Recursos de colección

ETD at Indian Institute of Science (2.878 recursos)

Repository of Theses and Dissertations of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India. The repository has been developed to capture, disseminate and preserve research theses of Indian Institute of Science.

Microbiology and Cell Biology (mcbl)

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 69

  1. Role of SIRT6 in Myofibroblast Cell Death

    Subramanian, Veena
    Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of mortality. A common denominator across most of the cardiovascular diseases like diabetic cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, myocardial infarction and dilated cardiomyopathy is the pathological remodelling of heart leading to fibrosis. Cardiac fibrosis is characterized by the excessive production and deposition of extracellular matrix components due to unwarranted proliferation of fibroblasts. Under normal conditions, following cardiac remodelling, my fibroblasts undergo programmed cell death. However, this does not happen under pathological conditions ultimately leading to fibrosis. Although the molecular events and signalling pathways that contribute to the development of cardiac fibrosis is well established,...

  2. Role of SIRT6 in Myofibroblast Cell Death

    Subramanian, Veena
    Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of mortality. A common denominator across most of the cardiovascular diseases like diabetic cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, myocardial infarction and dilated cardiomyopathy is the pathological remodelling of heart leading to fibrosis. Cardiac fibrosis is characterized by the excessive production and deposition of extracellular matrix components due to unwarranted proliferation of fibroblasts. Under normal conditions, following cardiac remodelling, my fibroblasts undergo programmed cell death. However, this does not happen under pathological conditions ultimately leading to fibrosis. Although the molecular events and signalling pathways that contribute to the development of cardiac fibrosis is well established,...

  3. The Role of Initiation Factor 3 : Insights from E. Coli, Mitochondria and Mycoplasma

    Ayyub, Shreya Ahana
    The process of translation initiation is the most highly regulated step of protein synthesis. In bacteria, three initiation factors (IF1, IF2 and IF3) play crucial roles during initiation. IF3 acts as an anti-association factor for the two ribosomal subunits. Eubacterial IF3 also permits initiator tRNA (i-tRNA) selection at the P site of the ribosome. Two features of i-tRNA, i. e. the characteristic 3GC base pairs in the anticodon stem and the cognate interaction of the anticodon sequence with the initiation codon of the mRNA contribute to IF3 based selection and/or proofreading. However, the exact mechanism of this discrimination and the...

  4. The Role of Initiation Factor 3 : Insights from E. Coli, Mitochondria and Mycoplasma

    Ayyub, Shreya Ahana
    The process of translation initiation is the most highly regulated step of protein synthesis. In bacteria, three initiation factors (IF1, IF2 and IF3) play crucial roles during initiation. IF3 acts as an anti-association factor for the two ribosomal subunits. Eubacterial IF3 also permits initiator tRNA (i-tRNA) selection at the P site of the ribosome. Two features of i-tRNA, i. e. the characteristic 3GC base pairs in the anticodon stem and the cognate interaction of the anticodon sequence with the initiation codon of the mRNA contribute to IF3 based selection and/or proofreading. However, the exact mechanism of this discrimination and the...

  5. Functional Characterization of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae SUB1 in Starvation Induced Sporulation Response

    Gupta, Ritu
    Among the various external signals perceived by yeast cells, nutrient availability is a condition to which these cells show a highly diverse biological response. Diploid cells in response to different nutritional stress conditions shows different developmental outcomes. On nitrogen starvation, cells undergo dimorphic transition whereby a unicellular yeast form transforms to a multicellular pseudohyphal form. While in the complete absence of a nitrogen source and a fermentable carbon source, yeast cells enter into a complex developmental program termed sporulation which culminates in haploid spores. The main objective of this work was to understand the role played by S. cerevisiaeSUB1 in...

  6. Unique Response and the Survival Mechanism of Mycobacterial Subpopulations against Oxidative and Nitrite Stress

    Nair, Rashmi Ravindran
    Mycobacterial populations are known for the heterogeneity in terms of cell size, morphology, and metabolic status, which are believed to help the population survive under stress conditions. Such population heterogeneity had been observed in TB patients, in animal models, and in in vitro cultures. Also, the physiological relevance of population heterogeneity under nutrient starvation has been studied. However, the physiological significance of population heterogeneity in oxidative and nitrite stress has not been addressed yet. Our laboratory had earlier shown that a subpopulation of mycobacterial mid-log phase cultures divide by highly deviated asymmetric division, generating short cells and normal-sized/long cells. This...

  7. Unique Response and the Survival Mechanism of Mycobacterial Subpopulations against Oxidative and Nitrite Stress

    Nair, Rashmi Ravindran
    Mycobacterial populations are known for the heterogeneity in terms of cell size, morphology, and metabolic status, which are believed to help the population survive under stress conditions. Such population heterogeneity had been observed in TB patients, in animal models, and in in vitro cultures. Also, the physiological relevance of population heterogeneity under nutrient starvation has been studied. However, the physiological significance of population heterogeneity in oxidative and nitrite stress has not been addressed yet. Our laboratory had earlier shown that a subpopulation of mycobacterial mid-log phase cultures divide by highly deviated asymmetric division, generating short cells and normal-sized/long cells. This...

  8. Identification, Structural and Functional Characterisation of the Molecule that Induces Asymmetric Cell Division in Mycobacteria

    Mukkayyan, Nagaraja
    Phenotypic heterogeneity in terms of cell size, morphology, and metabolic status, which are believed to help the population survive under stress conditions, is known in mycobacterial populations. Such population heterogeneity had been observed in in vitro cultures, TB patients, and in animal models. Our laboratory had earlier shown that about 20-30% of the 15% septating cells of Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium xenopi mid-log phase cultures divide by highly deviated asymmetric cell division (ACD), generating subpopulations of short cells and normal-sized/long cells. The remaining 70-80% of the septating cells divide by symmetric cell division (SCD) with 5-10% deviation of...

  9. Identification, Structural and Functional Characterisation of the Molecule that Induces Asymmetric Cell Division in Mycobacteria

    Mukkayyan, Nagaraja
    Phenotypic heterogeneity in terms of cell size, morphology, and metabolic status, which are believed to help the population survive under stress conditions, is known in mycobacterial populations. Such population heterogeneity had been observed in in vitro cultures, TB patients, and in animal models. Our laboratory had earlier shown that about 20-30% of the 15% septating cells of Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium xenopi mid-log phase cultures divide by highly deviated asymmetric cell division (ACD), generating subpopulations of short cells and normal-sized/long cells. The remaining 70-80% of the septating cells divide by symmetric cell division (SCD) with 5-10% deviation of...

  10. Delineating the Role of OsMADS1 in Auxin Distribution, Floret Identity and Floret Meristem Determinacy

    Lhaineikim, Grace
    Rice have highly derived florets borne on a short branch called ‘spikelet’ comprised of a pair of rudimentary glumes and sterile lemma (empty glumes) that subtends a single fertile floret. The floral organs consist of a pair of lodicules, six stamens and a central carpel that are enclosed by a pair of bract-like organs, called lemma and palea. A progressive reprogramming of meristem identity during the floral development of flowers, on branches on the inflorescence, is correlated with changes in transcriptional status of regulatory genes that execute cascades of distinct developmental events. On the other hand phytohormones such as auxin...

  11. Delineating the Role of OsMADS1 in Auxin Distribution, Floret Identity and Floret Meristem Determinacy

    Lhaineikim, Grace
    Rice have highly derived florets borne on a short branch called ‘spikelet’ comprised of a pair of rudimentary glumes and sterile lemma (empty glumes) that subtends a single fertile floret. The floral organs consist of a pair of lodicules, six stamens and a central carpel that are enclosed by a pair of bract-like organs, called lemma and palea. A progressive reprogramming of meristem identity during the floral development of flowers, on branches on the inflorescence, is correlated with changes in transcriptional status of regulatory genes that execute cascades of distinct developmental events. On the other hand phytohormones such as auxin...

  12. Understanding Functions for Fission Yeast Pre-mRNA Splicing Factors SpPrp18 and SpSlu7 in Constitutive and Alternative Splicing

    Melangath, Geetha
    Exonic sequences of eukaryotic genes are interspersed with introns which when accurately removed from the primary transcript (pre-mRNA) results in a functional transcript. These splicing reactions are carried out by the spliceosome, consisting of U1, U2, U4, U5, U6 snRNAs and 150 non-snRNP proteins, which assemble onto the pre-mRNA and catalyzes the two invariant transesterification reactions (Will and Luhrmann, 2006). The flexibility in choice of splice sites allows for alternative splicing which has immensely contributed to eukaryotic genome evolution and in diversifying the metazoan proteome (Nilesen and Graveley, 2010). Dynamic yet ordered interactions between U2, U5 and U6 snRNAs and...

  13. Understanding Functions for Fission Yeast Pre-mRNA Splicing Factors SpPrp18 and SpSlu7 in Constitutive and Alternative Splicing

    Melangath, Geetha
    Exonic sequences of eukaryotic genes are interspersed with introns which when accurately removed from the primary transcript (pre-mRNA) results in a functional transcript. These splicing reactions are carried out by the spliceosome, consisting of U1, U2, U4, U5, U6 snRNAs and 150 non-snRNP proteins, which assemble onto the pre-mRNA and catalyzes the two invariant transesterification reactions (Will and Luhrmann, 2006). The flexibility in choice of splice sites allows for alternative splicing which has immensely contributed to eukaryotic genome evolution and in diversifying the metazoan proteome (Nilesen and Graveley, 2010). Dynamic yet ordered interactions between U2, U5 and U6 snRNAs and...

  14. Studies on Molecular Targets and Pathways Regulated by Rice RFL for Flowering Transition and Panicle Development

    Goel, Shipra
    LFY of Arabidopsis is a member of a unique plant specific transcription factor family. It is involved in giving meristem a determinate floral fate by the activation of floral organ identity genes and preventing inflorescence meristem identity. RFL is a homolog of FLO/LFY in rice. Studies from our lab on rice RFL, based on the effects of knockdown or overexpression, showed its major functions are in timing the conversion of SAM to IM and to prevent the premature conversion of branch meristem to spikelets. Additionally roles in vegetative axillary meristem specification have been also been identified in laboratory. Here, we...

  15. How Much Initiator tRNA Does Escherichia Coli Need?

    Samhita, Laasya
    The work discussed in this thesis deals with the significance of initiator tRNA gene copy number in Escherichia coli. A summary of the relevant literature discussing the process of protein synthesis, initiator tRNA selection and gene redundancy is presented in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 describes the ‘Materials and Methods’ used in the experimental work carried out in this thesis. The next three chapters address the significance of initiator tRNA gene copy number in E. coli at three levels; at the level of the molecule (Chapter 3), at the level of the cell (Chapter 4) and at the level of the population...

  16. How Much Initiator tRNA Does Escherichia Coli Need?

    Samhita, Laasya
    The work discussed in this thesis deals with the significance of initiator tRNA gene copy number in Escherichia coli. A summary of the relevant literature discussing the process of protein synthesis, initiator tRNA selection and gene redundancy is presented in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 describes the ‘Materials and Methods’ used in the experimental work carried out in this thesis. The next three chapters address the significance of initiator tRNA gene copy number in E. coli at three levels; at the level of the molecule (Chapter 3), at the level of the cell (Chapter 4) and at the level of the population...

  17. Regulation of Leaf Margin Development by TOOTH/MIR160A in Arabidopsis Thaliana

    Masna, Mahesh
    TOOTH/MIR160A regulates leaf margin outgrowth in Arabidopsis thaliana Unlike animals, a striking aspect of the plant development is that they have evolved a flexible pattern of post embryonic development. This exposes them to the challenges of many biotic and abiotic signals throughout their life. So, plants have to evolve/regulate various mechanisms to modulate their growth and development for accomplishing a successful life cycle in the prevailing environmental conditions. Auxin is involved in the initiation of lateral organs at the meristem and serration development along the leaf margin (Bilsborough et al., 2011, Hay et al., 2006). These two developmental mechanisms share...

  18. DNA Gyrase And Topo NM From Mycobacteria : Insights into Mechanism And Drug Action

    Kumar, Rupesh
    Maintenance of a topological homeostasis by introduction and removal of the supercoils to relieve excessive strain on the DNA is a hallmark of topoisomerase function in the cell. The requirement of the topoisomerases during DNA transaction processes marks a ubiquitous presence of the enzymes in all the life forms. Different reactions carried out by the enzymes include relaxation of positive and negative supercoils required majorly during DNA replication and transcription, decatenation at the end of DNA replication to separate the daughter chromosomes and removal of lethal knots generated in the circular chromosome. In eubacteria, the enzymes introduce negative supercoils to facilitate...

  19. DNA Gyrase And Topo NM From Mycobacteria : Insights into Mechanism And Drug Action

    Kumar, Rupesh
    Maintenance of a topological homeostasis by introduction and removal of the supercoils to relieve excessive strain on the DNA is a hallmark of topoisomerase function in the cell. The requirement of the topoisomerases during DNA transaction processes marks a ubiquitous presence of the enzymes in all the life forms. Different reactions carried out by the enzymes include relaxation of positive and negative supercoils required majorly during DNA replication and transcription, decatenation at the end of DNA replication to separate the daughter chromosomes and removal of lethal knots generated in the circular chromosome. In eubacteria, the enzymes introduce negative supercoils to facilitate...

  20. Study Of Rpb4, A Component Of RNA Polymerase II As A Coordinator Of Transcription Initiation And Elongation In S. Cerevisiae

    Deshpande, Swati
    RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of all mRNAs in eukaryotic cells. As the central component of the eukaryotic transcription machinery, Pol II is the final target of transcription regulatory pathways. While the role for different Pol II associated proteins, co-activators and general transcription factors (GTFs) in regulation of transcription in response to different stimuli is well studied, a similar role for some subunits of the core Pol II is only now being recognized. The studies reported in this thesis address the role of the fourth largest subunit of Pol II, Rpb4, in transcription...

Aviso de cookies: Usamos cookies propias y de terceros para mejorar nuestros servicios, para análisis estadístico y para mostrarle publicidad. Si continua navegando consideramos que acepta su uso en los términos establecidos en la Política de cookies.