Natural Language Understanding using Temporal Action Logic
- Martin Magnusson
www.phlai.com/nl1 We consider a logicist approach to natural language understanding based on the translation of a quasi-logical form into a temporal logic, explicitly constructed for the representation of action and change, and the subsequent reasoning about this semantic structure in the context of a background knowledge theory using automated theorem proving techniques. The approach is substantiated through a proof-ofconcept question answering system implementation that uses a head-driven phrase structure grammar developed in the Linguistic Knowledge Builder to construct minimal recursion semantics structures which are translated into a Temporal Action Logic where both the SNARK automated theorem prover and the Allegro...
WSDL-S: A Proposal to W3C WSDL 2.0 Committee
- John Miller; Kunal Verma; Preeda Rajasekaran; Amit Sheth; Rohit Aggarwal; Kaarthik Sivashanmugam
Web services have primarily been designed for providing inter-operability between business applications. Current technologies assume a large amount of human interaction, for integrating two applications. This is primarily due to the fact that business process integration requires understanding of data and functions of the involved entities. Semantic Web technologies, powered by description logic based languages like OWL, aim
I. OUR COURSE
Logic in Computer Science: tool-based modeling and reasoning about systems Abstract- Recent years have brought about the development of powerful tools for verifying specifications of hardware and software systems. By now, major companies, such as Intel, IBM, AT&T, Siemens, and BT have realized the impact and importance of such tools in their own design and implementation processes as a means of coping with the ever-increasing complexity of chip and software designs. This necessitates the availability of a basic formal training that allows Undergraduate students to gain sufficient proficiency in using and reasoning with such toolanimated frameworks. We present an existing...
Special Section Short Papers________________________________________________ PLA-Based Regular Structures and Their Synthesis
- Fan Mo; Robert Brayton
Abstract—Two regular circuit structures based on the programmable logic array (PLA) are proposed. They provide alternatives to the widely used standard-cell structure and have better predictability and simpler design methodologies. A whirlpool PLA is a cyclic four-level structure, which has a compact layout. Doppio-ESPRESSO, a four-level logic minimization algorithm, is developed for the synthesis of Whirlpool PLAs. A river PLA is a stack of multiple output PLAs, which uses river routing for the interconnections of the adjacent PLAs. A synthesis algorithm for river PLAs uses multilevel logic synthesis, simulated-annealing, and ESPRESSO targeting a combination of minimal area and delay. Index...
Regional logic for local reasoning about global invariants
- Anindya Banerjee
Shared mutable objects pose grave challenges in reasoning, especially for data abstraction and modularity. Current solutions rely on higher order predicates, non-standard logical connectives, reachability predicates, whole program analyses and restrictive disciplines. Among other shortcomings, such solutions can be difficult to deploy using standard decision procedures and other tools. This paper presents a novel logic for error-avoiding partial correctness of programs featuring shared mutable objects. Soundness is proved using a standard program semantics. The logic provides heap-local reasoning about mutation and separation, via novel use of ghost fields and variables of type ‘region ’ (finite sets of object references). Intuitionistic...
A Game Logic for Workflows of Non-cooperating Services £
- Hasan Davulcu; Michael Kifer; I. V. Ramakrishnan
A workflow is a collection of coordinated activities designed to achieve a well-defined common goal. Extant research on modeling and analysis of workflows by and large assume that a workflow consists entirely of co-operating tasks that are all controlled by the workflow scheduler. However in real life – especially in the emerging field of Web services, workflows operate in an open environment where some of the tasks they interact with are not under the control of the workflow manager. Indeed, these tasks may be not only non-cooperative but even adversarial. Reasoning about workflows in the presence of such tasks is...
Hierarchical Procedural Knowledge Learning Through Observation using Inductive Logic Programming, an Extended Abstract
Creating intelligent agents that perform tasks on complex domains is a difficult and time-consuming process. (van Lent 2000) describes a framework to learn procedural knowledge from behavior traces of experts who perform tasks in domains such as Quake, a first-person perspective computer game. Since KnoMic, van Lent’s specific implementation of this framework, uses a simple attributevalue based machine-learning algorithm, it would encounter difficulties in dealing with multiple objects of the same kind (i.e. multiple enemy creatures) or if the structured domain knowledge such as a playground map in Quake domain were the essential part of choosing and implementing the right...
Temporal Linear Logic as a Basis for Flexible Agent Interactions
Interactions between agents in an open system such as the Internet require a significant degree of flexibility. A crucial aspect of the development of such methods is the notion of commitments, which provides a mechanism for coordinating interactive behaviors among agents. In this paper, we investigate an approach to model commitments with tight integration with protocol actions. This means that there is no need to have an explicit mapping from protocols actions to operations on commitments and an external mechanism to process and enforce commitments. We show how agents can reason about commitments and protocol actions to achieve the end...
Visualization and Animation of Protective Relays Operation From DFR
- A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos
Abstract: DRF data are useful for post mortem analysis of system disturbances. Central to this problem is the response of relays to disturbances. This paper presents an improved method for post-mortem analysis of relay response to disturbances from DFR data. Specifically, a visualization application for the operation of protective relays using digital fault recorder data is presented. The visualization is implemented with animated display objects attached on a general purpose DFR data display and analysis package (XFM). The visualization objects illustrate the evolution of relay variables that are used to determine the tripping logic. Two examples of protective relay types...
Design IP for Analog and RFCMOS Process Characterization and Performance Optimization
- John Garcia; Eric Wolf; Vipin Madangarli; Hpl Technologies
The performance of analog and RF circuitry is increasingly sensitive to deep sub-micron manufacturing. Standard devices that are well characterized and modeled are essential to realize stable, working designs without silicon iterations. Potential tradeoffs of device performance for lower processing cost must also be carefully assessed. A methodology and supporting circuit and device IP is described here which facilitates cost-effective RF and analog device integration and accurate modeling. RFCMOS and embedded analog SOC are rapidly evolving as the low-cost process technologies of choice for single-chip radio applications. RF performance improvements driven by transistor sizes below 0.25 µm physical gate lengths...
Proceedings of the 2005 Winter Simulation Conference
- M. E. Kuhl; N. M. Steiger; F. B. Armstrong; J. A. Joines
Material flow processing networks are ubiquitous in modern society. Such networks embody uncertainty, advanced decision logic, and increased performance expectations. As such, they have been subject to analysis by a variety of methods, with one of the most prominent being discreteevent simulation. Simulation enables detailed flow modeling, incorporates uncertainty and allows experiment-based performance assessment. Traditional approaches to simulation are not well-suited to modeling advanced decision logic, though. This paper explores the issue of representing advanced decision logic and presents a reference model for material flow processing networks to support such representations. Implementation issues are discussed, as well. 1
Computational Models of Oral and Craniofacial Development, Growth, and Repair
- P. Hammond; T. Hutton; S. Maheswaran; S. Modgil
Abstract —This paper illustrates how biological and clinical problems stimulate research in biomedical informatics and how such research contributes to their solution. The computational models described use techniques from Logic Programming, Machine Learning, Computer Vision, and Biomathematics. They address problems in the development, growth, and repair of oral and craniofacial tissues arising in cell biology, clinical genetics, and dentistry. At the micro-level, the dynamic interaction of cells in the oral epithelium is modeled. At the macro-level, models are constructed of either the craniofacial shape of an individual or the craniofacial shape differences within and between healthy and congenitally abnormal populations....
13.4 Sign Bit Reduction Encoding for Low Power Applications
- M. Saneei; B. Hardware
This paper proposes a low power technique, called SBR (Sign Bit Reduction) which may reduce the switching activity in multipliers as well as data buses. Utilizing the multipliers based on this scheme, the dynamic power consumption of some digital systems such as digital filters based on CMOS logic system can be reduced considerably compared to those based on 2’s complement implementation. To verify the efficacy of the SBR, a 16-bit multiplier was implemented by this scheme. The results for voice data show an average of 29 % to 35 % switching reduction compared to the 2’s complement implementation. For 16-bit...
Development of a High-Level Design Space Exploration Methodology
- Joachim Gerlach; Wolfgang Rosenstiel; Universität Tübingen; Joachim Gerlach; Wolfgang Rosenstiel
Since a few years the increasing complexity of digital circuits represents the main problem in digital circuit design, existing methodologies which allow a specification of the design on higher levels of abstraction and therefore support a homogeneous design process are getting more and more important (system design automation). Catchwords in this domain are hardware software codesign, rapid prototyping, and embedded systems. But the increasing level of abstraction (which can be thought of as a vertical axis) also leads to an expansion of design space, and for this to an increase of optimization potential (imaginable as a horizontal axis) available on...
A Topology-Based Approach for Lightweight 3-Valued Logic Shape Analysis
Although a highly desirable static analysis practice, precise shape analysis is widely considered a computational dead-end for most practical purposes. In this work, we explore ways to overrule this belief, by revisiting and improving over a well-founded shape analysis framework, that is based on 3-valued logic abstraction . While the worst-case exponential asymptotic complexity bound induced by the abstraction domain is not addressed, we propose several practical and theoretical improvements values, as well as the application of abstract transformers, that are aimed at reducing the computational overhead associated with the analysis. We describe a fresh implementation of the analysis framework,...
DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL OF INDUCTION MOTOR WITH FUZZY MINIMIZATION TORQUE RIPPLE
- Fatiha Zidani; Rachid Naït Saïd
This paper presents an improved direct torque control based on fuzzy logic technique. The major problem that is usually associated with DTC drive is the high torque ripple. To overcome this problem a torque hysteresis band with variable amplitude is proposed based on fuzzy logic. The fuzzy proposed controller is shown to be able to reducing the torque and flux ripples and to improve performance DTC especially at low speed. K e y w o r d s: direct torque control, induction motor, fuzzy logic, torque ripple minimization 1
Quantification in Tail-recursive Function Definitions
ABSTRACT We investigate the logical issues behind axiomatizing equations that contain both recursive calls and quantifiers in ACL2. We identify a class of such equations, named extended tail-recursive equations, that can be uniformly introduced in the logic. We point out some potential benefits of this axiomatization, and discuss the logical impediments behind introducing more general quantified formulas.
Improving Clustering Technique for Functional Approximation Problem Using Fuzzy Logic: ICFA algorithm
- Jesús González; Ignacio Rojas; Héctor Pomares; Julio Ortega; Alberto Prieto
Abstract—To date, clustering techniques have always been oriented to solve classification and pattern recognition problems. However, some authors have applied them unchanged to construct initial models for function approximators. Nevertheless, classification and function approximation problems present quite different objectives. Therefore it is necessary to design new clustering algorithms specialized in the problem of function approximation. This paper presents a new clustering technique, specially designed for function approximation problems, which improves the performance of the approximator system obtained, compared with other models derived from traditional classification oriented clustering algorithms and input–output clustering techniques. Index Terms—Clustering techniques, function approximation, model initialization. I.
In optimistic simulations, checkpointing techniques are often used to reduce the overhead caused by state saving. In this paper, we propose event reconstruction as a technique with which to reduce the overhead caused by event saving, and compare its memory consumption and execution time to the results obtained by dynamic checkpointing. As the name implies, event reconstruction reconstructs input events and anti-events from the differences between adjacent states, and does not save input events in the event queue. For simulations with fine event granularity and small state size, such as the logic simulation of VLSI circuitry, event reconstruction can yield...
Minimization of Multiple-Valued Decision Diagrams Based on Matrix Computation
- Omid Kavehie; Keivan Navi; Ebrahim Afjei; Hamid Khors
Abstract: This paper proposes a new algorithm to simplify the multiple valued logic (MVL) decision diagrams. This algorithm is based on a new level coupling rule. By changing the designer’s perspective towards the design, this rule can make further simplification possible. In most of state of the art designs, the decision diagram plays a serious role in the implementation of the logical functions. The proposed algorithm uses the new level coupling rule and combines it with the existing ones, presenting a new method in simplifying and implementing the basic decision diagram.