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Nomenclatura Unesco > (11) Lógica

Mostrando recursos 141 - 160 de 132,065

141. Classical Negation and Game-Theoretical Semantics - Tulenheimo, Tero
Typical applications of Hintikka’s game-theoretical semantics (GTS) give rise to semantic attributes—truth, falsity—expressible in the $\Sigma^{1}_{1}$ -fragment of second-order logic. Actually a much more general notion of semantic attribute is motivated by strategic considerations. When identifying such a generalization, the notion of classical negation plays a crucial role. We study two languages, $L_{1}$ and $L_{2}$ , in both of which two negation signs are available: $\rightharpoondown $ and $\sim$ . The latter is the usual GTS negation which transposes the players’ roles, while the former will be interpreted via the notion of mode. Logic $L_{1}$ extends independence-friendly (IF) logic; $\rightharpoondown...

142. Speech Acts, Categoricity, and the Meanings of Logical Connectives - Thomassen Hjortland, Ole
In bilateral systems for classical logic, assertion and denial occur as primitive signs on formulas. Such systems lend themselves to an inferentialist story about how truth-conditional content of connectives can be determined by inference rules. In particular, for classical logic there is a bilateral proof system which has a property that Carnap in 1943 called categoricity. We show that categorical systems can be given for any finite many-valued logic using $n$ -sided sequent calculus. These systems are understood as a further development of bilateralism—call it multilateralism. The overarching idea is that multilateral proof systems can incorporate the logic of a...

143. Vestibular e Enem: um debate contemporâneo - Barros,Aparecida da Silva Xavier
Este artigo analisa as transformações mais expressivas ocorridas nos processos de admissão aos cursos de graduação no Brasil. A fundamentação teórica foi pautada em debater sobre interesses, muitas vezes ocultos, presentes nos instrumentos de seleção. No tocante aos aspectos metodológicos, trata-se de uma pesquisa de natureza descritivo-analítica. Os resultados evidenciam que os nossos processos seletivos de acesso à universidade, guiados por uma lógica individualista e competitiva, colocam o êxito quase exclusivamente como uma responsabilidade individual e dissimulam todo um conjunto de fatores que são determinantes para a aprovação dos estudantes.

144. Revisitando o debate sobre o público e o privado em educação: da dicotomia à complexidade das políticas públicas - Viseu,Sofia
O debate sobre o público e o privado tem ganho crescente protagonismo na agenda educativa internacional e em diversos fóruns científicos, políticos e sociais. Este artigo visa revisitar este debate, identificando tendências atuais das medidas políticas que tendem para a introdução de uma lógica de mercado nos sistemas educativos. Através do olhar das políticas e da administração educacional, o texto recorre a evidências empíricas disponíveis que mostram os efeitos perversos, particularmente no domínio das desigualdades escolares, que têm resultado da aposta de uma administração centralizada, assim como da introdução de lógicas de mercado e de liberalização da educação. Este fenómeno...

145. Light linear logic with controlled weakening - Kanovich, M
Starting from Girard's seminal paper on light linear logic (LLL), a number of works investigated on systems derived from linear logic to capture polynomial time computation within the computationas-cut-elimination paradigm. The original syntax of LLL is too complicated, mainly because one has to deal with sequents which not just consist of formulas but also of 'blocks' of formulas. We circumvent the complications of 'blocks' by introducing a new modality which is exclusively in charge of 'additive blocks'. The most interesting feature of this purely multiplicative is the possibility of the second-order encodings of additive connectives. The resulting system (with the...

146. Strong planning under uncertainty in domains with numerous but identical elements (a generic approach) - Kanovich, M; Vauzeilles, J
The typical AI problem is that of making a plan of the actions to be performed by a robot so that the robot could get into a set of final situations, if it started with a certain initial situation. The planning problem is known to be generally very complex. Even within the case of 'well-balanced' actions, strong planning under uncertainty about the effects of actions, or games such as 'Robot against Nature', is EXPTIME-complete. As a result, AI planners are very sensitive to the number of the variables involved in making a plan, the inherent symmetry of the problem, and...

147. A note on rewriting proofs and Fibonacci numbers - Kanovich, M
One basic activity in combinatorics is to establish combinatorial identities by so-called 'bijective proofs,' which amounts to constructing explicit bijections between two types of the combinatorial objects in question. The aim of this paper is to show how techniques from the formal logic world can be applied directly to such problems studied completely independently in the world of combinatorics. The basic idea is to characterize equinumerous partition ideals in terms of the minimal elements generating the order filters, the complements to the original ideals. For the case where the minimal elements of each of these order filters are disjoint, we...

148. Intuitionistic phase semantics is almost classical - Kanovich, MI; Okada, M; Terui, K
We study the relationship between classical phase semantics for classical linear logic (LL) and intuitionistic phase semantics for intuitionistic linear logic (ILL). We prove that (i) every intuitionistic phase space is a subspace of a classical phase space, and (ii) every intuitionistic phase space is phase isomorphic to an 'almost classical' phase space. Here, by an 'almost classical' phase space we mean an intuitionistic phase space having a double-negation-like closure operator. Based on these semantic considerations, we give a syntactic embedding of propositional ILL into LL. © 2006 Cambridge University Press.

149. Multiset rewriting over Fibonacci and Tribonacci numbers - Kanovich, M
We show how techniques from the formal logic, can be applied directly to the problems studied completely independently in the world of combinatorics, the theory of integer partitions. We characterize equinumerous partition ideals in terms of the minimal elements generating the complementary order filters. Here we apply a general rewriting methodology to the case of filters having overlapping minimal elements. In addition to a 'bijective proof' for Zeckendorf-like theorems - that every positive integer is uniquely representable within the Fibonacci, Tribonacci and k-Bonacci numeration systems, we establish 'bijective proofs' for a new series of partition identities related to Fibonacci, Tribonacci...

150. Foundations for decision problems in separation logic with general inductive predicates - Antonopoulos, T; Ouaknine, J; Gorogiannis, N; Haase, C; Kanovich, M
We establish foundational results on the computational complexity of deciding entailment in Separation Logic with general inductive predicates whose underlying base language allows for pure formulas, pointers and existentially quantified variables. We show that entailment is in general undecidable, and ExpTime-hard in a fragment recently shown to be decidable by Iosif et al. Moreover, entailment in the base language is Π -complete, the upper bound even holds in the presence of list predicates. We additionally show that entailment in essentially any fragment of Separation Logic allowing for general inductive predicates is intractable even when strong syntactic restrictions are imposed. ©...

151. Light linear logics with controlled weakening: Expressibility, confluent strong normalization - Kanovich, M
Starting from Girard's seminal paper on light linear logic (LLL), a number of works investigated systems derived from linear logic to capture polynomial time computation within the . computation-as-cut-elimination paradigm.The original syntax of LLL is too complicated, mainly because one has to deal with sequents which do not just consist of formulas but also of 'blocks' of formulas.We circumvent the complications of 'blocks' by introducing a new modality ∇; which is exclusively in charge of 'additive blocks'. One of the most interesting features of this purely multiplicative ∇; is the possibility of the second-order encodings of additive connectives.The resulting system...

152. A rewriting framework for activities subject to regulations - Kanovich, M; Kirigin, TB; Nigam, V; Scedrov, A; Talcott, C; Perovic, R
Activities such as clinical investigations or financial processes are subject to regulations to ensure quality of results and avoid negative consequences. Regulations may be imposed by multiple governmental agencies as well as by institutional policies and protocols. Due to the complexity of both regulations and activities there is great potential for violation due to human error, misunderstanding, or even intent. Executable formal models of regulations, protocols, and activities can form the foundation for automated assistants to aid planning, monitoring, and compliance checking. We propose a model based on multiset rewriting where time is discrete and is specified by timestamps attached...

153. Linear logic as a tool for planning under temporal uncertainty - Kanovich, M; Vauzeilles, J
The typical AI problem is that of making a plan of the actions to be performed by a controller so that it could get into a set of final situations, if it started with a certain initial situation. The plans, and related winning strategies, happen to be finite in the case of a finite number of states and a finite number of instant actions. The situation becomes much more complex when we deal with planning under temporal uncertainty caused by actions with delayed effects. Here we introduce a tree-based formalism to express plans, or winning strategies, in finite state systems...

154. Low-Dimensional Embeddings of Logic - Rocktaschel, T; Bosnjak, M; Singh, S; Riedel, S

155. Resistive Switching Statistics in MIM structures for Non-volatile memory applications - Lian, Xiaojuan
Las propiedades de conmutación de óxidos de metales de transición y vidrios calcogenuros en estructuras metal-aislante -metal se estudiaron en los años sesenta y setenta. Hoy en día, estas propiedades y materiales se están estudiando con renovado interés debido a que son muy prometedores tanto para dispositivos lógicos como para aplicaciones de memoria. Las memorias de cambio de fase (PCRAM) basadas en transiciones cristalino /amorfo inducidas por calentamiento Joule son ya una realidad comercial. Sin embargo, estos dispositivos sufren de corriente demasiado alta durante la programación y consumo de potencia elevado. En este sentido, la conmutación resistiva (RS) en óxidos...

156. Políticas de formación de profesores y profesoras universitarias en el contexto de la transnacionalización educativa: Tendencias en universidades catalanas y paulistas - Leandro da Silva, Luciana
El inicio del siglo XXI se caracteriza por intensas transformaciones en el sistema global que apuntan hacia un cambio radical en el paradigma económico, que deja de centrarse en la producción de bienes y pasa a privilegiar la producción de conocimientos. El advenimiento de la sociedad/economía del conocimiento surge de una concepción de educación como factor de competitividad, en gran parte difundida por las organizaciones internacionales, que hacen hincapié en el papel de las universidades y de la formación permanente, ya que el conocimiento es considerado motor del desarrollo económico y social de los países. La transnacionalización educativa señala importantes cambios...

157. EVX: vector execution on low power EDGE cores - Duric, Milovan; Palomar Pérez, Óscar; Smith, Aaron; Unsal, Osman Sabri; Cristal Kestelman, Adrián; Valero Cortés, Mateo; Burger, Doug
In this paper, we present a vector execution model that provides the advantages of vector processors on low power, general purpose cores, with limited additional hardware. While accelerating data-level parallel (DLP) workloads, the vector model increases the efficiency and hardware resources utilization. We use a modest dual issue core based on an Explicit Data Graph Execution (EDGE) architecture to implement our approach, called EVX. Unlike most DLP accelerators which utilize additional hardware and increase the complexity of low power processors, EVX leverages the available resources of EDGE cores, and with minimal costs allows for specialization of the resources. EVX adds...

158. Avoiding core's DUE & SDC via acoustic wave detectors and tailored error containment and recovery - Upasani, Gaurang; Vera, Xavier; González Colás, Antonio María
The trend of downsizing transistors and operating voltage scaling has made the processor chip more sensitive against radiation phenomena making soft errors an important challenge. New reliability techniques for handling soft errors in the logic and memories that allow meeting the desired failures-in-time (FIT) target are key to keep harnessing the benefits of Moore's law. The failure to scale the soft error rate caused by particle strikes, may soon limit the total number of cores that one may have running at the same time. This paper proposes a light-weight and scalable architecture to eliminate silent data corruption errors (SDC) and...

159. Skinner y la psicología: lo que hizo, lo que no hizo y lo que nos corresponde hacer. - Ribes, Emilio
En este trabajo, realizado desde el interior del espacio conceptual conductista, se reflexiona, en primer lugar, sobre el papel de Skinner en relación con los diversos conductismos para, después, abordar la concepción skinneriana de la explicación cientìfica, la lógica de la investigación y la construcción teórica. Posteriormente se analizan las innovaciones que, dentro de la teoría del condicionamiento, introdujo Skinner, destacando las ventajas que ello supuso así como los nuevos problemas que planteó a la teoría de la conducta. A continuación se realiza una aproximación a la contribución metodológica de Skinner �la operante libre� y se evalúa su impacto histórico...

160. Recommender system based on argumentation by analogy - Budán, Paola D.; Rosenzvaig, Federico; Budán, Maximiliano; Simari, Guillermo Ricardo
Argumentation has contributed to the formalization of a reasoning model, similar to the human reasoning. In general, argumentation can be associated with the interaction of reasons in favour and against certain conclusions, so as to determine what conclusions are acceptable. A way of arguing in which the way in which the arguments are constructed, is Defeasible Logic Programming (DeLP); this is a formalism that combines logic programming and defeasible argumentation. This work focuses on the strengthening of the reasoning process, identifying partial connections or determinations between knowledge pieces. Through these relations, it is possible to increase the justi cations and...

 

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