Recursos de colección

DSpace at MIT (104.280 recursos)

This site is a university repository providing access to the publication output of the institution. Registered users can set up email alerts to notify them of newly added relevant content. A certain level of encryption and security is embedded in the site which may cause some users accessibility problems.

CBCL Memos (1993 - 2004)

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 123

  1. Object Detection in Images by Components

    Mohan, Anuj
    In this paper we present a component based person detection system that is capable of detecting frontal, rear and near side views of people, and partially occluded persons in cluttered scenes. The framework that is described here for people is easily applied to other objects as well. The motivation for developing a component based approach is two fold: first, to enhance the performance of person detection systems on frontal and rear views of people and second, to develop a framework that directly addresses the problem of detecting people who are partially occluded or whose body parts blend in with the...

  2. A Note on Support Vector Machines Degeneracy

    Rifkin, Ryan; Pontil, Massimiliano; Verri, Alessandro
    When training Support Vector Machines (SVMs) over non-separable data sets, one sets the threshold $b$ using any dual cost coefficient that is strictly between the bounds of $0$ and $C$. We show that there exist SVM training problems with dual optimal solutions with all coefficients at bounds, but that all such problems are degenerate in the sense that the "optimal separating hyperplane" is given by ${f w} = {f 0}$, and the resulting (degenerate) SVM will classify all future points identically (to the class that supplies more training data). We also derive necessary and sufficient conditions on the input data...

  3. Support Vector Machines: Training and Applications

    Osuna, Edgar; Freund, Robert; Girosi, Federico
    The Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a new and very promising classification technique developed by Vapnik and his group at AT&T Bell Labs. This new learning algorithm can be seen as an alternative training technique for Polynomial, Radial Basis Function and Multi-Layer Perceptron classifiers. An interesting property of this approach is that it is an approximate implementation of the Structural Risk Minimization (SRM) induction principle. The derivation of Support Vector Machines, its relationship with SRM, and its geometrical insight, are discussed in this paper. Training a SVM is equivalent to solve a quadratic programming problem with linear and box constraints...

  4. An Equivalence Between Sparse Approximation and Support Vector Machines

    Girosi, Federico
    In the first part of this paper we show a similarity between the principle of Structural Risk Minimization Principle (SRM) (Vapnik, 1982) and the idea of Sparse Approximation, as defined in (Chen, Donoho and Saunders, 1995) and Olshausen and Field (1996). Then we focus on two specific (approximate) implementations of SRM and Sparse Approximation, which have been used to solve the problem of function approximation. For SRM we consider the Support Vector Machine technique proposed by V. Vapnik and his team at AT&T Bell Labs, and for Sparse Approximation we consider a modification of the Basis Pursuit De-Noising algorithm proposed...

  5. Rotation Invariant Object Recognition from One Training Example

    Yokono, Jerry Jun; Poggio, Tomaso
    Local descriptors are increasingly used for the task of object recognition because of their perceived robustness with respect to occlusions and to global geometrical deformations. Such a descriptor--based on a set of oriented Gaussian derivative filters-- is used in our recognition system. We report here an evaluation of several techniques for orientation estimation to achieve rotation invariance of the descriptor. We also describe feature selection based on a single training image. Virtual images are generated by rotating and rescaling the image and robust features are selected. The results confirm robust performance in cluttered scenes, in the presence of partial occlusions,...

  6. Evaluation of sets of oriented and non-oriented receptive fields as local descriptors

    Yokono, Jerry Jun; Poggio, Tomaso
    Local descriptors are increasingly used for the task of object recognition because of their perceived robustness with respect to occlusions and to global geometrical deformations. We propose a performance criterion for a local descriptor based on the tradeoff between selectivity and invariance. In this paper, we evaluate several local descriptors with respect to selectivity and invariance. The descriptors that we evaluated are Gaussian derivatives up to the third order, gray image patches, and Laplacian-based descriptors with either three scales or one scale filters. We compare selectivity and invariance to several affine changes such as rotation, scale, brightness, and viewpoint. Comparisons...

  7. Face processing in humans is compatible with a simple shape-based model of vision

    Riesenhuber; Jarudi; Gilad; Sinha
    Understanding how the human visual system recognizes objects is one of the key challenges in neuroscience. Inspired by a large body of physiological evidence (Felleman and Van Essen, 1991; Hubel and Wiesel, 1962; Livingstone and Hubel, 1988; Tso et al., 2001; Zeki, 1993), a general class of recognition models has emerged which is based on a hierarchical organization of visual processing, with succeeding stages being sensitive to image features of increasing complexity (Hummel and Biederman, 1992; Riesenhuber and Poggio, 1999; Selfridge, 1959). However, these models appear to be incompatible with some well-known psychophysical results. Prominent among these are experiments investigating...

  8. Selecting Relevant Genes with a Spectral Approach

    Wolf, Lior; Amnon Shashua,; Mukherjee, Sayan
    Array technologies have made it possible to record simultaneously the expression pattern of thousands of genes. A fundamental problem in the analysis of gene expression data is the identification of highly relevant genes that either discriminate between phenotypic labels or are important with respect to the cellular process studied in the experiment: for example cell cycle or heat shock in yeast experiments, chemical or genetic perturbations of mammalian cell lines, and genes involved in class discovery for human tumors. In this paper we focus on the task of unsupervised gene selection. The problem of selecting a small subset of genes...

  9. Risk Bounds for Mixture Density Estimation

    Rakhlin, Alexander; Panchenko, Dmitry; Mukherjee, Sayan
    In this paper we focus on the problem of estimating a bounded density using a finite combination of densities from a given class. We consider the Maximum Likelihood Procedure (MLE) and the greedy procedure described by Li and Barron. Approximation and estimation bounds are given for the above methods. We extend and improve upon the estimation results of Li and Barron, and in particular prove an $O(\\frac{1}{\\sqrt{n}})$ bound on the estimation error which does not depend on the number of densities in the estimated combination.

  10. On the difficulty of feature-based attentional modulations in visual object recognition: A modeling study.

    Schneider, Robert; Riesenhuber, Maximilian
    Numerous psychophysical experiments have shown an important role for attentional modulations in vision. Behaviorally, allocation of attention can improve performance in object detection and recognition tasks. At the neural level, attention increases firing rates of neurons in visual cortex whose preferred stimulus is currently attended to. However, it is not yet known how these two phenomena are linked, i.e., how the visual system could be "tuned" in a task-dependent fashion to improve task performance. To answer this question, we performed simulations with the HMAX model of object recognition in cortex [45]. We modulated firing rates of model neurons in accordance...

  11. Component based recognition of objects in an office environment

    Morgenstern, Christian; Heisele, Bernd
    We present a component-based approach for recognizing objects under large pose changes. From a set of training images of a given object we extract a large number of components which are clustered based on the similarity of their image features and their locations within the object image. The cluster centers build an initial set of component templates from which we select a subset for the final recognizer. In experiments we evaluate different sizes and types of components and three standard techniques for component selection. The component classifiers are finally compared to global classifiers on a database of four objects.

  12. Investigating shape representation in area V4 with HMAX: Orientation and Grating selectivities

    Kouh, Minjoon; Riesenhuber, Maximilian
    The question of how shape is represented is of central interest to understanding visual processing in cortex. While tuning properties of the cells in early part of the ventral visual stream, thought to be responsible for object recognition in the primate, are comparatively well understood, several different theories have been proposed regarding tuning in higher visual areas, such as V4. We used the model of object recognition in cortex presented by Riesenhuber and Poggio (1999), where more complex shape tuning in higher layers is the result of combining afferent inputs tuned to simpler features, and compared the tuning properties of...

  13. Direction Estimation of Pedestrian from Images

    Shimizu, Hiroaki; Poggio, Tomaso
    The capability of estimating the walking direction of people would be useful in many applications such as those involving autonomous cars and robots. We introduce an approach for estimating the walking direction of people from images, based on learning the correct classification of a still image by using SVMs. We find that the performance of the system can be improved by classifying each image of a walking sequence and combining the outputs of the classifier. Experiments were performed to evaluate our system and estimate the trade-off between number of images in walking sequences and performance.

  14. Dissociated Dipoles: Image representation via non-local comparisons

    Balas, Benjamin J.; Sinha, Pawan
    A fundamental question in visual neuroscience is how to represent image structure. The most common representational schemes rely on differential operators that compare adjacent image regions. While well-suited to encoding local relationships, such operators have significant drawbacks. Specifically, each filter's span is confounded with the size of its sub-fields, making it difficult to compare small regions across large distances. We find that such long-distance comparisons are more tolerant to common image transformations than purely local ones, suggesting they may provide a useful vocabulary for image encoding. . We introduce the "Dissociated Dipole," or "Sticks" operator, for encoding non-local image relationships....

  15. Perceptual Evaluation of Video-Realistic Speech

    Geiger, Gadi; Ezzat, Tony; Poggio, Tomaso
    abstract With many visual speech animation techniques now available, there is a clear need for systematic perceptual evaluation schemes. We describe here our scheme and its application to a new video-realistic (potentially indistinguishable from real recorded video) visual-speech animation system, called Mary 101. Two types of experiments were performed: a) distinguishing visually between real and synthetic image- sequences of the same utterances, ("Turing tests") and b) gauging visual speech recognition by comparing lip-reading performance of the real and synthetic image-sequences of the same utterances ("Intelligibility tests"). Subjects that were presented randomly with either real or synthetic image-sequences could not tell...

  16. Relative Contributions of Internal and External Features to Face Recognition

    Jarudi, Izzat N.; Sinha, Pawan
    The central challenge in face recognition lies in understanding the role different facial features play in our judgments of identity. Notable in this regard are the relative contributions of the internal (eyes, nose and mouth) and external (hair and jaw-line) features. Past studies that have investigated this issue have typically used high-resolution images or good-quality line drawings as facial stimuli. The results obtained are therefore most relevant for understanding the identification of faces at close range. However, given that real-world viewing conditions are rarely optimal, it is also important to know how image degradations, such as loss of resolution caused...

  17. Exact Solution of the Nonlinear Dynamics of Recurrent Neural Mechanisms for Direction Selectivity

    Giese, M.A.; Xie, X.
    Different theoretical models have tried to investigate the feasibility of recurrent neural mechanisms for achieving direction selectivity in the visual cortex. The mathematical analysis of such models has been restricted so far to the case of purely linear networks. We present an exact analytical solution of the nonlinear dynamics of a class of direction selective recurrent neural models with threshold nonlinearity. Our mathematical analysis shows that such networks have form-stable stimulus-locked traveling pulse solutions that are appropriate for modeling the responses of direction selective cortical neurons. Our analysis shows also that the stability of such solutions can break down giving...

  18. Biologically Plausible Neural Model for the Recognition of Biological Motion and Actions

    Giese, Martin Alexander; Poggio, Tomaso
    The visual recognition of complex movements and actions is crucial for communication and survival in many species. Remarkable sensitivity and robustness of biological motion perception have been demonstrated in psychophysical experiments. In recent years, neurons and cortical areas involved in action recognition have been identified in neurophysiological and imaging studies. However, the detailed neural mechanisms that underlie the recognition of such complex movement patterns remain largely unknown. This paper reviews the experimental results and summarizes them in terms of a biologically plausible neural model. The model is based on the key assumption that action recognition is based on learned prototypical...

  19. Modeling Stock Order Flows and Learning Market-Making from Data

    Kim, Adlar J.; Shelton, Christian R.
    Stock markets employ specialized traders, market-makers, designed to provide liquidity and volume to the market by constantly supplying both supply and demand. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel method for modeling the market as a dynamic system and a reinforcement learning algorithm that learns profitable market-making strategies when run on this model. The sequence of buys and sells for a particular stock, the order flow, we model as an Input-Output Hidden Markov Model fit to historical data. When combined with the dynamics of the order book, this creates a highly non-linear and difficult dynamic system. Our reinforcement learning algorithm,...

  20. Categorization in IT and PFC: Model and Experiments

    Knoblich, Ulf; Freedman, David J.; Riesenhuber, Maximilian
    In a recent experiment, Freedman et al. recorded from inferotemporal (IT) and prefrontal cortices (PFC) of monkeys performing a "cat/dog" categorization task (Freedman 2001 and Freedman, Riesenhuber, Poggio, Miller 2001). In this paper we analyze the tuning properties of view-tuned units in our HMAX model of object recognition in cortex (Riesenhuber 1999) using the same paradigm and stimuli as in the experiment. We then compare the simulation results to the monkey inferotemporal neuron population data. We find that view-tuned model IT units that were trained without any explicit category information can show category-related tuning as observed in the experiment. This...

Aviso de cookies: Usamos cookies propias y de terceros para mejorar nuestros servicios, para análisis estadístico y para mostrarle publicidad. Si continua navegando consideramos que acepta su uso en los términos establecidos en la Política de cookies.