Mostrando recursos 281 - 300 de 189.539

  1. The European border and coast guard: a new model built on an old logic

    Bruycker, Philippe de
    Due to the refugee crisis, the Proposal made by the Commission in December 2015 to create a European Border and Coast Guard (EBCG) will soon become legislation adopted in record time with a large consensus. Wrongly considered as an ambitious solution, it is based on highly questionable principles. Firstly, it transforms the EBCG Agency into the Chief Executive Officer of the Member States authorities in charge of border controls. This is a welcome new model because of the current powerlessness of Frontex, but it does not guarantee the independence towards Member States of this new Agency that will remain intergovernmental....

  2. Simulación de los subprocesos de llenado, tapado y pasteurizado para la automatización de una planta cervecera

    Ortegón Sarmiento, Tatiana; Serrano Acuña, Carol
    Antecedentes: La simulación de procesos es una herramienta útil en el diseño, análisis y evaluación de estos, facilitando así su optimización y monitoreo, y permitiendo la predicción de su comportamiento ante ciertas situaciones. Objetivo: Por lo anterior, en este artículo se presenta la simulación de un proceso cervecero, haciendo especial énfasis en los subprocesos de llenado, tapado y pasteurizado. Método: Se identificaron cada uno de los pasos de un proceso cervecero, y se caracterizaron los subprocesos de interés, definiendo cada una de las variables de entrada y salida. A continuación, se simularon los subprocesos haciendo uso del controlador lógico programable PLC S7-1500, y se supervisó el comportamiento de...

  3. La consideración de Hintikka del axioma de elección y del desafío constructivista

    Jovanović, Radmila
    In the present paper we confront Martin- Löf’s analysis of the axiom of choice with J. Hintikka’s standing on this axiom. Hintikka claims that his game theoretical semantics (GTS) for Independence Friendly Logic (IF logic) justifies Zermelo’s axiom of choice in a first-order way perfectly acceptable for the constructivists. In fact, Martin- Löf’s results lead to the following considerations:Hintikka preferred version of the axiom of choice is indeed acceptable for the constructivists and its meaning does not involve higher order logic.However, the version acceptable for constructivists is based on an intensional take on functions. Extensionality is the heart of the...

  4. La capacitación como estrategia de desarrollo turístico para las comunidades: Caso Centro Shuar Tsuer Entsa, Naranjal

    Torres Quiroga, Sergio Javier; Barreth, Alba Caicedo
    En la presente investigación se buscó diagnosticar la situación turística en el Centro Shuar Tsuer Entsa, y el progreso de los habitantes shuaras en esta actividad. Este estudio de carácter cualitativo, bajo los métodos lógico y analítico, se analizó el problema desde la conclusión general del comportamiento organizativo, social y económico de los pobladores locales. El objetivo general consistió en formular una estrategia de desarrollo turístico para los habitantes del centro Shuar Tsuer Entsa que sirva para impulsar el turismo sustentable en el lugar. Lo cual antepuso la hipótesis de la preparación de los prestadores de servicio en temas turísticos...

  5. Pagamentos por serviços ambientais: uma inflexão paradigmática no desenvolvimentismo desterritorializador?

    Gondim Rezende, Marília Gabriela; Pinto Fraxe, Therezinha de Jesua; Witkoski, Antônio Carlos
    The development strategies of the capitalist economic system, throughout history, were guided in the externalization of man to nature, through the diffusion of the modern myth of unspoiled nature where the speech began to spread that the conservation of natural resources only could occur if the man was not inserted in nature, as if it were possible to separate them. Currently, however, there was a change of plans and looks on the environmental issue, and people living in areas environmentally preserved gone on to become actors and not mere extras, thus resulting discussion on Payments for Environmental Services. The aim...

  6. Concepción de justicia y gobernanza del programa de Pago por Servicios Ambientales costarricense. Hacia un mejor entendimiento de su tipo de arreglo institucional

    Legrand, Thomas; Le Coq, Jean François; Froger, Géraldine
    Despite the national program of Payment for Environmental Services of Costa Rica (PPSA for its Spanish acronym) has been presented as a market based mechanism, it has been demonstrated that this program do not fit with this ideal type. This paper aims at clarify the type of institutional arrangement of the PPSA through an analysis of the underlying principle of justice of the program and its governance structure. Using the analytical matrix of Pascual et al. (2010) and Wunder (2005), the analysis of the principle of justice of the program show that the program cannot be considered as “neoliberal” as...

  7. On a "most telling" argument for paraconsistent logic

    Michael, Michaelis
    Priest and others have presented their "most telling" argument for paraconsistent logic: that only paraconsistent logics allow non-trivial inconsistent theories. This is a very prevalent argument; occurring as it does in the work of many relevant and more generally paraconsistent logicians. However this argument can be shown to be unsuccessful. There is a crucial ambiguity in the notion of non-triviality. Disambiguated the most telling reason for paraconsistent logics is either question-begging or mistaken. This highlights an important confusion about the role of logic in our development of our theories of the world. Does logic chart good reasoning or our commitments?...

  8. A non-probabilist principle of higher-order reasoning

    Talbott, William J
    The author uses a series of examples to illustrate two versions of a new, nonprobabilist principle of epistemic rationality, the special and general versions of the metacognitive, expected relative frequency (MERF) principle. These are used to explain the rationality of revisions to an agent's degrees of confidence in propositions based on evidence of the reliability or unreliability of the cognitive processes responsible for them--especially reductions in confidence assignments to propositions antecedently regarded as certain--including certainty-reductions to instances of the law of excluded middle or the law of noncontradiction in logic or certainty-reductions to the certainties of probabilist epistemology. The author...

  9. "How" questions and the manner-method distinction

    Sæbø, Kjell Johan
    How questions are understudied in philosophy and linguistics. They can be answered in very different ways, some of which are poorly understood. Jaworski (Synthese 166:133-155, 2009 ) identifies several types: (i) 'manner', (ii) 'method, means or mechanism', (iii) 'cognitive resolution', and develops a logic designed to enable us to distinguish among them. Some key questions remain open, however, in particular, whether these distinctions derive from an ambiguity in how, from differences in the logical structure of the question or from contextual underspecification. Arguing from two classes of responses, adverbs and by gerunds, I give the answer that the logical structure...

  10. Discovery without a 'logic' would be a miracle

    Jantzen, Benjamin C.
    Scientists routinely solve the problem of supplementing one's store of variables with new theoretical posits that can explain the previously inexplicable. The banality of success at this task obscures a remarkable fact. Generating hypotheses that contain novel variables and accurately project over a limited amount of additional data is so difficult--the space of possibilities so vast--that succeeding through guesswork is overwhelmingly unlikely despite a very large number of attempts. And yet scientists do generate hypotheses of this sort in very few tries. I argue that this poses a dilemma: either the long history of scientific success is a miracle, or...

  11. The logic of Logic and the Basis of Ethics

    Rini, Adriane
    What is it that is doing the real work in Prior's 1949 book Logic and the Basis of Ethics? As Prior's title announces, it seems that the answer is logic. But what exactly does this mean to Prior?

  12. Prior's individuals

    Slater, Hartley
    Criticisms have been aired before (see Bealer 1982 , Schiffer 2003 for example) about the fear (which Arthur Prior shared) of certain Platonic abstract objects, propositions. That criticism extends to the widespread preference (which Prior initiated) for an operator analysis of expressions like 'It is true, known, obligatory that p' as opposed to the predicative analysis in their equivalents 'That p is true, known, obligatory'. The criticism in the present work also concerns Prior's attitude to Platonic entities of a certain kind: not propositions, i.e., the referents of 'that'-clauses, but individuals, i.e., the referents of Russell's 'logically proper names'. Prior...

  13. Prior, translational semantics, and the Barcan formula

    Copeland, B. Jack
    The revolution in semantics in the late 1960s and 1970s overturned an earlier competing paradigm, 'translational' semantics. I revive and defend Prior's translational semantics for modals and tense-modals. I also show how to extend Prior's propositional modal semantics to quantificational modal logic, and use the resulting semantics to formalize Prior's own counterexample to the Barcan Formula.

  14. Solving Prior's problem with a Priorean tool

    Pleitz, Martin
    I will show how a metaphysical problem of Arthur Prior's can be solved by a logical tool he developed himself, but did not put to any foundational use: metric logic. The broader context is given by the key question about the metaphysics of time: Is time tenseless, i.e., is time just a structure of instants; or is time tensed, because some facts are irreducibly tensed? I take sides with Prior and the tensed theory. Like him, I therefore I have to deal with a more specific metaphysical question: How can the instants of tenseless time be reduced to tensed facts?...

  15. Prior's paradigm for the study of time and its methodological motivation

    Hasle, Per; Øhrstrøm, Peter
    A. N. Prior's writings should obviously be studied already for historical reasons. His inventions of modern temporal logic and hybrid logic are clearly important events in the history of logic. But the enduring importance of studying his works also rests on his methodological approach, which remains highly relevant also for systematical reasons. In this paper we argue that Prior's formulation in the 1950s of a tense-logical paradigm for the study of time should be understood in the light of at least three other principles or perspectives which were manifest already in his studies during the 1940s and further developed in...

  16. Prior on the semantics of modal and tense logic

    Cresswell, M. J.
    In celebrating Arthur Prior we celebrate what he gave to the world. Much of this is measured by what others have made of his ideas after his death. The focus of this paper is a little different. It looks at what Prior himself thought he was accomplishing. In particular it considers Prior's attitude to the semantic metatheory of the logics that he was interested in. The paper sets out some characteristics of the metalogical study of intensional languages in terms of an indexical theory of truth conditions stated in the language of set theory. In examining Prior's work using these...

  17. Prior's tonk, notions of logic, and levels of inconsistency: vindicating the pluralistic unity of science in the light of categorical logical positivism

    Maruyama, Yoshihiro
    There are still on-going debates on what exactly is wrong with Prior's pathological "tonk." In this article I argue, on the basis of categorical inferentialism, that (i) two notions of inconsistency ought to be distinguished in an appropriate account of tonk; (ii) logic with tonk is inconsistent as the theory of propositions, and it is due to the fallacy of equivocation; (iii) in contrast to this diagnosis of the Prior's tonk problem, nothing is actually wrong with tonk if logic is viewed as the theory of proofs rather than propositions, and tonk perfectly makes sense in terms of the identity...

  18. Possible worlds in "The Craft of Formal Logic"

    Markoska-cubrinovska, Aneta
    "The Craft of Formal Logic" is Arthur Prior's unpublished textbook, written in 1950-51, in which he developed a theory of modality as quantification over possible worlds-like objects. This theory predates most of the prominent pioneering texts in possible worlds semantics and anticipates the significance of its basic concept in modal logic. Prior explicitly defines modal operators as quantifiers of 'entities' with modal character. Although he talks about these 'entities' only informally, and hesitates how to name them, using alternately the phrases 'possible states of affairs', 'chances', 'cases' or 'peculiar objects', he is nevertheless very clear that they should be the...

  19. Partial and paraconsistent approaches to future contingents in tense logic

    Akama, Seiki; Murai, Tetsuya; Kudo, Yasuo
    The problem of future contingents is regarded as an important philosophical problem in connection with determinism and it should be treated by tense logic. Prior's early work focused on the problem, and later Prior studied branching-time tense logic which was invented (i.e. first suggested) by Kripke. However, Prior's idea to use three-valued logic for the problem seems to be still alive. In this paper, we consider partial and paraconsistent approaches to the problem of future contingents. These approaches theoretically meet Aristotle's interpretation of future contingents.

  20. Sistema de adquisición de datos meteorológicos en tiempo real con PLC

    Guzmán Luna, Ricardo; Quevedo Nolasco, Abel; Tijerina Chávez, Leonardo; Castro Popoca, Martiniano
    The objective of this work was to develop a system of acquisition of meteorological data in real time, using a programmable logic controller (PLC) as an alternative within the commercial weather stations. For sensing the air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, precipitation, wind speed and direction, commercial sensors were used during 2013, to test the station, in the meteorological station of the Graduate College, Campus Montecillo. The system consists of a PLC (CX1020 model, make Beckhoff), a laptop where an application for real-time monitoring that was developed in Visual Basic 2010 Express and the database MySQL was installed to store...

Aviso de cookies: Usamos cookies propias y de terceros para mejorar nuestros servicios, para análisis estadístico y para mostrarle publicidad. Si continua navegando consideramos que acepta su uso en los términos establecidos en la Política de cookies.