Recursos de colección

DSpace at MIT (104.280 recursos)

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AI Memos (1959 - 2004)

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 1.217

  1. The Measurement of Visual Motion

    Hildreth, Ellen C.; Ullman, Shimon
    The analysis of visual motion divides naturally into two stages: the first is the measurement of motion, for example, the assignment of direction and magnitude of velocity to elements in the image, on the basis of the changing intensity pattern; the second is the use of motion measurements, for example, to separate the scene into distinct objects, and infer their three-dimensional structure. In this paper, we present a computational study of the measurement of motion. Similar to other visual processes, the motion of elements is not determined uniquely by information in the changing image; additional constraint is required to compute...

  2. Complexity of Human Language Comprehension

    Ristad, Eric Sven
    The goal of this article is to reveal the computational structure of modern principle-and-parameter (Chomskian) linguistic theories: what computational problems do these informal theories pose, and what is the underlying structure of those computations? To do this, I analyze the computational complexity of human language comprehension: what linguistic representation is assigned to a given sound? This problem is factored into smaller, interrelated (but independently statable) problems. For example, in order to understand a given sound, the listener must assign a phonetic form to the sound; determine the morphemes that compose the words in the sound; and calculate the linguistic antecedent...

  3. The Perception of Subjective Surfaces

    Brady, Michael; Grimson, W. Eric L.
    It is proposed that subjective contours are an artifact of the perception of natural three-dimensional surfaces. A recent theory of surface interpolation implies that "subjective surfaces" are constructed in the visual system by interpolation between three-dimensional values arising from interpretation of a variety of surface cues. We show that subjective surfaces can take any form, including singly and doubly curved surfaces, as well as the commonly discussed fronto-parallel planes. In addition, it is necessary in the context of computational vision to make explicit the discontinuities, both in depth and in surface orientation, in the surfaces constructed by interpolation. It is...

  4. Electrical Design: A Problem for Artificial Intelligence Research

    Sussman, Gerald Jay
    This report outlines the problem of intelligent failure recovery in a problem-solver for electrical design. We want our problem solver to learn as much as it can from its mistakes. Thus we cast the engineering design process on terms of Problem Solving by Debugging Almost-Right Plans, a paradigm for automatic problem solving based on the belief that creation and removal of "bugs" is an unavoidable part of the process of solving a complex problem. The process of localization and removal of bugs called for by the PSBDARP theory requires an approach to engineering analysis in which every result has a...

  5. 11SIM Reference Manual

    Eastlake, Donald
    A program that simulates a Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-11 computer and many of its peripherals on the AI Laboratory Time Sharing System (ITS) is described from a user's reference point of view. This simulator has a built in DDT-like command level which provides the user with the normal range of DDT facilities but also with several special debugging features built into the simulator. The DDT command language was implemented by Richard M. Stallman while the simulator was written by the author of this memo.

  6. Uncertainty Propagation in Model-Based Recognition

    Jacobs, D.W.; Alter, T.D.
    Building robust recognition systems requires a careful understanding of the effects of error in sensed features. Error in these image features results in a region of uncertainty in the possible image location of each additional model feature. We present an accurate, analytic approximation for this uncertainty region when model poses are based on matching three image and model points, for both Gaussian and bounded error in the detection of image points, and for both scaled-orthographic and perspective projection models. This result applies to objects that are fully three- dimensional, where past results considered only two-dimensional objects. Further, we introduce a...

  7. Exploiting the Parallelism Exposed by Partial Evaluation

    Surati, Rajeev
    We describe the key role played by partial evaluation in the Supercomputing Toolkit, a parallel computing system for scientific applications that effectively exploits the vast amount of parallelism exposed by partial evaluation. The Supercomputing Toolkit parallel processor and its associated partial evaluation-based compiler have been used extensively by scientists at MIT, and have made possible recent results in astrophysics showing that the motion of the planets in our solar system is chaotically unstable.

  8. Causes and Effects of Chaos

    Bradley, Elizabeth
    Most of the recent literature on chaos and nonlinear dynamics is written either for popular science magazine readers or for advanced mathematicians. This paper gives a broad introduction to this interesting and rapidly growing field at a level that is between the two. The graphical and analytical tools used in the literature are explained and demonstrated, the rudiments of the current theory are outlined and that theory is discussed in the context of several examples: an electronic circuit, a chemical reaction and a system of satellites in the solar system.

  9. Convergence Rates of Approximation by Translates

    Girosi, Federico; Anzellotti, Gabriele
    In this paper we consider the problem of approximating a function belonging to some funtion space Φ by a linear comination of n translates of a given function G. Ussing a lemma by Jones (1990) and Barron (1991) we show that it is possible to define function spaces and functions G for which the rate of convergence to zero of the erro is 0(1/n) in any number of dimensions. The apparent avoidance of the "curse of dimensionality" is due to the fact that these function spaces are more and more constrained as the dimension increases. Examples include spaces of the...

  10. Object Detection in Images by Components

    Mohan, Anuj
    In this paper we present a component based person detection system that is capable of detecting frontal, rear and near side views of people, and partially occluded persons in cluttered scenes. The framework that is described here for people is easily applied to other objects as well. The motivation for developing a component based approach is two fold: first, to enhance the performance of person detection systems on frontal and rear views of people and second, to develop a framework that directly addresses the problem of detecting people who are partially occluded or whose body parts blend in with the...

  11. A Note on Support Vector Machines Degeneracy

    Rifkin, Ryan; Pontil, Massimiliano; Verri, Alessandro
    When training Support Vector Machines (SVMs) over non-separable data sets, one sets the threshold $b$ using any dual cost coefficient that is strictly between the bounds of $0$ and $C$. We show that there exist SVM training problems with dual optimal solutions with all coefficients at bounds, but that all such problems are degenerate in the sense that the "optimal separating hyperplane" is given by ${f w} = {f 0}$, and the resulting (degenerate) SVM will classify all future points identically (to the class that supplies more training data). We also derive necessary and sufficient conditions on the input data...

  12. Support Vector Machines: Training and Applications

    Osuna, Edgar; Freund, Robert; Girosi, Federico
    The Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a new and very promising classification technique developed by Vapnik and his group at AT&T Bell Labs. This new learning algorithm can be seen as an alternative training technique for Polynomial, Radial Basis Function and Multi-Layer Perceptron classifiers. An interesting property of this approach is that it is an approximate implementation of the Structural Risk Minimization (SRM) induction principle. The derivation of Support Vector Machines, its relationship with SRM, and its geometrical insight, are discussed in this paper. Training a SVM is equivalent to solve a quadratic programming problem with linear and box constraints...

  13. An Equivalence Between Sparse Approximation and Support Vector Machines

    Girosi, Federico
    In the first part of this paper we show a similarity between the principle of Structural Risk Minimization Principle (SRM) (Vapnik, 1982) and the idea of Sparse Approximation, as defined in (Chen, Donoho and Saunders, 1995) and Olshausen and Field (1996). Then we focus on two specific (approximate) implementations of SRM and Sparse Approximation, which have been used to solve the problem of function approximation. For SRM we consider the Support Vector Machine technique proposed by V. Vapnik and his team at AT&T Bell Labs, and for Sparse Approximation we consider a modification of the Basis Pursuit De-Noising algorithm proposed...

  14. A Nonparametric Approach to Pricing and Hedging Derivative Securities via Learning Networks

    Hutchinson, James M.; Lo, Andrew; Poggio, Tomaso
    We propose a nonparametric method for estimating derivative financial asset pricing formulae using learning networks. To demonstrate feasibility, we first simulate Black-Scholes option prices and show that learning networks can recover the Black-Scholes formula from a two-year training set of daily options prices, and that the resulting network formula can be used successfully to both price and delta-hedge options out-of-sample. For comparison, we estimate models using four popular methods: ordinary least squares, radial basis functions, multilayer perceptrons, and projection pursuit. To illustrate practical relevance, we also apply our approach to S&P 500 futures options data from 1987 to 1991.

  15. New Architectural Models for Visibly Controllable Computing: The Relevance of Dynamic Object Oriented Architectures and Plan Based Computing Models

    Shrobe, Howard; Laddaga, Robert
    Traditionally, we've focussed on the question of how to make a system easy to code the first time, or perhaps on how to ease the system's continued evolution. But if we look at life cycle costs, then we must conclude that the important question is how to make a system easy to operate. To do this we need to make it easy for the operators to see what's going on and to then manipulate the system so that it does what it is supposed to. This is a radically different criterion for success. What makes a computer system visible and...

  16. Rotation Invariant Object Recognition from One Training Example

    Yokono, Jerry Jun; Poggio, Tomaso
    Local descriptors are increasingly used for the task of object recognition because of their perceived robustness with respect to occlusions and to global geometrical deformations. Such a descriptor--based on a set of oriented Gaussian derivative filters-- is used in our recognition system. We report here an evaluation of several techniques for orientation estimation to achieve rotation invariance of the descriptor. We also describe feature selection based on a single training image. Virtual images are generated by rotating and rescaling the image and robust features are selected. The results confirm robust performance in cluttered scenes, in the presence of partial occlusions,...

  17. Evaluation of sets of oriented and non-oriented receptive fields as local descriptors

    Yokono, Jerry Jun; Poggio, Tomaso
    Local descriptors are increasingly used for the task of object recognition because of their perceived robustness with respect to occlusions and to global geometrical deformations. We propose a performance criterion for a local descriptor based on the tradeoff between selectivity and invariance. In this paper, we evaluate several local descriptors with respect to selectivity and invariance. The descriptors that we evaluated are Gaussian derivatives up to the third order, gray image patches, and Laplacian-based descriptors with either three scales or one scale filters. We compare selectivity and invariance to several affine changes such as rotation, scale, brightness, and viewpoint. Comparisons...

  18. Face processing in humans is compatible with a simple shape-based model of vision

    Riesenhuber; Jarudi; Gilad; Sinha
    Understanding how the human visual system recognizes objects is one of the key challenges in neuroscience. Inspired by a large body of physiological evidence (Felleman and Van Essen, 1991; Hubel and Wiesel, 1962; Livingstone and Hubel, 1988; Tso et al., 2001; Zeki, 1993), a general class of recognition models has emerged which is based on a hierarchical organization of visual processing, with succeeding stages being sensitive to image features of increasing complexity (Hummel and Biederman, 1992; Riesenhuber and Poggio, 1999; Selfridge, 1959). However, these models appear to be incompatible with some well-known psychophysical results. Prominent among these are experiments investigating...

  19. Selecting Relevant Genes with a Spectral Approach

    Wolf, Lior; Amnon Shashua,; Mukherjee, Sayan
    Array technologies have made it possible to record simultaneously the expression pattern of thousands of genes. A fundamental problem in the analysis of gene expression data is the identification of highly relevant genes that either discriminate between phenotypic labels or are important with respect to the cellular process studied in the experiment: for example cell cycle or heat shock in yeast experiments, chemical or genetic perturbations of mammalian cell lines, and genes involved in class discovery for human tumors. In this paper we focus on the task of unsupervised gene selection. The problem of selecting a small subset of genes...

  20. Risk Bounds for Mixture Density Estimation

    Rakhlin, Alexander; Panchenko, Dmitry; Mukherjee, Sayan
    In this paper we focus on the problem of estimating a bounded density using a finite combination of densities from a given class. We consider the Maximum Likelihood Procedure (MLE) and the greedy procedure described by Li and Barron. Approximation and estimation bounds are given for the above methods. We extend and improve upon the estimation results of Li and Barron, and in particular prove an $O(\\frac{1}{\\sqrt{n}})$ bound on the estimation error which does not depend on the number of densities in the estimated combination.

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