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Nomenclatura Unesco > (11) Lógica

Mostrando recursos 121 - 140 de 164,785

121. Una evaluación del enfoque de las Normas Internacionales de Información Financiera (NIIF) desde la teoría de la contabilidad y el control - Mauricio Gómez V.
El proceso de regulación contable internacional para las organizaciones empresariales ha sido orientado desde un enfoque que debe ser evaluado a la luz de la teoría de la contabilidad y el control. Varios de los criterios adoptados en dicha regulación permiten la instrumentación de objetivos y funciones para la información financiera en los mercados, que alejan a la contabilidad financiera de fines subsecuentes e indispensables en las organizacionales, como la productividad. Esto es problemático debido a que la contabilidad financiera es la base estructural de la racionalidad técnico-instrumental de la empresa y es la columna vertebral de los demás sistemas...

122. Character strengths and virtues - Mariana Gancedo

The target of this work is to carry out a critical analysis about some of the underlying epistemological assumptions in Peterson and Seligman’s book Character Strengths and Virtues. A handbook and classifications (2004). This is a theoretical investigation that belongs to the epistemology of psychology field. According to the theory proposed by Serroni Copello (2003), a critic progress rational criterion is methodologically applied. The analysis points out some epistemological weakness that leads to incongruences in the statements and conclusions of the investigations, such as: the absence of a unified theory, a candid search of objectivity, and the...

123. Study of a family that overcomes poverty issues: family resilience? - María Ángela Mattar Yunes; Heloísa Szymanski

Generally, researches with families focus the difficulties and the negative aspects of family life by bringing up their maladjustments and failures. The interest in family resilience contributes to change this logic by demonstrating the healthy aspects of the family world. Nevertheless, the term resilience presents ideological controversies which are more severe when the discussion is about families and poverty. In order to diminish these contradictions this study adopted a systemic concept of resilience which refers to “those processes that make possible to overcome adversities”. A case study was realized with a low income family who...

124. La arquitectura organizacional y las capacidades estratégicas empresariales empresariales - Jesús Perdomo-Ortiz
El diseño organizacional y la teoría basada en los recursos han sido las dos áreas de la economía de la empresa que más desarrollo e impacto en la gerencia, y en el estado del arte de la disciplina, han tenido durante los últimos 15 años. Este documento aborda desde una perspectiva comparada ambos temas y encuentra una estrecha relación de mutuo apoyo conceptual. Es importante precisar que el presente documento no es una revisión de la literatura sobre diseño o arquitectura organizacional; no obstante se soporta en un conjunto de lecturas centradas en dicha temática. En este sentido, el objetivo...

125. Seguimiento a la dinámica competitiva de dos grupos económicos colombianos - Carlos Rodríguez Romero; Edison Jair Duque Oliva
Diferentes tipos de trabajos describen la importancia de la dinámica de multimercados para explicar cómo compiten las empresas que coinciden en diferentes sectores de su actividad. En este artículo se busca presentar inicialmente el cuerpo teórico que soporta la dinámica competitiva, para luego ejemplificar su aplicación en un estudio analítico que identifique las acciones competitivas, no sólo de los dos conglomerados colombianos más importantes, sino también de los individuos que se encuentran al mando de estas organizaciones. La investigación utiliza el análisis estructurado de contenido a través fuentes secundarias para identificar las acciones competitivas de las organizaciones estudiadas en el...

126. Temporal Logics for Concurrent Recursive Programs: Satisfiability and Model Checking - Benedikt Bollig; Aiswarya Cyriac; Paul Gastin; Marc Zeitoun
We develop a general framework for the design of temporal logics for concurrent recursive programs. A program execution is modeled as a partial order with multiple nesting rela-tions. To specify properties of executions, we consider any temporal logic whose modalities are definable in monadic second-order logic and that, in addition, allows PDL-like path expressions. This captures, in a unifying framework, a wide range of logics defined for ranked and unranked trees, nested words, and Mazurkiewicz traces that have been studied separately. We show that satisfiability and model checking are decidable in EXPTIME and 2EXPTIME, depending on the precise path modalities.

127. Message-Passing Automata are expressively equivalent to EMSO Logic - Benedikt Bollig; Martin Leucker
We study the expressiveness of finite message-passing automata with a priori unbounded FIFO channels and show them to capture exactly the class of MSC languages that are definable in existential monadic second-order logic interpreted over MSCs. Furthermore, we prove the monadic quantifier-alternation hierarchy over MSCs to be infinite and conclude that the class of MSC languages accepted by message-passing automata is not closed under complement.

128. Model Checking Probabilistic Distributed Systems - Benedikt Bollig; Martin Leucker
Protocols for distributed systems make often use of random transitions to achieve a common goal. A popular example are randomized leader election protocols. We introduce probabilistic product automata (PPA) as a natural model for this kind of systems. To reason about these systems, we propose to use a product version of linear temporal logic (LTL ⊗). The main result of the paper is a model-checking procedure for PPA and LTL ⊗. With its help, it is possible to check qualitative properties of distributed systems automatically.

129. Automata and Logics for Message Sequence Charts - Benedikt Bollig
A message-passing automaton is an abstract model for the implementation of a distributed system whose components communicate via message exchange and thereby define a collection of communication scenarios called message sequence charts. In this thesis, we study several variants of message-passing automata in a unifying framework. We classify their expressiveness in terms of state-space properties, synchronization behavior, and acceptance mode and also compare them to algebraic characterizations of sets of message sequence charts, among them the classes of recognizable and rational languages. We then focus on finite-state devices with global acceptance condition that communicate via a priori unbounded channels. We...

130. Parameterized Modal Satisfiability - Antonis Achilleos; Michael Lampis; Valia Mitsou
We investigate the parameterized computational complexity of the satisfiability problem for modal logic and attempt to pinpoint relevant struc-tural parameters which cause the problem’s combinatorial explosion, beyond the number of propositional variables v. To this end we study the modal-ity depth, a natural measure which has appeared in the literature, and show that, even though modal satisfiability parameterized by v and the modality depth is FPT, the running time’s dependence on the parameters is a tower of exponentials (unless P=NP). To overcome this limitation we propose possible alternative parameters, namely diamond dimension and modal width. We show fixed-parameter tractability results...

131. On Temporal Logics with Data Variable Quantifications: Decidability and Complexity - Fu Song; Zhilin Wu
Although data values are available in almost every computer system, reasoning about them is a challenging task due to the huge data size or even infinite data domains. Temporal logics are the well-known specification formalisms for reactive and concur-rent systems. Various extensions of temporal logics have been proposed to reason about data values, mostly in the last decade. Among them, one natural idea is to ex-tend temporal logics with variable quantifications ranging over an infinite data domain. Grumberg, Kupferman and Sheinvald initiated the research on this topic recently and obtained several interesting results. However, this is still a lack of...

132. Automata and Logics for Concurrent Systems: Five Models in Five Pages - Benedikt Bollig
We survey various automata models of concurrent systems and their connection with monadic second-order logic: finite automata, class memory automata, nested-word automata, asynchronous automata, and message-passing automata.

133. Solving parity games by a reduction to SAT - Keijo Heljanko; Misa Keinänen; Martin Lange; Ilkka Niemelä
This paper presents a reduction from the problem of solving parity games to the satisfiability problem in propositional logic (SAT). The reduction is done in two stages, first into difference logic, i.e. SAT combined with the theory of integer dif-ferences, an instance of the SAT modulo theories (SMT) framework. In the second stage the integer variables and constraints of the difference logic encoding are re-placed with a set of Boolean variables and constraints on them, giving rise to a pure SAT encoding of the problem. The reduction uses Jurdziński’s characterisation of winning strategies via progress measures. The reduction is motivated...

134. Logic for Communicating Automata with Parameterized Topology - Benedikt Bollig
We introduce parameterized communicating automata (PCA) as a model of systems where finite-state processes communicate through FIFO channels. Unlike classical communicating automata, a given PCA can be run on any network topology of bounded degree. The topology is thus a parameter of the system. We provide various Büchi-Elgot-Trakhtenbrot theorems for PCA, which roughly read as follows: Given a logical specification ϕ and a class of topologies T, there is a PCA that is equivalent to ϕ on all topologies from T. We give uniform constructions which allow us to instantiate T with concrete classes such as pipelines, ranked trees, grids,...

135. Extending compositional message sequence graphs - Benedikt Bollig; Martin Leucker; Philipp Lucas
We extend the formal developments for message sequence charts (MSCs) to support scenarios with lost and found messages. We define a notion of extended compositional message sequence charts (ECM-SCs) which subsumes the notion of compositional message sequence charts in expressive power but additionally allows to define lost and found messages explicitly. As usual, ECMSCs can be combined by means of choice and repetition to (extended) compositional message sequence graphs. We show that—despite extended expressive power—model checking of monadic second-order logic (MSO) for this framework remains to be decidable. The key technique to achieve our results is to use an extended...

136. Revisiting Bisimilarity and its Modal Logic for Nondeterministic and Probabilistic Processes - Marco Bernardo; Rocco De Nicola; Michele Loreti
The logic PML is a probabilistic version of Hennessy-Milner logic introduced by Larsen and Skou to characterize bisimilarity over probabilistic processes without internal nondeterminism. In this paper, two alternative interpretations of PML over nondeterminis-tic and probabilistic processes as models are considered, and two new bisimulation-based equivalences that are in full agreement with those interpretations are provided. The new equivalences include as coarsest congruences the two bisimilarities for nondeterministic and probabilistic processes proposed by Segala and Lynch. The latter equivalences are instead known to agree with two versions of Hennessy-Milner logic extended with an additional probabilistic operator interpreted over state distributions...

137. Extending compositional message sequence graphs - Benedikt Bollig; Martin Leucker; Philipp Lucas
We extend the formal developments for message sequence charts (MSCs) to support scenarios with lost and found messages. We dene a notion of extended compositional message sequence charts (ECMSCs) which subsumes the notion of compositional message sequence charts in expressive power but ad-ditionally allows to dene lost and found messages explicitly. As usual, ECMSCs might be combined by means of choice and repetition towards (extended) com-positional message sequence graphs. We show that|despite extended expressive power|model checking of monadic second-order logic (MSO) for this framework remains to be decidable. The key technique to achieve our results is to use an extended...

138. The boundedness problem for monadic universal first-order logic - Martin Otto
We consider the monadic boundedness problem for least fixed points over FO formulae as a decision problem: Given a formula ϕ(X,x), positive in X, decide whether there is a uniform finite bound on the least fixed point recursion based on ϕ. Few fragments of FO are known to have a decidable boundedness problem; boundedness is known to be unde-cidable for many fragments. We here show that monadic boundedness is decidable for purely universal FO formulae without equality in which each non-recursive predicate oc-curs in just one polarity (e.g., only negatively). The restric-tions are shown to be essential: waving either the...

139. A Pebble Weighted Automata and Weighted Logics - Benedikt Bollig; Paul Gastin; Benjamin Monmege; Marc Zeitoun
We introduce new classes of weighted automata on words. Equipped with pebbles, they go beyond the class of recognizable formal power series: they capture weighted first-order logic enriched with a quantitative version of transitive closure. In contrast to previous work, this calculus allows for unrestricted use of existential and universal quantifications over positions of the input word. We actually consider both two-way and one-way pebble weighted automata. The latter class constrains the head of the automaton to walk left-to-right, resetting it each time a pebble is dropped. Such automata have already been considered in the Boolean setting, in the context...

140. Logical Characterization of Weighted Pebble Walking Automata - Benedikt Bollig; Paul Gastin; Benjamin Monmege; Marc Zeitoun
Weighted automata are a conservative quantitative extension of finite automata that enjoys applications, e.g., in language processing and speech recognition. Their expressive power, however, appears to be limited, especially when they are applied to more general structures than words, such as graphs. To address this drawback, weighted automata have recently been generalized to weighted pebble walking automata, which proved useful as a tool for the specification and evaluation of quantitative properties over words and nested words. In this paper, we establish the expressive power of weighted pebble walking automata in terms of transitive closure logic, lifting a similar result by...

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