Properties of Knowledge Forgetting
- Yan Zhang; Yi Zhou
In this paper we propose a formal theory of knowledge for-getting based on the single agent S5 modal logic. We rst present a model theoretic denition of knowledge forgetting and study its essential semantic properties. We show that knowledge forgetting is a generalization of variable forget-ting in propositional logic and can be precisely characterized by four forgetting postulates. We then investigate the com-putational properties of knowledge forgetting. We observe that each propositional S5 formula can be transformed into a kind of disjunctive normal form- this result leads us to de-velop an algorithm for computing the syntactic representa-tion of knowledge forgetting....
Design and Analysis of CMOS Full Adders for Low Power and Low Frequency of Operation for Scavenged-Power Wireless Sensor Networks
- Jerry Lam
While many VLSI applications require or benefit greatly from low power consumptions, scavenged power wireless sensor networks have far more stringent power requirements, often in the sub-uW range. At these power levels, static and leakage power consumption can form significant amounts of the total power con-sumption of digital circuits, so traditional design methodologies must be modified somewhat to take this into account. Thus, the logic styles, voltage levels and transistor sizes used must be optimized for the expected frequency of operation and circuit complexity. The results shown in this paper demonstrate that leakage power can dominate over switching power at...
THE SOCIAL DIMENSION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION: A NEW TYPE OF WELFARE
- Ricard Gomà
This article develops a policy-oriented, explanatory, meso-analysis of the configurative aspects of the Social Dimension of the European Union. It comprises six sections which fall into two wider parts. In the first part (sections one to three), the central elements of the analytical framework are outlined. Social policy is conceptualized in terms of its substantive boundaries and normative foundations. And the distinct structures, contents and policy types of the welfare systems-at the national and the EU levels- are drawn up against the background of their respective contextual determinant factors. In the second part (sections four to six) the analytical framework...
A case study about the formalization by pupils of a number theory problem
SKIMA: Semantic Knowledge and Information Management
- Héctor Pérez-urbina; Gennaro Bruno; Genoveva Vargas-solar
This paper describes SKIMA, a mediation system that gives transparent access to heterogeneous and distributed sources considering their semantics and the semantics of application requirements. It is based on a pivot model that abstracts concepts and semantic relations based on the SHIQ(D) description logic . We use this model to represent application domains and source contents. Our approach provides an integrated and global view over local sources and couples it to the description of an application domain using semantic correspondences. In order to do so, it applies on inference to reason about these correspondences and other metadata, and exploits this...
Dualities for Intuitionistic Modal Logics
- Alessandra Palmigiano
We present a duality for the intuitionistic modal logic IK introduced by Fischer Servi in [10, 11]. Unlike other dualities for IK, the dual structures of the duality presented here are ordered topological spaces endowed with just one extra relation, that is used to define the set-theoretic representation of both 2 and 3. We also give a parallel presentation of dualities for the intuitionistic modal logics I2 and I3. Finally, we turn to the intuitionistic modal logic MIPC, and give a very natural characterization of the dual spaces for MIPC introduced in  as a subcategory of the category of...
Many-Valued Multiple-Expert modal models
- Nikos Tzevelekos
In AI and other branches of Computer Science expert models are often studied and used. Here we examine experts which evaluate formulas of modal logic. An expert model consists of a set of experts and a domination relation which dictates how each expert’s opinion is dependent upon the opinions expressed by other experts. Such multiple-expert modal models were introduced and investigated by Fitting in 1991-92. Fitting also introduced Heyting-style semantics for modal logics, called many-valued modal models, and showed their equivalence to multiple-expert modal models. In this paper, multiple-expert modal models are extended to a system where experts reason in...
Essays in Indian Philosophy, Religion and Literature, pp. 331–370. On the Date of the Nyâyâvatâra
- Piotr Balcerowicz
The Nyâyâvatâra (NA.), a work in thirty-two verses—and hence also called Dvâtriôœikâ—erroneously ascribed by tradition to Siddhasena Divâkara, is deemed to open a new era in the history of Jaina epistemology. It is mostly in the realm of Jaina epistemic pursuits that the Dvâtriôœikâ might claim the status of an innovative or prototypical work. When we, however, consider the development of logic and epistemology in India on a larger scale, the work seems to lose its flavour of originality and novelty. The problem of the exact dating of the Nyâyâvatâra1 should be solved independently, irrespective of whether Siddhasena Mahâmati, the...
AND A REALIST/REVISIONIST INTERPRETATION OF QUANTUM LOGIC:
- Colin Leslie Dean; Colin Leslie Dean
GAMAHUCHER PRESS: WEST GEELONG, GEELONG,
et.al., “Bumpless Build-Up Layer Packaging
- Steven N. Towle; Henning Braunisch; Chuan Hu; Richard D. Emery; Gilroy J. V
Abstract—Bumpless Build-Up Layer (BBUL) is a novel package developed to meet future packaging technology re-quirements. The BBUL package provides the advantages of small electrical loop inductance and reduced thermomechan-ical stresses on low dielectric constant (low-k) die materials. Furthermore, it allows for high lead count, ready integra-tion of multiple electronic and optical components [such as logic, memory, radio frequency, microelectromechanical sys-tems (MEMS), among others], and inherent scalability. In the present paper we investigate and discuss some of the pro-cess, routing, electrical, thermal, and mechanical attributes of BBUL. 1.
1Taylor Expansion of Logic Functions: From Conventional to Nanoscale Design
- S. N. Yanushkevich; V. P. Shmerko
Abstract — The paper revisits the well-known spectral trans-forms of a Boolean function, emphasizing on the fact that Reed-Muller, arithmetic and Walsh spectra can be calculated through boolean difference, and arithmetical and Walsh analogs of it. This techniques is called Taylor technique, by analogy with Taylor series which coefficients are differences, or differentials. The algorithms are perfectly implementable on parallel-pipelining processors in VLSI technology. This paper argues that Taylor based algorithms can also be implemented on nanoscale circuits. I.
The Role of Production Relations in Marx’s Theory of Capitalist Exploitation*
- Gilbert L. Skillman
It is well known that Karl Marx explained profit in capitalist economies as arising primarily from the exploitation of productive labor. Less generally understood is Marx’s theory as to the economic logic of capitalist exploitation, in particular the sense in and degree to which the latter depends on direct capitalist control of production, which Marx termed the subsumption of labor under capital. In Volume I of Capital, Marx focuses exclusively on the purchase and consumption of labor power under capitalist production as the basis of capitalist exploitation, on the grounds that the appropriation of surplus value must be explained on...
Information Initiative Center
- Kiyoshi Akama; Ekawit Nantajeewarawat; Hidekatsu Koike
Abstract: In the equivalent transformation (ET) computation model, a program is a set of procedural rewriting rules for answer-preserving transformation of problems with respect to given background knowledge. In this paper, we discuss an approach to program construction by creating and accumulating individually correct and effi-cient program components one by one, referred to as componentwise program construction. Basic requirements for componentwise program construction are identified, based on which we show that the ET model possesses several desirable properties for this program construction approach, in particular, compared with the logic programming model. In addition, we compare the expressive power of program...
Development of the Internet, Market Structure and Commercial Practices The case of the publishing sector(*)
- Dominique Gillerot; Marc Minon; Université De Liège
"Neteconomy", "new business models", "new economy " are these new ideological constructions which barely hide the fact that the practices of actors present on the net mostly come from economic and social logic already described or that are possible to analyze by means of existing theoretical tools; or, on the contrary, are these practices really so specific that they call for the development of new analytical tools and new concepts? Is one, in other words, faced with the emergence of a new paradigm? The early stage of development of digital markets does probably require to start from the observation of...
Belief dynamics and defeasible argumentation in rational agents
- Ro J. Garcı́a; Guillermo R. Simari
The BDI model provides what it is possibly one of the most promising architectures for the development of intelligent agents, and has become one of the most studied and well known in the literature. The basic BDI model needs to be complemented with two mechanisms: one for reasoning about intentions, and one for revising beliefs upon percep-tion. In this work, we introduce a Revision Operator by a Set of Sentences which is a non-prioritized belief revision opera-tor for changing the agent’s beliefs. These beliefs are con-tained in a Knowledge Base which is represented using the language of Defeasible Logic Programming....
Time Series Prediction for Biomedical Measurements using Fuzzy Logic
- Claudio De Capua; Emilia Romeo
Abstract- In this paper is proposed an algorithm of prediction fuzzy for chaotic time series. This approach has been select because, in presence of specific pathologies, biomedical data may be represented as a chaotic time series . In particular, we are interested in monitoring the intracranial pressure (IP) of some patients in a state of coma who were suffering from intracranial hypertension syndrome. In these particular cases, prediction is necessary (from a diagnostic point of view) if you want to operate at the right moment on IP abnormal conditions. The proposed approach is based on a prediction multi-factor algorithm which...
Building a new institutional infrastructure for corporate responsibility
- Sandra Waddock
This paper describes an emerging institutional infrastructure around corporate responsibility that has resulted in the evolution of initiatives such as the Global Reporting Initiative, the social investment movement, and related efforts that place more emphasis on corporate responsibility, accountability, transparency, and sustainability. Using a framework that roughly classifies initiatives into state/govern-ment, market/economic, and civil society categories, the paper illustrates the rapid evolution of new infrastructure that is pressuring companies to be more responsible. In the absence of a global governance structureto ensure that corporations are accountable,responsible, transparent, and ecologically sus-tainable, a largely voluntary corporate respon-sibility infrastructure has emerged that is...
Lattices of Modal Logics and their Groups of Automorphisms
- Marcus Kracht
Abstract. The present paper investigates the groups of automorphisms for some lattices of modal logics. The main results are the following. The lattice of normal extensions of S4.3, NExtS4.3, has exactly two automorphisms, NExtK.alt1 has continuously many automor-phisms. Moreover, any automorphism of NExtS4 fixes all logics of finite codimension. We also obtain the following characterization of pretabular logics containing S4: a logic properly extends a pretabular logic of NExtS4 iff its lattice of extensions is finite and linear. 1.
The Validity of Retiming Sequential Circuits
- Vigyan Singhal; Carl Pixleyy; Richard L. Rudellz; Robert K. Brayton
Retiming has been proposed as an optimization step for sequen-tial circuits represented at the net-list level. Retiming moves the latches across the logic gates and in doing so changes the number of latches and the longest path delay between the latches. In this paper we show by example that retiming a design may lead to differing simulation results when the re-timed design replaces the original design. We also show, by example, that retiming may not preserve the testability of a se-quential test sequence for a given stuck-at fault as measured by a simulator. We identify the cause of the problem...
Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in the Truckce River-Pyramid Lake surfacewater system. 1. Data analysis and extraction of paleoclimatic information
- L. V. Benson; J. W. C. White
During 1988 and 1989, a series of water-vapor extractions were conducted in the Pyramid Lake basin to determine the source of moisture that overlies the lake. Calculations of the isotopic and water-vapor balances were made from isotopic and meteorological data from the Pyramid Lake and Reno, Nevada, areas. The results indicate that in the warm season, most of the moisture that overlies the lake is derived from evaporation as opposed to advected moisture. Isotopic fluxes at the lake surface can be approximated by climatic data from the lake site, which simplifies the calculation of this input in numerical simulations of...