ETD at Indian Institute of Science
Repository of Theses and Dissertations of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India. The repository has been developed to capture, disseminate and preserve research theses of Indian Institute of Science.
Microbiology and Cell Biology (mcbl)
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Host-Pathogen Interaction Between Staphylococcus Aureus And Murine Macrophages - Ananthalakshmi, T K
Chapter 1: Introductionn
Staphylococci are gram positive rotund bacteria that grow in clusters; and hence get their name. The genus of Staphylococcus comprises of over 30 species of which S. epidermidis and S.aureus are significant in their interaction with humans and are known to cause diseases. S.aureus invades various soft tissues and causes a vast multitude of diseases spanning from simple boils and abscesses to osteomyelitis and endocarditis, which can become fatal upon the onset of bacteremia and toxic shock. S. aureus has also been established as one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections especially because of their multi-drug resistant...
Delineation Of Signaling Events Regulating Mycobacterium Bovis BCG Induced Expression Of MMR-9 And SPI6 : Possible Implications For Immune Subversion Mechanisms - Kapoor, Nisha
One key to the pathogenic potential of the mycobacteria lies in their capacity to resist destruction by infected macrophages and dendritic cells. Robust host immune responses during mycobacterial infection often involve a potent CD4, CD8 and gamma delta T cell mediated effector responses including lysis of mycobacteria infected host cells, secretion of variety of cytokines like IFN-γ etc. However, pathogenic mycobacteria survives for prolonged periods in the phagasomes of infected macrophages within the host in an asymptomatic, latent state and can reactivate years later if the host’s immune system wanes. One of the most devastating consequences of infection with mycobactreia...
Influence Of FtsH Protease On The Medial FtsZ Ring In Escherichia Coli - Bhatt, Brijesh Narayan
FtsH is an essential AAA family Zn++ metalloprotease of Escherichia coli, possessing ATPase-dependent chaperon activity and ATP-dependent protease activity. Heat shock transcription factor Sigma32, LpxC, SecY, and bacteriophage protein CII are some of the substrates of FtsH. Although FtsH is known to influence several cellular processes, the role of FtsH in bacterial cell division had not been identified. FtsZ is the principal cell division protein that marks the cell division site at mid-cell by forming a ring structure. Using a pair of ftsH-null and isogenic wild type strain of E. coli, earlier studies in the laboratory had demonstrated that proteolytic...
Unravelling The Regulators Of Translation And Replication Of Hepatitis C Virus - Ray, Upasana
Unravelling the regulators of translation and replication of Hepatitis C virus
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive sense, single stranded RNA virus belonging to the genus Hepacivirus and the family Flaviviridae. It infects human liver cells predominantly. Although, the treatment with α interferon and ribavirin can control HCV in some cases, they fail to achieve sustained virological response in others, thus emphasizing the need of novel therapeutic targets.
The viral genome is 9.6 kb long consisting of a 5’ untranslated region (5’UTR), a long open reading frame (ORF) that encodes the viral proteins and the 3’ untranslated region (3’UTR)....
Functions For OsMADS2 And OsMADS1 As Master Regulators Of Gene Expression During Rice Floret Meristem Specification And Organ Development - Yadav, Shri Ram
Plant reproductive development begins when vegetative shoot apical meristems change their fate to inflorescence meristems which develop floral meristems on the flanks. This process of meristem fate change and organ development involves regulated activation and/or repression of many cell fate determining factors that execute down-stream gene expression cascades. Flowers are formed when floral organs are specified on the floral meristem in four concentric whorls. In the model dicot plant Arabidopsis, the identity and pattern of floral organs is determined by combined actions of MADS-domain containing transcription factors of the classes A, B, C, D and E. Rice florets are produced...
Human Immune Response To Japanese Encephalitis Virus Guides Development Of Vaccines With Long Lasting Immunity - Venkatramana, D K
Chapter 1: Role of JEV NS1 in protective immunity and in immunopathology. Previous studies from our laboratory revealed T cell immunodominance of non structural proteins NS3 and NS1 during natural JEV infections in humans where as the structural protein E, which is a good target for neutralizing antibody response is a poor inducer of T cells. Flavivirus NS1 is also known to induce humoral immune response. Several studies in different flaviviruses have indicated a role for NS1-specific immune responses in protection against flaviviruses. Paradoxically, studies also pointed to the contribution of NS1 in pathology and immune modulation. We screened serum...
Studies On The Structural And Biological Properties Of Rotavirus Enterotoxigenic Non-structural Protein 4 (NSP4) - Palla, Narayan Sastri
Rotavirus is the major cause of infantile gastroenteritis. Each year more than 600,000 young children are estimated to die in developing countries throughout the world. Rotavirus infection can be either symptomatic or asymptomatic. But the genetic or molecular basis for rotavirus virulence is not yet clearly understood. NSP4, encoded by genome segment 10, is a multifunctional protein. It is identified as the first viral enterotoxin and is essential for virus morphogenesis and pathogenesis. Analysis of NSP4 from more than 175 strains failed to reveal any sequence motif or amino acid that segregated with the virulence phenotype of the virus. Further,...
Evolutionary Design Of Active Site Plasticity In R.KpnI For Promiscuity In Metal Ion Utilization And Substrate Recognition - Kommireddy, Vasu
Restriction modification (R-M) systems are important components of the prokaryotic arsenal against invading genomes. R-M systems directly target the foreign DNA and are often considered as primitive immune systems in bacteria. The defense system comprises of two contrasting enzymatic activities – a restriction endonuclease (REase) and a methyltransferase (MTase). Functionally, REases cleave a specific DNA sequence endonucleolytically at the phosphodiester bonds generating 5' or 3' overhangs or blunt ends. MTases catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-Lmethionine to adenine or cytosine. Four types of R–M systems are found in bacteria, viz., Types I, II, III and IV. Type...
A Study On The Mechanism Of Initiator tRNA Selection On The Ribosomes During Translation Initiation And Rescue Of The Stalled Ribosomes By SsrA In Escherichia Coli - Kapoor, Suman
The studies reported in this thesis describe the work done in the area of translation initiation where a previously unknown role of multiple copies of initiator tRNA in E. coli has been reported. Also the role of SsrA resume codon in resumption of translation, until not clearly known has been reported here. Chapter -1 discusses the relevant literature in understanding translation and initiator tRNA selection on the ribosome during initiation. It also discusses the literature pertaining to the aspect of release of stalled ribosomal complexes by SsrA. This is followed by the next chapter (chapter- 2) which discusses the materials...
Mechanism Of Activation Of Bacteriophage Mu Late Genes By Transcription Activator Protein C - Swapna, Ganduri
Initiation of transcription is a major step in the regulation of gene expression. A dominant theme in regulation of gene expression lies in understanding the mechanism involved in selective expression of the genes in response to external or internal stimuli. Gene regulatory proteins bind DNA at specific sites either cognate to the promoters they act upon or at a distance, thereby exerting their effect by turning on (activation) or turning off (repression) the genes. Response of these factors to the environmental signals is further achieved by the DNA binding affinity of the transcription factors that can be modulated by small...