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Nomenclatura Unesco > (11) Lógica

Mostrando recursos 101 - 120 de 129,758

101. Linear-Time Temporal Logic Control of Discrete Event Systems - Bruno Filipe Araújo Lacerda
A Discrete Event System (DES) is a dynamic system that evolves in accordance with the instantaneous occurrence, at possibly unkown intervals, of physical events. Given a DES, its behavior (the sequence of displayed events) may not satisfy a set of logical performance objectives. The purpose of Supervisory Control is to restrict that behavior in order to achieve those objectives. Linear-Time Temporal Logic (LTL) is an extension of Propositional Logic which allows reasoning over an infinite sequence of states. We will use this logical formalism as a way to specify our performance objectives for a given DES and build a supervisor...

102. Complexity of First Order ID-Logic - John S. Schlipf; Marc Denecker
First Order ID-Logic interprets general first order, nonmonotone, inductive definability by generalizing the wellfounded semantics for logic programs. We show that, for general (thus perhaps infinite) structures, inference in First Order ID-Logic is complete Π 1 2 over the natural numbers. We also prove a Skolem Theorem for the logic: every consistent formula of First Order ID-Logic has a countable model.

103. Optimizations for LTL synthesis - Barbara Jobstmann; Roderick Bloem
We present an approach to automatic synthesis of specifications given in Linear Time Logic. The approach is based on a translation through universal co-Büchi tree automata and alternating weak tree automata [1]. By careful optimization of all intermediate automata, we achieve a major improvement in performance. We present several optimization techniques for alternating tree automata, including a game-based approximation to language emptiness and a simulation-based optimization. Furthermore, we use an incremental algorithm to compute the emptiness of nondeterministic Büchi tree automata. All our optimizations are computed in time polynomial in the size of the automaton on which they are computed....

104. Solving the corner-turning problem for large interferometers - Lutomirski, Andrew; Tegmark, Max Erik; Sanchez, Nevada J.; Stein, Leo C.; Urry, W. Lynn; Zaldarriaga, Matias
The so-called corner-turning problem is a major bottleneck for radio telescopes with large numbers of antennas. The problem is essentially that of rapidly transposing a matrix that is too large to store on one single device; in radio interferometry, it occurs because data from each antenna need to be routed to an array of processors each of which will handle a limited portion of the data (say, a frequency range) but requires input from each antenna. We present a low-cost solution allowing the correlator to transpose its data in real time, without contending for bandwidth, via a butterfly network requiring...

105. O Scratch na aula de matemática - Barros, Paula Maria
O Scratch (cujo slogan é: imagina, programa, partilha) é um ambiente gráfico de programação inovador, concebido no Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), que torna a programação mais cativante e acessível às crianças, e a todos os que não possuem competências nessa área. O nome Scratch provém da técnica de scratching usada pelos DJs do hip-hop, que giram os discos de vinil para trás e para diante com as mãos, com a intenção de misturar músicas de forma criativa e original. De forma semelhante, o Scratch torna fácil a combinação de gráficos, imagens, fotografias, música e som, em criações interativas, promovendo...

106. Raciocínios de estudantes do ensino superior na resolução de tarefas sobre matrizes - Barros, Paula Maria; Araújo, Cláudia Mendes; Fernandes, José António
No presente texto estudam-se os raciocínios desenvolvidos por estudantes do ensino superior na resolução de uma tarefa sobre matrizes, com particular ênfase nos erros e dificuldades por eles revelados. Participaram no estudo trezentos estudantes do ensino superior politécnico de vários cursos de engenharia, que se encontravam a frequentar a unidade curricular de Álgebra Linear e Geometria Analítica do 1.º ano dos respetivos cursos. Inserido na avaliação, depois de abordados os diferentes temas da unidade curricular, os estudantes realizaram no ano letivo 2011/2012 vários trabalhos sobre esses temas, um dos quais incluía uma questão sobre matrizes, que é aqui estudada. Dos...

107. Raciocínios de estudantes do ensino superior na resolução de tarefas sobre matrizes - Barros, Paula Maria; Araújo, Cláudia Mendes; Fernandes, José António
No presente texto estudam-se os raciocínios desenvolvidos por estudantes do ensino superior na resolução de uma tarefa sobre matrizes, com particular ênfase nos erros e dificuldades por eles revelados. Participaram no estudo trezentos estudantes do ensino superior politécnico de vários cursos de engenharia, que se encontravam a frequentar a unidade curricular de Álgebra Linear e Geometria Analítica do 1.º ano dos respetivos cursos. Inserido na avaliação, depois de abordados os diferentes temas da unidade curricular, os estudantes realizaram no ano letivo 2011/2012 vários trabalhos sobre esses temas, um dos quais incluía uma questão sobre matrizes, que é aqui estudada. Dos...

108. A tape-to-plotter converter / - Semmler, Richard A.; Tribby, James F.; U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Chicago Operations Office.; U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Division of Isotopes Development.
A tape-to-plotter converter for use with punched paper tapes prepared by a Nuclear Data Model 130A multichannel analyzer is described. The converter reads 3 BCD digits from the tape and generates both linear and logarithmic analogue voltages for plotting. Relays are used for the 12 bit memory and a stepping switch is used to accomplish much of the pulse routing and logic. Circuit diagrams are included.

109. Judgment Aggregation for Cooperative Anchoring on the NAO Robots - Vijayalakshmi Ganesan; Marija Slavkovik; Sergio Sousa; Leendert Van Der Torre
Abstract. Cooperative anchoring is the sharing of associations between symbols and sensor data across multi robot systems. We apply the solution of Judgment Aggregation, a logic based collective-decision making framework from social choice theory to the problem of cooperative anchoring in terms of information fusion. We model a multi-agent system comprising of nao robots on a search exercise using its vision and audition sensor into this framework and fuse them by means of aggregation rules and compare them on a truth-tracking basis.

110. Russia’s Economic Strategy - Ye. Gavrilenkov
The general logic of the strategy for the country’s development in the 21 st century arises from the following postulates: • The Russian economy is part of the global economy. In the 1990s the extent of Russia’s involvement in global economic processes grew significantly, and this occurred, first and foremost, as a result of the formation and development of the Russian private sector. Indeed, it was at the level of the private sector and among certain segments of the population that Russia began to resemble the rest of the world in economic and cultural respects, even if this did express...

111. Cut-free ordinary sequent calculi for logics having generalized finite-valued semantics. Logica Universalis - Arnon Avron; Jonathan Ben-naim; Beata Konikowska
Abstract. The paper presents a method for transforming a given sound and complete n-sequent proof system into an equivalent sound and complete system of ordinary sequents. The method is applicable to a large, central class of (generalized) finite-valued logics with the language satisfying a certain minimal expressiveness condition. The expressiveness condition decrees that the truth-value of any formula ϕ must be identifiable by determining whether certain formulas uniformly constructed from ϕ have designated values or not. The transformation preserves the general structure of proofs in the original calculus in a way ensuring preservation of the weak cut elimination theorem under...

112. $rec.titulo - Régis Riveret Independent Researcher
Inferences about speech acts are often conditional, non-monotonic, and involve the issue of time. Most agent communication languages, however, ignore these issues, due to the difficulty to combine them in a single formalism. This paper addresses such issues in defeasible logic, and shows how to express a semantics for ACLs in order to make non-monotonic inferences on the basis of speech acts.

113. Construction of proposition: apoha and non-classical logics - Yuko Murakami
This talk will aim to provide an account of the apoha theory of delineation by analogy with the construction of propositions in some non-classical logics. In such logics, not all sets of possible worlds are taken to be propositions. In quantum logic, for example, an arbitrary set of states may not exactly represent the semantical counterpart of a legitimate proposition. Moreover, the negation operator in intuitionistic logic is essentially a closure operator. A well-known result is that the double-negated propositions of intuitionistic logic behave as if they were propositions of classical logic. In logics where disjunction behaves differently from classical...

114. Edición especial - Centro de Investigación en Economía Política y Comunicación (CIEPYC)
Para poder abordar la problemática que recientemente ha puesto en vilo a la política económica argentina, es necesario poner en contexto el problema y arrancar de un poco más atrás de lo que fue el default de 2001 y la reestructuración de la deuda que le siguió en 2005 y 2010. En primer lugar describiremos las características de lo que fue la llamada etapa de “valorización financiera” del capitalismo a comienzos de los 70. En segundo lugar, la forma en que Argentina se acopló a esta lógica desde 1976 hasta 2001 y la forma en que luego se intentó “des-insertar”...

115. Uncertainty Analysis in New Seismic Hazard Study of Spain Aimed at the Revision of the Spanish Building Code. - Rivas Medina, Alicia; Benito Oterino, Maria Belén; Gaspar Escribano, Jorge Miguel; Cabañas, Luis; Martínez-Solares, J. Manuel; Ruíz, Sandra; Carreño, Emilio; Crespo, María; García-Mayordomo, Julián; Bernal, Alberto
In this paper we present a global overview of the recent study carried out in Spain for the new hazard map, which final goal is the revision of the Building Code in our country (NCSE-02). The study was carried our for a working group joining experts from The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) and the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) , being the different phases of the work supervised by an expert Committee integrated by national experts from public institutions involved in subject of seismic hazard. The PSHA method (Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment) has been followed, quantifying the epistemic uncertainties through...

116. How to Reason Defeasibily - John L. Pollock
This paper describes the construction of a general-purpose defeasible reasoner that is complete for first-order logic and provably adequate for the argument-based conception of defeasible reasoning that I have developed elsewhere. Because the set of warranted conclusions for a defeasible reasoner will not generally be recursively enumerable, a defeasible reasoner based upon a rich logic like the predicate calculus cannot function like a traditional theorem prover and simply enumerate the warranted conclusions. An alternative criterion of adequacy called i.d.e.-adequacy is formulated. This criterion takes seriously the idea that defeasible reasoning may involve indefinitely many cycles of retracting and reinstating conclusions....

117. COLOSSEUM -- An Automated Theorem Prover for Intuitionistic Predicate Logic based on Dialogue Games - Claus Zinn
Game theory can be a basis for theorem proving. In Dialogue Logic the validity of a formula F is examined in two person, perfect information games. After a brief description of Dialogue Logic and introductionary examples we discuss some implementation issues of Colosseum, our theorem prover implementing Dialogue Games. We describe the search space one has to conquer and propose search tactics to direct the search. Finally, we compare Colosseum's performance with that of two tableaux provers, namely ft and ileantab.

118. Intuitionistic Logic of Proofs with dependent proof terms - Giuseppe Primiero
The basic logic of proofs extends the usual propositional language by expressions of the form “s is a proof of A”, for any proposition A. In this paper we explore the extension of its intuitionistic fragment to a language including expressions of the form “t is a proof of B, dependent from s being a proof of A”. We aim at laying down a ground comparison with equivalent constructions present in theories of dependent types, especially those similarly based on the Brouwer-Heyting-Kolmogorov semantics. We further translate this extended language to a natural deduction calculus which allows for a double interpretation...

119. Justification Logics, Logics of Knowledge, and Conservativity - Melvin Fitting
Several justification logics have been created, starting with the logic LP, [1]. These can be thought of as explicit versions of modal logics, or of logics of knowledge or belief, in which the unanalyzed necessity (knowledge, belief) operator has been replaced with a family of explicit justification terms. We begin by sketching the basics of justification logics and their relations with modal logics. Then we move to new material. Modal logics come in various strengths. For their corresponding justification logics, differing strength is reflected in different vocabularies. What we show here is that for justification logics corresponding to modal logics...

120. Making Knowledge Explicit: How Hard It Is - Vladimir Brezhnev; Roman Kuznets
Artemov’s logic of proofs LP is a complete calculus of propositions and proofs, which is now becoming a foundation for the evidence-based approach to reasoning about knowledge. Additional atoms in LP have form t: F, read as “t is a proof of F ” (or, more generally, as “t is an evidence for F”) for an appropriate system of terms t called proof polynomials. In this paper, we answer two well-known questions in this area. One of the main features of LP is its ability to realize modalities in any S4-derivation by proof polynomials thus revealing a statement about explicit...

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