases, they fail to achieve sustained virological response in others, thus emphasizing the need of novel therapeutic targets.
The viral genome is 9.6 kb long consisting of a 5’ untranslated region (5’UTR), a long open reading frame (ORF) that encodes the viral proteins and the 3’ untranslated region (3’UTR)....
Functions For OsMADS2 And OsMADS1 As Master Regulators Of Gene Expression During Rice Floret Meristem Specification And Organ Development - Yadav, Shri Ram
Plant reproductive development begins when vegetative shoot apical meristems change their fate to inflorescence meristems which develop floral meristems on the flanks. This process of meristem fate change and organ development involves regulated activation and/or repression of many cell fate determining factors that execute down-stream gene expression cascades. Flowers are formed when floral organs are specified on the floral meristem in four concentric whorls. In the model dicot plant Arabidopsis, the identity and pattern of floral organs is determined by combined actions of MADS-domain containing transcription factors of the classes A, B, C, D and E. Rice florets are produced...
Human Immune Response To Japanese Encephalitis Virus Guides Development Of Vaccines With Long Lasting Immunity - Venkatramana, D K
Chapter 1: Role of JEV NS1 in protective immunity and in immunopathology. Previous studies from our laboratory revealed T cell immunodominance of non structural proteins NS3 and NS1 during natural JEV infections in humans where as the structural protein E, which is a good target for neutralizing antibody response is a poor inducer of T cells. Flavivirus NS1 is also known to induce humoral immune response. Several studies in different flaviviruses have indicated a role for NS1-specific immune responses in protection against flaviviruses. Paradoxically, studies also pointed to the contribution of NS1 in pathology and immune modulation. We screened serum...