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Nomenclatura Unesco > (11) Lógica

Mostrando recursos 121 - 140 de 129,756

121. COLOSSEUM -- An Automated Theorem Prover for Intuitionistic Predicate Logic based on Dialogue Games - Claus Zinn

122. Towards a canonical classical natural deduction system - José Espírito Santo
This paper studies a new classical natural deduction system, presented as a typed calculus named λµlet. It is designed to be isomorphic to Curien and Herbelin’s λµ˜µ-calculus, both at the level of proofs and reduction, and the isomorphism is based on the correct correspondence between cut (resp. left-introduction) in sequent calculus, and substitution (resp. elimination) in natural deduction. It is a combination of Parigot’s λµ-calculus with the idea of “coercion calculus ” due to Cervesato and Pfenning, accommodating let-expressions in a surprising way: they expand Parigot’s syntactic class of named terms. This calculus and the mentioned isomorphism Θ offer three...

123. The Logic of Justified Belief, Explicit Knowledge, and Conclusive Evidence - A. Baltag, et al.
We present a complete, decidable logic for reasoning about a notion of completely trustworthy (“conclusive”) evidence and its relations to justifiable (implicit) belief and knowledge, as well as to their explicit justifications. This logic makes use of a number of evidence-related notions such as availability, admissibility, and “goodness” of a piece of evidence, and is based on an innovative modification of the Fitting semantics for Artemov’s Justification Logic designed to preempt Gettier-type counterexamples. We combine this with ideas from belief revision and awareness logics to provide an account for explicitly justified (defeasible) knowledge based on conclusive evidence that addresses the...

124. COLOSSEUM -- An Automated Theorem Prover for Intuitionistic Predicate Logic based on Dialogue Games - Claus Zinn
Game theory can be a basis for theorem proving. In Dialogue Logic the validity of a formula F is examined in two person, perfect information games. After a brief description of Dialogue Logic and introductory examples we discuss some implementation issues of Colosseum, our theorem prover implementing Dialogue Games. We describe the search space one has to conquer and propose search tactics to direct the search. Finally, we compare Colosseum's performance with that of two tableaux provers, namely ft and ileantab.

125. Update As Evidence: Belief Expansion - Roman Kuznets; Thomas Studer
We introduce a justification logic with a novel constructor for evidence terms, according to which the new information itself serves as evidence for believing it. We provide a sound and complete axiomatization for belief expansion and minimal change and explain how the minimality can be graded according to the strength of reasoning. We also provide an evidential analog of the Ramsey axiom.

126. Justifications, Ontology, and Conservativity - Roman Kuznets; Thomas Studer
Artemov recently presented an ontologically transparent semantics for justifications that interprets justifications as sets of formulas they justify. However, this semantics of modular models has only been studied for the case of the basic justification logic J, corresponding to the modal logic K, and it has been left open how to extend modular models to and relate them to the already existing symbolic and epistemic semantics for justification logics with additional axioms, in particular, for logics of knowledge with factive justifications. We introduce modular models for extensions of J with any combination of the axioms (jd), (jt), (j4), (j5), and...

127. Justified terminological reasoning - Thomas Studer
Justification logics are epistemic logics that include explicit justifications for an agent’s knowledge. In the present paper, we introduce a justification logic J ALC over the description logic ALC. We provide a deductive system and a semantics for our logic and we establish soundness and completeness results. Moreover, we show that our logic satisfies the so-called internalization property stating that it internalizes its own notion of proof. We then sketch two applications of J ALC: (i) the justification terms can be used to generate natural language explanations why an ALC statement holds and (ii) the terms can be used to...

128. Explicit Logics of Knowledge and Conservativity - Melvin Fitting
Several justification logics have evolved, starting with the logic LP, (Artemov 2001). These can be thought of as explicit versions of modal logics, or logics of knowledge or belief, in which the unanalyzed necessity (knowledge, belief) operator has been replaced with a family of explicit justification terms. Modal logics come in various strengths. For their corresponding justification logics, differing strength is reflected in different vocabularies. What we show here is that for justification logics corresponding to modal logics extending T, various familiar extensions are actually conservative with respect to each other. Our method of proof is very simple, and general...

129. Doença e incapacidade : dimensões subjetivas e identidade social do trabalhador rural = Illness and disability: rural workers' subjective dimensions and social identities - Riquinho, Deise Lisboa; Gerhardt, Tatiana Engel
Este artigo aborda a interface entre os determinantes sociais de saúde, as condições de vida e as concepções de saúde e doença de moradores de uma localidade rural no sul do Brasil. O objetivo é conhecer e compreender as necessidades em saúde, por meio das concepções de doença, considerando as desigualdades sociais presentes na localidade rural do Rincão dos Maia, Canguçu-RS. Utilizou-se a triangulação de métodos. No desenho qualitativo entrevistaram-se 20 sujeitos. A amostra foi intencional, ilustrativa das diferentes situações de vida. Os resultados referem-se à doença como incapacidade ou restrição de locomoção, uso de remédios e trabalho ou, ainda,...

130. The Logic of Connective Action: Public Engagement in the Digital Age - Bennett, Lance
This presentation will explain the rise of personalized, large-scale publics in which diverse populations address the common problems of our times such as economic fairness and climate change. These episodes of mass engagement often entail diminished or modified roles for conventional organizations such as parties, NGOs, or movement groups that orchestrated most of political life in the 20th century. In some cases, formal brick and mortar organizations are almost absent, as in digitally mediated crowds such as Occupy Wall Street, in which dispersed local camps were coordinated through numerous technology platforms that enabled the flow of inclusive discourses such as...

131. Itinerários de construção de uma lógica territorial do cuidado - Lemke, Ruben Artur; Azevedo Neves da Silva, Rosane

132. An Improvement of the Piggyback Algorithm for Parallel Model Checking - Filippidis, Ioannis; Holzmann, Gerard J.
This paper extends the piggyback algorithm to enlarge the set of liveness properties it can verify. Its extension is motivated by an attempt to express in logic the counterexamples it can detect and relate them to bounded liveness. The original algorithm is based on parallel breadth-first search and piggybacking of accepting states that are deleted after counting a fixed number of transitions. The main improvement is obtained by renewing the counter of transitions when the same accepting states are visited in the negated property automaton. In addition, we describe piggybacking of multiple states in either sets (exact) or Bloom filters...

133. Rule-based approaches for energy savings in an ambient intelligence environment - Stavropoulos, TG; Bassiliades, N; Argyriou, J; Vrakas, D; Vlahavas, I; Kontopoulos, E; Bikakis, A
This paper presents a novel real-world application for energy savings in a Smart Building environment. The proposed system unifies heterogeneous wireless sensor networks under a Semantic Web Service middleware. Two complementary and mutually exclusive rule-based approaches for enforcing energy-saving policies are proposed: a reactive agent based on production rules and a deliberative agent based on defeasible logic. The system was deployed at a Greek University, showing promising experimental results (at least 4% daily savings). Although the percentage of energy savings may seem low, the greatest merit of the method is ensuring that no energy is wasted by constantly enforcing the...

134. O masoquismo erógeno como posição subjetiva original e suas implicações na vida sexual infantil - Piza, Luciana; Alberti, Sonia
Unlike a Manichean logic which currently makes of the issue of sexual abuse primarily an instrument of foreclosure of the subject in the discourse, the aim is to return to the psychoanalytic theory of masochism. This one, according to Freud, is universal, because of the "masochistic aspiration in the drive life of all human beings. (Freud, 1924/2006: 165), derived from the fact that "every subject is subjectivated to the Other, is a-subject" (Lacan, 1957-58/1999: 195). We have checked the activity involved in masochism, and in this context, the "se faire" object that Lacan (1964) associates to the drive, distinguishing between...

135. Lacan con Deleuze: lógicas del sentido - Bisso, Elena
Jacques Lacan announced the appearance of The Logic of Sense by Gilles Deleuze on March 12, 1969. There was an apparent correspondence between them through mutual referrals and even come to imagine a Lacanian imprint on the work of Deleuze. But deep theoretical differences held in 1969. This article will argue that the concepts of subject and sense are radically different and nuclear in the logic of sense of each one of them at that moment.

136. Uso de redundância modular tripla aproximada para tolerância a falhas em circuitos digitais - Gomes, Iuri Albandes Cunha
Este trabalho consiste no estudo acerca da técnica de redundância modular tripla usando circuitos aproximados para tolerância a falhas transientes em circuitos digitais. O uso da técnica redundância modular tripla tradicional, conhecida como TMR, garante mascaramento lógico total contra falhas transiente únicas para um dado circuito. No entanto a técnica TMR apresenta um custo extra em área de no mínimo 200% quando comparado com o circuito original. De modo a reduzir o custo extra em área sem comprometer significativamente a cobertura de falhas, a TMR pode usar uma abordagem de circuitos aproximados para gerar módulos redundantes, estes sendo otimizados em...

137. The simulation of two arithmetic structures / - Blandford, R. C.; Metropolis, N. (Nicholas), 1915-; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory.; U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.
"United States Atomic Energy Commission Contract W-7405-eng.36."--Cover.

138. Introduction : a comprehensive digital communication - Denicoli, S??rgio; Sousa, Helena
[Introduction] This book analyses several aspects of media convergence particularly related with the digitization of the transmission channels which give the world a binary nature. This technical specification of the information society abolishes the frontiers between the old mass media and the new computer systems which mainly operate within a peer-to-peer logic resulting in sociological changes that are still nebulous but nevertheless significantly impacting on the formation of communication contexts, on the debates about policy and regulation, and consequently, on the notion of citizenship in a globalized world. The new international configuration provided by the adoption at a planetary scale...

139. Design and implementation of an FPGA-based timing pulse programmer for pulsed-electron paramagnetic resonance applications - Sun, Li; Savory, Joshua J.; Warncke, Kurt
The design, construction and implementation of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) -based pulse programmer for pulsed-electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments is described. The FPGA pulse programmer offers advantages in design flexibility and cost over previous pulse programmers, that are based on commercial digital delay generators, logic pattern generators, and application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) designs. The FPGA pulse progammer features a novel transition-based algorithm and command protocol, that is optimized for the timing structure required for most pulsed magnetic resonance experiments. The algorithm was implemented by using a Spartan-6 FPGA (Xilinx), which provides an easily accessible and cost effective solution for...

140. The evolution of genomic imprinting: theories, predictions and empirical tests - Patten, M M; Ross, L; Curley, J P; Queller, D C; Bonduriansky, R; Wolf, J B
The epigenetic phenomenon of genomic imprinting has motivated the development of numerous theories for its evolutionary origins and genomic distribution. In this review, we examine the three theories that have best withstood theoretical and empirical scrutiny. These are: Haig and colleagues' kinship theory; Day and Bonduriansky's sexual antagonism theory; and Wolf and Hager's maternal–offspring coadaptation theory. These theories have fundamentally different perspectives on the adaptive significance of imprinting. The kinship theory views imprinting as a mechanism to change gene dosage, with imprinting evolving because of the differential effect that gene dosage has on the fitness of matrilineal and patrilineal relatives....

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