161.

Properties of General Semantic Operators Determined by Logic-Based Systems
- Anthony Karel Seda
We discuss a very general semantic operator arising within logic-based programming systems from an algebraic point of view, and show how it connects four interesting aspects of computation: neural networks, conventional logic programming, constraint logic programming, and simple models of uncertainty in logic-based systems.

162.

Neutrosophic Logic - Generalization of the Intuitionistic Fuzzy Logic, To be presented at the
- Florentin Smarandache
In this paper one generalizes the intuitionistic fuzzy logic (IFL) and other logics to neutrosophic logic (NL). The differences between IFL and NL (and the corresponding intuitionistic fuzzy set and neutrosophic set) are pointed out.

163.

Price Differentials in Monetary Unions: The Role of Fiscal Shocks
- Fabio Canova
We study the effect of regional expenditure and revenue shocks on price differentials for 47 US states and 9 EU countries. We identify shocks using sign restrictions on the dynamics of expenditures, revenues, deficits and output and construct two estimates for structural price differentials dynamics, one for the average and one for each unit, which optimally weight information contained in the data for all units. On average, expansionary fiscal disturbances produce positive, while distortionary balance budget shocks produce negative price differential responses. The negative price differentials responses in some units is partially explained by spillovers and labour supply effects. Too...

164.

1UPDATE BY MEANS OF INFERENCE RULES
- Teodor C. Przymusinski; Hudson Turner
. Katsuno and Mendelzon have distinguished two abstract frameworks for reasoning about change: theory revision and theory update. Theory re-vision involves a change in knowledge or belief with respect to a static world. By contrast, theory update involves a change of knowledge or belief in a changing world. In this paper we are concerned with theory update. Winslett has shown that theory update should be computed \one model at a time. " Accordingly, we focus exclusively on update of interpretations. We begin with a study of revision programming, introduced by Marek and Truszczynski to formalize interpretation update in a language...

165.

Parallel Logic Simulation of VLSI Systems
- Roger D. Chamberlain
Abstract – Design verification via simulation is an im-portant component in the development of digital systems. However, with continuing increases in the capabilities of VLSI systems, the simulation task has become a significant bottleneck in the design process. As a result, researchers are attempting to exploit parallel processing techniques to improve the performance of VLSI logic simulation. This tutorial describes the current state-of-the-art in parallel logic simulation, including parallel simulation techniques, factors that impact simulation performance, performance results to date, and the directions currently being pursued by the research community. I.

166.

Intelligent Robotic Walker Design
- W. Gharieb
This paper aims to present the current development of an intelligent robotic walker. This machine is designed as a walking aid for the visually impaired. The machine is equipped with different sensors to navigate its motion in the indoor environment such as hospitals, hotels, airports, and museums. The user drives the walker while the two front wheels have the ability to steer in order to avoid obstacles and to seek the target. The control system interacts continuously with the user via voice commands. A self-autonomy goal seeker is developed using fuzzy logic. A discrete logic navigator is used to avoid...

167.

Fuzzy class theory as foundations for fuzzy mathematics
- Petr Cintula
ABSTRACT: ŁΠω is a deductive first-order theory over the fuzzy logic ŁΠ, which axiomatically captures Zadeh’s notion of fuzzy set and aims at giving a unified formal framework for a large part of fuzzy mathematics. An overview of the concepts expressible in the theory is given and informal proof methods for doing fuzzy mathematics in ŁΠω are sketched.

168.

BIST of Delay Faults in the Logic Architecture of Symmetrical FPGAs
- Patrick Girard; Olivier Héron; Serge Pravossoudovitch; Michel Renovell
In this paper, we propose a BIST scheme for exhaustive testing all delay faults in the logic architecture of symmetrical FPGAs. This scheme is applicable in a Manufacturing-Oriented Test (MOT) context. Our technique enables the detection of delay faults in the logic architecture and consists in chaining the logic cells in a specific way. The test of all the delay faults can be done with a reduced test sequence and does not require expensive ATE. To illustrate its feasibility, this BIST approach has been implemented in a VIRTEX FPGA from XILINX Inc.

169.

The ABC (Analysing Biomolecular Contacts)-database
- Peter Walter; Sam Ansari; Volkhard Helms
As protein-protein interactions are one of the basic mechanisms in most cellular processes, it is desirable to understand the molecular details of protein-protein contacts and ultimately be able to predict which proteins interact. Interface areas on a protein surface that are involved in protein interactions exhibit certain characteristics. Therefore, several attempts were made to distinguish protein interactions from each other and to categorize them. One way of classification are the groups of transient and permanent interactions. Previously two of the authors analysed several properties for transient complexes such as the amino acid and secondary structure element composition and pairing preferences....

170.

u STEP 1: ENGAGE STAKEHOLDERS
STEP 2: DESCRIBE THE PROGRAM 2.1 Understand your program focus and priority areas 2.2 Develop your program goals and measurable (SMART) objectives 2.3 Identify the elements of your program and get familiar with logic models 2.4 Develop logic models to link program activities with outcomes STEP 3: FOCUS THE EVALUATION 3.1 Tailor the evaluation to your program and stakeholders ’ needs 3.2 Determine resources and personnel available for your evaluation 3.3 Develop and prioritize evaluation questions STEP 4: GATHER CREDIBLE EVIDENCE 4.1 Choose appropriate and reliable indicators to answer your evaluation questions 4.2 Determine the data sources and methods to...

171.

Ciencias de la Computación / Computational Sciences An Axiom System for Incidence Spatial Geometry
- Rev R. Acad; Cien Serie; A. Mat; R. Rubio
Abstract. Incidence spatial geometry is based on three-sorted structures consisting of points, lines and planes together with three intersort binary relations between points and lines, lines and planes and points and planes. We introduce an equivalent one-sorted geometrical structure, called incidence spatial frame, which is suitable for modal considerations. We are going to prove completeness by SD-Theorem. Extensions to projective, affine and hyperbolic geometries are also considered. Un sistema axiomático para la geometrı́a espacial de incidencia Resumen. La geometrı́a espacial de incidencia esta ́ construida por medio de estructuras trisurtidas formadas por puntos, rectas y planos con relaciones binarias de...

172.

Hybrid Mobile Security Protocol: Formal Verification using a New Modal Logic
- T. Newe; T. Coffey
Hybrid cryptographic security protocols find applications in many areas of communications, none more demanding than in the mobile security sector. In recent years a number of hybrid cryptographic security protocols have been proposed for use with 3G mobile systems. These include the ASPeCT [1] and Boyd-Park [2] security protocol. These protocols use a public key algorithm to exchange a secret session key for use with a symmetric algorithm, thereby removing the need for ultra reliable key servers. In order to provide assurance that these protocols are verifiably secure and trustworthy it is necessary to perform a formal verification on their...

173.

Copyright: Elsevier Science Business Media
- Christian Kowalkowski; Christian Kowalkowski
What does a service-dominant logic really mean for manufacturing firms?

174.

Effects of Preanalytical Factors on the Molecular Size
edu.hk) Recently, plasma DNA analysis has been increasingly explored for different clinical diagnostic purposes. Previ-ous studies have shown that the concentration of plasma DNA is increased in patients with neoplastic diseases (1), pregnancy-related complications (2, 3), trauma (4), and certain autoimmune diseases (5). In addition to quantita-tive analysis, qualitative changes in plasma DNA have also been investigated in different physiologic and patho-logic conditions. In this regard, our group has shown that fetal DNA is shorter than the maternal counterpart in the plasma of pregnant women (6), and this has allowed the enrichment of fetal DNA from maternal plasma by size...

175.

Unification/Combination of Image Fusion Methods
- Florentin Smarandache
Ming Zhang, Ling Zhang, H. D. Cheng use a novel approach, i.e. neutrosophic logic which is a generalization of fuzzy logic and especially of intuitionistic fuzzy logic, to image segmentation-following one of the authors (H. D. Cheng) together with his co-author Y. Guo previous published paper on neutrosophic approach to image thresholding. The authors improved the watershed algorithms using a neutrosophic approach (i.e. they consider the objects as the T set, the background as the F set, and the edges as the I set); their method is less sensitive to noise and performs better on non-uniform images since it uses...

176.

Argumentation and theory of evidence
- D. N. Walton
The purpose of this paper is to present some new methods widely in use in argumentation theory and informal logic that have applications to the theory of evidence in law. In recent years, a new pragma-dialectical approach1 to argumentation, along with developments in the analysis of logical fallacies2 and dialogue logic,3 has forged these methods together into a single new approach to the evaluation of arguments. This new approach expands the traditional focus of logic on deductive and inductive arguments. It enables a critic to evaluate an argument with respect to how it was used for some communicative purpose in...

177.

Logic of Determination of Objects: The Meaning of Variable in Quantification
- Anca Pascu
This article constitutes a contribution to an analy-sis of the notion of variable. Whithin the frame-work of Combinatory Logic as a formalism without bound variables, the Logic of Determination of Ob-jects (LDO) provides an explanation for the necessary distinction between “whatever, any ” and “indetermi-nate, indefinite ” used by the introduction and elimi-nation rules of quantifiers in Natural Deduction. The intension of a concept and typical and atypical occur-rences of a concept are also introduced yielding new quantifiers which are more adequate to natural lan-guage processing (NLP) and to the study of natural inferences in common reasoning.

178.

Designing Arithmetic Digital Circuits via Rewriting-Logic. Available at www.mat.unb.br/,ayala/publications.html
- Reiner W. Hartenstein; Ricardo P. Jacobi; Carlos H. Llanos W; Er J. De Queroz
In this work we present our current investigation on use of rewriting-logic as a higher abstraction way to tackle digital design. Rewriting can be used to specify, simulate and even synthesize complex application specific digital systems, which provides a higher abstraction level than current system level languages. To illustrate the possibilities of rewriting-logic in the context of regular hardware structures we describe how to implement different arithmetic operators.

179.

1 Plenary Address: Language and Mathematics, A Model for Mathematics in the 21st Century
- David K. Pugalee
“Human language and thought are crucially shaped by the properties of our bodies and the structure of our physical and social environment. Language and thought are not best studied as formal mathematics and logic, but as adaptations that enable creatures like us to thrive in a wide range of situations ” (Feldman, 2006, p. 7). Language and Mathematics: A Complex Symbiotic for Learning In order to know how to use this language correctly requires an integrated knowledge of multiple facets of communicative competence and mathematical knowledge. Vosniadou and Vamvakoussi (2006) suggest that if knowledge is viewed as a process instead...

180.

Modular reuse of ontologies: theory and practice
- Bernardo Cuenca Grau; Ian Horrocks; Yevgeny Kazakov; Ulrike Sattler
In this paper, we propose a set of tasks that are relevant for the modular reuse of on-tologies. In order to formalize these tasks as reasoning problems, we introduce the notions of conservative extension, safety and module for a very general class of logic-based ontology languages. We investigate the general properties of and relationships between these notions and study the relationships between the relevant reasoning problems we have previously identified. To study the computability of these problems, we consider, in particular, De-scription Logics (DLs), which provide the formal underpinning of the W3C Web Ontology Language (OWL), and show that all...