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Nomenclatura Unesco > (11) Lógica

Mostrando recursos 101 - 120 de 139,296

101. Proofs, tests and continuation passing style - Stefano Guerrini; Andrea Masini
The concept of syntactical duality is central in logic. In particular, the duality defined by classical negation, or more syntactically by left and right in sequents, has been widely used to relate logic and computations. We study the proof/test duality proposed by Girard in his 1999 paper on the meaning of logical rules. In details, starting from the notion of “test ” proposed by Girard, we develop a notion of test for intuitionistic logic and we give a complete deductive system whose computational interpretation is the target language of the call-by-value and call-by-name continuation passing style translations.

102. for
Information gathering tools, such as questionnaires, surveys, and structured interviews, are ubiquitously used in evaluating patients and systems. Despite their common use, there is a desperate need for better questionnaires in medical research1 and epidemiology2, and an infrastructure that lets them be publicly scrutinized.3. Unfortunately, there has been no common platform that supports the deployment of arbitrary information gathering tools. Some psychiatric diagnostic interviews and epidemiological trials require sophisticated structured interviews containing complex branching logic, dynamic phrase composition, and multiple languages. The Dialogix system was developed to meet this need and facilitate the rapid definition and

103. CRITICAL INTERPRETATION OF ADEQUACY PARAMETERS IN PERITONEAL DIALYSIS AND HEMODIALYSIS - Lee W. Henderson
T he measurement of solute clearance has historical roots for the nephrologist in the work of Homer Smith, and such measurement has contributed ma terially to the quantitative understanding of the performance of the native kidney in both glomerular and tubular function (1). The logic, then, of designing an analogous term for use with the artificial kidney was persuasive for Wolf et al (2). While initially helpful, the interpretation of artificial kidney clearance has become overly complex owing to the proliferation of artificial kidney techniques with subsequent "customization " of the clearance term for each technique. The customizations have led...

104. The Fatal Conceit of Foreign Intervention - Christopher J. Coyne; Rachel L. Mathers; J. Coyne; Rachel L. Mathers; Coyne Was The F. A
The fatal conceit is the assumption that the world can be shaped according to human desires. This paper argues that the logic of the fatal conceit can be applied to foreign interventions which go beyond the limits of what can be rationally constructed by reason alone. In suffering from the fatal conceit, these interventions are characterized by: (1) the realization that intentions do not equal results, (2) a reliance on top-down planning, (3) the view of development as a technological issue, (4) a reliance on bureaucracy over markets, and (5) the primacy of collectivism over individualism. These characteristics explain why...

105. A LARGE SCINTILLATING SCREEN FOR THE LHC DUMP LINE - T. Lefèvre; C. Bal; E. Bravin; S. Burger; B. Goddard; S. Hutchins; T. Renaglia
The 7 TeV proton beam from the LHC ring is ejected through a long transfer line to beam dump blocks, approximately 100m downstream of the ejection septa, a series of dilution kicker magnets provide a sweeping deflection spreading the extracted beam over a 40 cm diameter area on the face of the beam dump cores. During normal operation, the quality of each dump event must be recorded and verified. The so-called “Post-Mortem” dataset will include information from the beam dumping system (logic signals, kicker pulses…) as well as from the beam diagnostics along the extraction lines. For this purpose, profile...

106. Accounting for Health and Safety costs: Review and comparison of selected methods - Pall Rikhardsson
A part of the emerging sustainability management accounting is corporate health and safety performance. One performance dimension is the costs of occupational accidents in companies. The underlying logic for calculating these costs is that if occupational accidents are prevented then these costs could be avoided. This chapter presents and discusses selected methods for calculating the costs of occupational accidents. The focus is on presenting the characteristics of each method and disclosing the benefits and drawbacks of each method.

107. Reasoning About Apparent Contradictions: Resolution Strategies and Positive-Negative Asymmetries - Dean Sharpe; Guy Lacroix
apparent contradictions, e.g. Did Susan like her supper? – Yes and no, involve asserting and denying the same proposition. They therefore violate the classical law of non-contradiction, suggesting the use of non-classical interpretive structures in natural language and reason-ing. Experiment 1 explores the range of such interpretive structures available to adults (nfl24) in their reasoning about an apparent contradiction. Experiment 2 uses a similar task to study the emergence of these interpretive structures in young children’s reasoning (3;6 to 8;4, nfl48). Results suggest an early facility with resolution strategies relating to object structure (as in, Maybe Susan liked one part...

108. 1 LOGIC DESIGN OF FPGA-BASED COMBINATORIAL PROCESSOR* - Iouliia Skliarova; António B. Ferrari
Abstract. This paper addresses the design of a Reprogrammable Combinatorial Processor (RCP) on the basis of reconfigurable circuits such as FPGA. The RCP is intended to be used for solving different combinatorial problems formulated over discrete matrices. From a structural point of view the RCP is a composition of a Reconfigurable Control Unit (RCU) and a Reconfigurable Function Unit (RFU). Each unit consists of hardwired (fixed) and programmable components. The paper considers and analyses methods, which can be used for logic synthesis and optimisation of RCP based on such decomposition.

109. Contents - Cristian Prisacariu; Cristian Prisacariu
The work reported here investigates the introduction of synchrony into Kleene algebra. The resulting algebraic structure is called syn-chronous Kleene algebra. Models are given in terms of regular sets of concurrent strings and finite automata accepting concurrent strings. The extension of synchronous Kleene algebra with Boolean tests is presented together with models on regular sets of guarded concurrent strings and the associated automata on guarded concurrent strings. Completeness w.r.t. the standard interpretations is given in each case. Decidability follows from completeness. A comparison with Mazurkiewicz traces is made which yields their incomparability with the synchronous Kleene algebra (one cannot simulate...

110. —Extended abstract— - M. J. Collinson; B. P. Hilken; D. E. Rydeheard
adjoint construction for topological models of intuitionistic modal logic

111. Patient Acceptance and the Psychological Effects of Women Experiencing Telecolposcopy and - Daron G. Ferris; Mark S. Litaker; Priscilla Ann Gilman; Ahidee G. Leyva Lopez
Background: The purpose of the study was to assess patient acceptance and psychological effects in women experiencing telecolposcopy compared with colposcopy. Methods: Convenience samples of 150 and 263 women scheduled for colposcopy or telecolposcopy, respectively, completed questionnaires assessing anxiety (Prime MD), depression [Center for Epidemio-logic Studies/Depressed Mood Scale (CES-D)], health beliefs and concerns, coping style (Miller Behav-ioral Style Score) and examination acceptance and satisfaction. Test scores and subject responses were compared using the t test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: Mean scores representing mild anxiety (1.3 and 1.2, P .7) and mild depression (35.4 and 36.3, P .4) were...

112. Paper 1199 Title Groundwater Modeling of the Upper Skunk Basin Author - John M. Huddleston
Groundwater modeling of a 156,000 hectare basin in IOWA was made possible by intersection of hypsography (contours) and hydrography (river) data layers to determine elevations of the rivers. The elevation of the river is needed as input prescribed heads for the groundwater model. In order to intersect the river and contour data the river and contour data were exported into a GEN file using ArcMAP and a plug-in called ET GeoWizards. The exported files resemble the ArcInfo Generate (GEN) format. A new procedure was devised to intersect the river and contour polylines. The non-trivial logic had been worked out by...

113. Expert Finding by Capturing Organisational Knowledge from Legacy Documents - Yee-wai Sim Richard Crowder
Organisations capitalise on their best knowledge through the improvement of shared expertise which leads to a higher level of productivity and competency. The recognition of the need to foster the sharing of expertise has led to the development of expert finder systems that hold pointers to experts who posses specific knowledge in organisations. This paper discusses an approach to locating an expert through the application of information retrieval and analysis processes to an organization’s existing information resources, with specific reference to the engineering design domain. The approach taken was realised through an expert finder system framework. It enables the relationships...

114. Feedback services for exercise assistants - Alex Gerdes; Bastiaan Heeren; Johan Jeuring; Sylvia Stuurman
Immediate feedback has a positive effect on the performance of a stu-dent practising a procedural skill in exercises. Giving feedback to a num-ber of students is labour-intensive for a teacher. To alleviate this, many electronic exercise assistants have been developed. However, many of the exercise assistants have some lacunas regarding to the feedback they offer. We have a framework that gives semantically rich feedback for sev-eral domains (like logic, linear algebra, arithmetic), and can be relatively easy extended with new domains. We need to have knowledge about the domain, how to reason with that knowledge (i.e. a set of rules),...

115. Using Social Data to Predict Trust on Web Communities: A Case Study with the Epinions.com Website - Denis D. Mauá; Fabio G. Cozman
Abstract. In this paper we analyze the performance of state-of-the-art machine learning techniques in trust prediction. We use two propositionalization methods together with the Naive and Tree-Augmented Naive Bayesian Classifiers, and the C4.5 algorithm. We compare those results with classifiers defined through Markov Logic, using data from the Epinions.com website, a well-known product review community. The experiments show that predicting trust relationships is a difficult task, in which Markov Logic models outperform other methods in accuracy but are able to recover only a relatively small fraction of the existing relationships in the dataset. 1.

116. $rec.titulo - Rml The; Rewerse I; Rule Markup Language; Gerd Wagner; Adrian Giurca; Sergey Lukichev
This study concerning R2ML (REWERSE I1 Rule Markup Language) an interchange format for rules integrating the Rule Markup Language (RuleML) with the Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) as well as the Object Constraint Language (OCL). These languages provide a rich syntax for expressing rules. This means that they support conceptual distinctions, such as distinguishing different types of terms and atoms, which are not present in standard predicate logic. The interchange format is usable in the sense that it allows structure-preserving markup of all constructs of these dif-ferent languages and does not force users to translate their rule expressions to a...

117. The Satisfiability Problem for Probabilistic CTL
We study the satisfiability problem for qualitative PCTL (Probabilistic Computation Tree Logic), which is obtained from “ordinary ” CTL by replacing the EX, AX, EU, and

118. Enhancing Product Search Engines Using Fuzzy Logic - Carlos D. Barranco; Jesús R. Campaña; Juan M. Medina
Abstract:- The paper discuses the main problems which appear when traditional business, based in sales agents, moves to new e-commerce models. Customers, used to describe to sales agents their needs using natural language, are suffering from the lack of expressiveness using product query forms, which are too rigid. Replacing sales agents for automatic systems implies a loss of flexibility interpreting the customer query, narrowing the result set, which could imply a loss of business opportunities. The paper proposes solutions to these problems, using fuzzy logic to model customer requirements, process queries flexibly and ranking results.

119. A Sound and Complete Proof Theory for Propositional Logical Contingencies
There are simple, purely syntactic axiomatic proof systems for both the logical truths and the logical falsehoods of propositional logic. However, to date no such system has been developed for the logical contingencies, that is, formulas that are both satisable and falsiable. This paper formalizes and purely syntactic axiomatic proof systems for the logical contingencies and proves its soundness as well as completeness. 1

120. Running Head: Expanding Social Control Expanding Social Control 2 - Mia Logic; Bs Morris; A. Okun; Phd John; A. Pugliese
Tucker and colleagues (2006) proposed that the associations between social control attempts and health behaviors are mediated by affects. The evidence is mixed regarding whether affects fully mediate these associations. In a sample of 317 college students involved in heterosexual dating relationships, we tested Tucker’s mediational model and an expanded mediational model that incorporated the action readiness component of emotions (motivation to change and reactance). Full mediation of the associations between (a) positive social control and health behavior change; and (b) negative social control and hiding unhealthy behavior were found only when motivation to change and reactance were included in...

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