Compression, Significance and Accuracy
- Stephen Muggleton; Ashwin Srinivasan; Michael Bain
Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) involves learning relational concepts from examples and background knowledge. To date all ILP learning systems make use of tests inherited from propositional and decision tree learning for evaluating the significance of hypotheses. None of these significance tests take account of the relevance or utility of the background knowledge. In this paper we describe a method, called HP-compression, of evaluating the significance of a hypothesis based on the degree to which it allows compression of the observed data with respect to the background knowledge. This can be measured by comparing the lengths of the input and output...
Applications of a Logic of Knowledge to Motion Planning under Uncertainty
- Ronen I. Brafman; Jean-claude Latombe; Yoram Moses; Yoav Shoham
Inspired by the success of the distributed computing community in applying logics of knowledge and time to reasoning about distributed protocols, we aim for a similarly powerful and high-level abstraction when reasoning about control problems involving uncertainty. This paper concentrates on robot motion planning with uncertainty in both control and sensing, a problem that has already been well studied within the robotics community. First, a new and natural problem in this domain is defined: Does there exists a sound and complete termination condition for a motion, given initial and goal locations? If yes, how to construct it? Then we define...
On Dual-Rail Control Logic for
- Mokhov A; Khomenko V; Sokolov D; Yakovlev A. On; Dual-rail Control; Logic Enhanced Circuit
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NBTI Induced Performance Degradation in Logic and Memory Circuits: How Effectively Can We Approach a Reliability Solution?
Abstract – This paper evaluates the severity of negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) degradation in two major circuit applications: random logic and memory array. For improved lifetime stability, we propose/select an efficient relia-bility-aware circuit design methodologies. Simulation results obtained from 65nm PTM node shows that NBTI induced degradation in random logic is considerably lower than that of a single transistor. As a result, simple delay guard-banding can efficiently mitigate the impact of NBTI in random logic. On the other hand, NBTI degradation in memory shows much severe effect especially when combined with the impact of random process variation, NBTI can...
Design of fault-tolerant computers
- Algirdas Avizienis
Causes and symptoms of logic faults in digital systems. Reliable performance of hardware has been a require-ment for digital systems since the construction of the first digital computer. Improper functioning of the logic circuits in a digital system is manifested by logic faults, which are defined for this paper as "permanent or transient deviations of logic variables from the values specified in design." Permanent faults are caused by physical changes in the components of a logic circuit which permanently alter the logic function specified by the designer. The most common permanent faults are the determinate faults of "stuck on zero...
A Logic Framework for a Semantics of Object Oriented Data Modelling
- O. Detroyer; R. Meersman
We describe a (meta) formalism for defining a variety of (object oriented) data models in a unified framework based on a variation of first-order logic. As specific example we use an extended OO model, NORM, involving entities, lexical types, constraints and message passing. We illustrate how essential properties of object orientation such as information hiding, encapsulation, inheritance and behavior may be generically described, as well as the fundamental distinction with object-oriented programming, namely persistence. A formal semantics for these concepts can so be given independently of the chosen data model. The logical meta-modelling framework, called Data Modelling Logic or DM...
1 Business Process Improvement in a Governmental Shared Service Centre: A New Approach to BPR
- Ömer Faruk Aydinli; Pascal Ravesteijn
This paper describes a business process improvement project in a governmental Shared Service Centre (SSC). During the past decade many public and private organizations have set up a SSC. Typically this is done by concentrating the IT, Procurement, Staff Management and Financial Economic Businesses (FEB) departments in a separate organizational entity. Even if management understands the benefits of a SSC and supports the implementation the execution is crucial. If the organizational structure and business processes are poorly designed during the implementation process then the resulting service to the customers of the SSC will be very problematic. In this case management...
Deductive Temporal Reasoning with Constraints
- Clare Dixon; Boris Konev; Michael Fisher; Sherly Nietiadi
When modelling realistic systems, physical constraints on the resources available are often required. For example, we might say that at most N processes can access a particular resource at any moment, exactly M participants are needed for an agreement, or an agent can be in exactly one mode at any moment. Such situations are concisely modelled where literals are constrained such that at most N, or exactly M, can hold at any moment in time. In this paper we consider a logic which is a combination of standard propositional linear time temporal logic with cardinality constraints restricting the numbers of...
Improving Reconfigurable Systems Reliability by Combining Periodical Test and Redundancy Techniques: A Case Study
- Eduardo Augusto Bezerra; Fabian Vargas; Michael Paul Gough
Abstract. This paper revises and introduces to the field of reconfigurable computer systems, some traditional techniques used in the fields of fault-tolerance and testing of digital circuits. The target area is that of on-board spacecraft electronics, as this class of application is a good candidate for the use of reconfigurable computing technology. Fault tolerant strategies are used in order for the system to adapt itself to the severe conditions found in space. In addition, the paper describes some problems and possible solutions for the use of reconfigurable components, based on programmable logic, in space applications.
On Connections and Higher-Order Logic
- P. B. (peter; Bruce Andrews; Peter B. Andrews; Peter B. Andrews
This is an expository introduction to an approach to theorem proving in higher-order logic based on establishing appropriate connections between subformulas of an expanded form of the theorem to be proved. Expansion trees and expansion proofs play key roles.
- Dr. Jeremy Tanner; Turnitin Password Ioa
This course aims introduces students to a range of theoretical approaches to art conceived as a behavioral, social and cultural phenomenon. Particular attention will be paid to questions of conceptualization, theoretical logic and to the methodologies of art interpretation within a broadly comparative framework.
Software for Quantifier Elimination in Propositional Logic
- Eugene Goldberg; Panagiotis Manolios
Abstract. We consider the following problem of Quantifier Elimination (QE). Given a Boolean CNF formula F where some variables are existen-tially quantified, find a logically equivalent CNF formula that is free of quantifiers. Solving this problem comes down to finding a set of clauses depending only on free variables that has the following property: adding the clauses of this set to F makes all the clauses of F with quantified variables redundant. To solve the QE problem we developed a tool meant for handling a more general problem called partial QE. This tool builds a set of clauses adding which...
A rewriting logic approach to static checking of units of measurement in C
- Mark Hills; Feng Chen
Many C programs assume the use of implicit domain-specific information. A common example is units of measurement, where values can have both a standard C type and an associated unit. However, since there is no way in the C language to represent this additional information, violations of domain-specific policies, such as unit safety violations, can be difficult to detect. In this paper we present a static analysis, based on the use of an abstract C semantics defined using rewriting logic, for the detection of unit violations in C programs. In contrast to typed approaches, the analysis makes use of annotations...
- R. Jansana; D. Pigozzi
Modeling Learner Engagement in MOOCs using Probabilistic Soft Logic
- Arti Ramesh; Dan Goldwasser; Bert Huang; Hal Daume ́ Iii; Lise Getoor
Massive open online courses (MOOCs) attract a large number of student registra-tions, but recent studies have shown that only a small fraction of these students complete their courses. Student dropouts are thus a major deterrent for the growth and success of MOOCs. We believe that understanding student engagement as a course progresses is essential for minimizing dropout rates. Formally defining student engagement in an online setting is challenging. In this paper, we leverage activity (such as posting in discussion forums, timely submission of assignments, etc.), linguistic features from forum content and structural features from forum interaction to identify two different...
Using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps as a Decision Support System for Political Decisions
- Athanasios K. Tsadiras; Ilias Kouskouvelis; Konstantinos G. Margaritis
Abstract. In this paper we use Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs), a well-established Artificial Intelligence technique that incorporates ideas from Artificial Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic, to create a dynamic model of the Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) Crisis in March 2001. FCMs create models as collections of concepts and the various causal relations that exist between these concepts. The decision capabilities of the FCM structure are examined and presented using a model that is developed based on the beliefs of a domain expert. The model is first examined statically using graph theory techniques to identify the vicious or the...
The triode, composed of a diode and a grid in a vacuum tube, was the first three-terminal active device that had been used to amplify and to switch electric signals, which led the technical innovations for modern electronics in the early 20th century (1). Solid-state transistors and inte-grated circuits (ICs) based on silicon were more practical for complicat-ed logic circuits and thus replaced triodes. Although silicon transistors have continued to improve their speed and integration density, they now near the potential limit where further reduction of channel length causes inevitable leakage currents (2). In order to present an alternative route...
1 Source code profiling and classification for automated detection of logical errors
- George Stergiopoulos; Panagiotis Katsaros; Dimitris Gritzalis
Research and industrial experience reveal that code reviews as a part of software inspection might be the most cost-effective tech-nique a team can use to reduce defects. Tools that automate code inspection mostly focus on the detection of a priori known defect patterns and security vulnerabilities. Automated detection of logi-cal errors, due to a faulty implementation of applications ’ functio-nality is a relatively uncharted territory. Automation can be based on profiling the intended behavior behind the source code. In this paper, we present a code profiling method based on token classifi-cation. Our method combines an information flow analysis, the crosschecking...
1 N-norm and N-conorm in Neutrosophic Logic and Set, and the Neutrosophic Topologies
- Florentin Smarandache
In this paper we present the N-norms/N-conorms in neutrosophic logic and set as extensions of T-norms/T-conorms in fuzzy logic and set. Also, as an extension of the Intuitionistic Fuzzy Topology we present the Neutrosophic Topologies.
Inductive logic and empirical psychology
- Nick Chater; Mike Oaksford; Ulrike Hahn; Evan Heit
An inductive logic is a system for reasoning that derives conclusions which are plausible or credible, but are nonetheless not certain. Thus, inductive logic goes beyond the more familiar systems of deductive logic, in which the truth of the premises requires the truth of the conclusions. Thus, from All people are mortal,