
A. Tsalgatidou; V. Karakostas; P. Loucopoulos
Requirements specification has only recently been acknowledged as one of the most important phases in the overall software life cycle. Since the statement of a complete and consistent set of requirements involves user participation, our approach investigates how user oriented formalisms and techniques could be employed for the specification and capturing of requirements. We propose the use of rules as a natural means for expressing the application domain knowledge, and introduce a number of techniques such as semantic prototyping and animation for the validation of the requirements. Keywords: requirements specification, executable specifications, rule bases, animation, Petrinets, logic programming, conceptual modelling....

Petr Hajek
The logic of monadic observational calculi (as a logic for data mining) is surveyed. Two approaches to making it fuzzy are discussed and several open problems are posed. 1 Introduction This paper is a pendant to [7]; whereas the latter intended to be sufficiently broad (and could not go into many details due to space limitation) here I try present the logic of particular calculi called monadic observational predicate calculi (as introduced and elaborated in [6]) and to show two ways of applying (mathematical) fuzzy logic (see [4]) to them. What we get is, on the one hand, a kind...

Austin Morgan; J Austin; G Morgan
In the paper we describe a device based upon logic array principles but which is capable of providing many large functions. A device providing 2 20 of 2 20 variables is readily achievable with an evaluation time of the order of tens of milliseconds. By suitable programming the device is capable of emulating the function of binary weighted neural networks. Hence we are currently implementing the ADAM distributed associative memory The ADAM associative memory University of York as part of a larger scene analysis system. 1. Introduction Neural Networks are often slow to execute. The two factors which dominate this...

Ri Es; Derrick Chen
) Derrick Chen kuang@ai.mit.edu NE43770 MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory 545 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 April 30, 1995 Motivated by the consumer electronics market, a great body of research has been accomplished to date contributing to our understanding of largescale memory architectures. In comparison, with the exception of cache designs, little work has been publicized covering smallscale memories. The rapid growth of the FPGA market over the past decade, however, has created new incentives for better understanding the properties of embedded memories. These memories are the core elements which make reconfigurable logic possible. Embedded memories are not simply scaleddown versions...

Hans Jürgen Ohlbach; Jana Koehler
We introduce a new technique that translates cardinality information about finite sets into simple arithmetic terms thereby enabling a system to reason about such set cardinalities by solving arithmetic equation problems. The atomic decomposition technique separates a collection of sets into smallest mutually disjoint components ("atoms") such that the cardinality of the sets are just the sum of the cardinalities of their atoms. With this idea, it is possible to have languages combining arithmetic formulas with set terms and to translate the formulas of this combined logic into pure arithmetical formulas. As a particular application, we show how this technique...

EunJu Noh; Neil Smith For Many
The purpose of this paper is to give a relevancetheoretic account of certain 'nonbasic' indicative conditionals. There has been a claim (e.g. Grice 1989) that natural language if is semantically identical with material implication in logic. This approach runs into some problems, one of which is that some naturallanguage conditionals do not appear to involve the required truthfunctional relation between antecedent and consequent. I attempt to show that the relevancetheoretic notions of metarepresentation and pragmatic enrichment (Carston 1988, Wilson and Sperber 1992) allow us to preserve the view that if is equivalent to material implication. 1 Introduction The purpose of...

Juan R. Velasco; Luis Magdalena
INTRODUCTION Fuzzy Logic Controllers [Lee90] (FLCs) are being widely and successfully applied in different areas. Fuzzy Logic Controllers can be considered as knowledgebased systems, incorporating human knowledge into their Knowledge Base through Fuzzy Rules and Fuzzy Membership Functions (among other information elements). The definition of these Fuzzy Rules and Fuzzy Membership Functions is actually affected by subjective decisions, having a great influence over the performance of the Fuzzy Controller. From this point of view, FLCs can be interpreted as a particular type of real time expert systems. A second interpretation more adequate for the analysis of the control properties of...

Adnan Aziz; Felice Balarin; Robert Brayton; Alberto SangiovanniVincentelli
In this paper we propose the use of the logic S1S as a mathematical framework for studying the synthesis of sequential designs. We will show that this will lead to simple, rigorous, and constructive solutions for a number of problems arising in the synthesis and optimization of synchronous digital hardware. Specifically, we derive a logical expression which yields a single finite state automaton characterizing the set of implementations which can replace a component in a compositional design. In general the complexity of this automaton is high; we discuss tractable cases, and also determine approximations to the complete set of permissible...

Extended Version; Dolors Costal; Antoni Oliv; Mariaribera Sancho
. Constraints play an important role in conceptual modeling. In general, the specification of constraints, both static and transition, must be done in some logicbased language. Unfortunately, the resulting formulas may be complex, errorprone and difficult to read. This explain why almost all conceptual modeling languages have developed a special, easytouse syntax (language features) to state the most common constraints. Most features (often with graphical symbols) developed so far are concerned with static constraints (like keys, partitions or cardinalities), and very little work has been done for transition constraints. In this paper, we identify six temporal features, three related to...

Anthony Karel; Anthony Karel Seda; Pascal Hitzler
We consider the problem of finding models for logic programs P via fixed points of immediate consequence operators, T P . Certain extensions of syntax invalidate the classical approach, adopted in the case of definite programs, using iterates of T P and the KnasterTarski theorem. We discuss alternatives to the use of this theorem based on elementary notions from topological dynamics. This leads us to consider simple syntactic conditions on P , employing level mappings taking values in a countable ordinal fl, which ensure convergence (to models and fixed points) of the requisite sequences of iterates. We obtain, as a...

C.A.J. van Eijk; J. A. G. Jess
This paper proposes a novel verification method for finite state machines (FSMs), which automatically exploits the relation between the state encodings of the FSMs under consideration. It is based on the detection and utilization of functionally dependent state variables. This significantly extends the ability of the verification method to handle FSMs with similar state encodings. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated by experimental results on wellknown benchmarks. 1. Introduction During the design of digital circuits, several descriptions of a design are generated at various levels of detail. Verifying the consistency of these descriptions is an important aspect of...

Stéphane Grumbach; Jianwen Su
We study infinite but finitely representable databases based on constraints, motivated by new database applications such as those involving spatiotemporal information. We introduce a general definition of finite representation, and define the concept of a query as a generalization of a query over relational databases. We investigate the theory of finitely representable models and prove that it differs from both classical model theory and finite model theory. In particular, we show the failure of most of the well known theorems of logic (compactness, completeness, etc.). An important consequence is that properties such as query satisfiability and containment are undecidable. We...

Yde Venema
Generalizing an example from Fine [1] and inspired by a theorem in J' onsson [4], we prove that any modal formula of the form ß(p q) $ ß(p) ß(q) (with ß(p) a positive formula) is canonical. We also prove that any such formula is strongly sound and complete with respect to an elementary class of frames, definable by a first order formula which can be read off from ß. 1 Introduction For quite a while now, modal logicians have been interested in the relation between first order logic and canonical modal formulas; recall that the latter are formulas that are...

Manfred Kerber; Manfred Kerber
Introduction Model generators play an increasing role in automated theorem proving. The reasons range from the recognition of illformulated problems or the suggestion of lemmas to semantically driven strategies. The arguments in favor of a model generator hold for a firstorder logic as well as for a higherorder logic. The main problem of efficient model finding can be seen in the complexity of the search space. This problem will drastically increase if we try to transfer the standard methods to higherorder logic. If you have n elements in a firstorder universe D ' of individuals you will have n n...

Bp Fr; P. Allegre; L. Burgun
Introduction LOGIC is a logic synthesizer that allows a fast generation of a gate network from a logic level description. This description is written in the VHDL data flow subset used in the MASI/CAOVLSI laboratory. LOGIC supports many output format as AL (Alliance structural), HNS (Compass Structural), EDIF or VHDL for describing the resulting gate network. For further information about LOGIC, please send an electronic mail to caovlsi@masi.ibp.fr or more precisely to burgun@masi.ibp.fr. 2 Principles LOGIC divides the synthesis process into two main steps that are the logic level optimization and the technology mapping. The technology mapping is performed either...

Gerd Pfister; Frank Hoffmann; Frank Hoffmann
This paper presents a learning method which designs automatically fuzzy logic controllers (FLCs) by means of a genetic algorithm (GA). A messy coding scheme is proposed which allows a compact and flexible representation of the fuzzy rules in the genotype. It reduces the complexity and size of the rule base, through which the GA is able to solve the design task even for FLCs with a large number of input variables. A dynamically weighted objective function is proposed for control problems with multiple conflicting goals, which prevents the GA from premature convergence on FLCs that are specialized exclusively in the...

Simon Anthony; Alan M. Frisch
. This paper proposes the use of metalanguages to provide an effective representation scheme for Machine Learning. This proposal is supported by both:  a demonstration of the benefits that metalanguages can bring to Inductive Logic Programming, and  the successful and widespread use of metalanguages in other search intensive areas of Artificial Intelligence, such as planning. 1 Introduction A typical Machine Learning setting involves a teacher selecting a target concept from a concept space, and providing a learner with a labelled training sample of examples of this concept. Each example is drawn from an example space, and is labelled...

William C. Rounds; Guoqiang Zhang
We use Scott's domain theory and methods from Reiter's default logic to suggest some ways of modelling default constraints in feature logic. We show how default feature rules, derived from default constraints, can be used to give ways to augment strict feature structures with default information. CR Subject Classification (1991): F.3, F.4, I.2 Keywords & Phrases: defaults, domains, nonmonotonicity, feature logic 1. Introduction 2 1. Introduction This paper is a mathematical treatment of some of the issues which have arisen in trying to define a version of nonmonotonic feature logic which would adequately reflect the semantics of strict and default...

Ichiro Ogata
We show that the SN and CR cutelimination procedure on Gentzenstyle classical logic LKT/LKQ, as presented in Danos et al.(1994), is isomorphic to callby name (CBN) and callbyvalue (CBV) reduction system respectively. Our observation is that these cutelimination procedure is onetoone to normalization. Thus, by CurryHoward isomorphism, one can assign typed terms on intuitionistic decoration of LKT/LKQ so as to simulate the cutelimination procedure by ficontraction. As a consequence we revealed that these term assignments are precisely the one which are known as continuation passing style (CPS). We also reveal the isomorphism between ¯ calculus and CPS calculus. 1 Introduction...

Klaus Schild
We show that the terminological logic ALC comprising Boolean operations on concepts and value restrictions is a notational variant of the propositional modal logic K (m) . To demonstrate the utility of the correspondence, we give two of its immediate byproducts. Namely, we axiomatize ALC and give a simple proof that subsumption in ALC is PSPACEcomplete, replacing the original sixpage one. Furthermore, we consider an extension of ALC additionally containing both the identity role and the composition, union, transitivereflexive closure, range restriction, and inverse of roles. It turns out that this language, called T SL, is a notational variant of...