Mostrando recursos 281 - 300 de 167,149

  1. Matching product architecture with supply chain design

    Nepal, Bimal; Monplaisir, Leslie; Famuyiwa, Oluwafemi
    Product architecture is typically established in the early stages of the product development (PD) cycle. Depending on the type of architecture selected, product design, manufacturing processes, and ultimately supply chain configuration are all significantly affected. Therefore, it is important to integrate product architecture decisions with manufacturing and supply chain decisions during the early stage of the product development. In this paper, we present a multi-objective optimization framework for matching product architecture strategy to supply chain design. In contrast to the existing operations management literature, we incorporate the compatibility between the supply chain partners into our model to ensure the long...

  2. Utilities’ business models for renewable energy: A review

    Richter, Mario
    The transformation of today's electric power sector to a more sustainable energy production based on renewable energies will change the structure of the industry. Consequently, utilities as the major stakeholders in this transformation will face new challenges in their way of doing business. They will have to adapt their business models to remain competitive in the new energy landscape. The present review of business model literature shows that two basic choices exist: utility-side business models and customer-side business models. The two approaches follow a very different logic of value creation. While the former is based on a small number of...

  3. Conversations with(in) the collective unconscious by consumers, brands, and relevant others

    Woodside, Arch G.; Megehee, Carol M.; Sood, Suresh
    Jung's (2009) paintings of his dreams to enable conscious interpretation of his conversations within the collective unconscious informs a call for creating visual narrative art to inform meanings of personal and collective unconscious relating to stories consumers tell about buying and using brands. This study describes 13 conversations relevant to the study of conscious and the collective unconscious for consumer–brand relationships/communications. The 13 conversations' paradigm is useful for complementing the dominant logic by scholars of asking questions and relying on consumer conscious interpretations in their responses. The article advocates the use of multiple methods for both collecting and interpreting consumer–brand...

  4. Sustainable product development based on second law of thermodynamics

    Winkler, Wolfgang
    The necessary reduction of the human footprint demanded by Sustainable Development can be measured by the entropy flow of the society to the environment. The classic tools of process evaluation as e.g. exergetic or life cycle analysis are able to evaluate existing solutions. But their use during the design phase is quite limited because of lacking information about the system and its components. They may be helpful for evolutionary development strategies on a long term only. But reversible process structures can be used as benchmarks already in the conceptual design phase to introduce the demands of the second law. It...

  5. Contracting with self-esteem concerns

    Ishida, Junichiro
    It is widely accepted in social psychology that the need to maintain and enhance self-esteem is a fundamental human motive. We incorporate this factor into an otherwise ordinary principal–agent framework and examine its impact on the optimal incentive scheme and the agent's behavior, especially focusing on the form of intrapersonal strategy known as self-handicapping. Incorporating self-esteem concerns into a contracting situation yields an implication that runs counter to conventional wisdom; that is, the standard tradeoff between risk and incentives may break down (i.e., more uncertainty reduces agency cost and hence results in stronger incentives) in the presence of self-esteem concerns....

  6. ABCD analysis of Stage Model in Higher Education

    Aithal, Sreeramana; V.T., Shailashree; Kumar, Suresh
    Most of the higher education institutions affiliated to public Universities introduced value additions to reinforce the relevance and strength of the course even if they had constraints of autonomy. Of late, the cry for quality has brought forward the ++ model in various under graduate and post graduate courses, which is competency building through ‘stage based quality assurance strategy’ that promotes bridging curriculum gaps, imparting skills and creating a mindset favourable to managing business or work as entrepreneurs. The institution can develop a model of student development and enhance graduate attributes by means of focused development plan. In semester based...

  7. Abertura, competitividade e desoneração fiscal

    Rogerio L. F. Werneck
    Tendo em vista o padrão de comércio da economia brasileira, o aumento paulatino daparticipação de bens importados na oferta de produtos industriais no País é simples einexorável decorrência lógica do processo de abertura. Mas a resistência política a esseaumento de participação das importações vem sendo exacerbada pela perda decompetitividade da indústria de transformação que, só muito recentemente, deixou deser associada exclusivamente ao câmbio.Passou agora a ser percebido com mais clareza que o aumento persistente do CustoBrasil – decorrente, em boa parte, da elevação sem fim da carga tributária e dasdeficiências dos três níveis de governo no desempenho das funções que...

  8. An exploration of ambiguity logic in organizations

    Yang, Yung-Kai

  9. Célibat définitif et mariage tardif aux Pays-Bas, 1890-1960

    Theo Engelen; Jan Kok
    This article focuses on the two well-known mechanisms of marriage restraint in Europe. The leading question is whether permanent celibacy is an unintended consequence of delayed marriage or can be conceived of as a more or less independent phenomenon. We use a nationwide sample of the Dutch birth cohort 1890-1909 and compare the life courses of persons who never married and those who married at an advanced age. This analysis shows how in various regional and social subpopulations different combinations of permanent celibacy and age at marriage existed. Permanent celibacy was not simply the result of late age at marriage....

  10. Формирование многомерных данных с использованием промежуточных представлений

    Зыкин Сергей Владимирович; Полуянов Андрей Николаевич
    Рассмотрена проблема автоматизации формирования многомерных таблиц данных из исходной реляционной базы данных с произвольной схемой. Для формирования размерностей таких таблиц предложено использовать ранее сформированные системой представления данных. Возможность повторного использования представлений определяется путем вычисления областей истинности логических выражений.The problem of automation of formation of multidimensional data tables from a source relational database with undefined scheme is considered. For formation of dimensions of such tables the use of data presentations earlier generated by the system is proposed. The opportunity of reuse of representations is defined by calculation of truth domains of logic expressions.

  11. Математическое моделирование и управление процессами в системах автоматизации промышленных установок с помощью многозначных нейронных сетей

    Мещеряков Виктор Николаевич; Мещерякова Ольга Викторовна; Сараев Павел Викторович
    Рассмотрена многозначная пороговая логика, на которой базируются основные принципы многозначных нейронов, перечислены преимущества многозначных нейронных сетей. Для многозначного нейрона определена функция активации и приведены алгоритм обучения и алгоритм обучения многозначной нейронной сети методом обратного распространения ошибки. Предложен метод применения многозначных нейронных сетей для решения задачи моделирования технологических процессов.The paper considers a multi-valued threshold logic, which is the base of multi-valued neurons, discusses the advantages of complex-valued neural networks. The complex-valued activation function is defined for the multi-valued neuron and the backpropagation learning algorithms for the multi-valued neuron and complex-valued neural networks are considered. Further, a method of applying complex-valued neural...

  12. Логические модели выбора решения в самоорганизующихся системах

    Легович Юрий Сергеевич; Максимов Дмитрий Юрьевич
    Предложен подход к автоматизации реконфигурирования самоорганизующихся систем при изменении цели управления. Для оценки предпочтительности вариантов реконфигурирования системы применяются новые операции многозначной логики. Подход продемонстрирован на примере реконфигурирования системы в процессе ликвидации чрезвычайной ситуации.An approach to automatic reconfiguring of control systems with changing control goal is proposed. New logic operations that are used in determining of the system behavior variant priorities are defined. As an example the approach was used to reconfigure the system in the course of emergency first response.

  13. О системном подходе в оценке собственности

    КАСЬЯНЕНКО ТАТЬЯНА ГЕННАДЬЕВНА
    Based on many examples, the author examines the use of main instruments of systemic approach in the process of evaluation and shows the ways of modeling of notions and processes, as well as the use of systemic analysis in the process of evaluation. The author shows how important it is to know the principles of classification when studying the definitions of evaluative notions and to use principles of formal logic for the correct reasoning.

  14. Doorsteps Toward Political and Economic Openness: Testing the North-Wallis-Weingast Transition Framework

    Sophia Gollwitzer Franke; Marc Quintyn
    In this paper, we test the theoretical framework developed by North, Wallis, and Weingast (2009), who posit that limited-access societies need to meet three doorstep conditions before they can transit into open-access societies: (1) establishment of rule of law among elites, (2) adoption of perpetually existing organizations, and (3) political control of the military. We identify indicators reflecting these doorsteps and econometrically test their relationships with specific political and economic variables. We broadly confirm the logic behind the doorsteps as necessary conditions in the transition to open-access societies. The doorsteps influence economic and political processes, as well as each other,...

  15. Dragon on a Short Leash : An Inside-Out Analysis of China Investment Corporation

    Sarah Eaton; Zhang Yuxuan
    Rapid growth in the number and size of sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) in recent years has occasioned a broad-ranging policy debate about how best to accommodate or, indeed, limit the participation of these funds in the worlds capital markets. The announcement in March 2007 that China would open an SWF, with an initial investment of US $200 billion, substantially raised the pitch of this debate as pundits and policymakers around the world pondered the impact that Chinas massive foreign exchange reserves could have on world markets. Among those worried about the SWF boom many argue, as Larry Summers has, that...

  16. Managing Capital Flows in an Economic Community : The Case of ASEAN Capital Account Liberalization

    Yung Chul Park; Shinji Takagi
    The paper uses the emerging Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Economic Community as a motivation to explore the issue of capital flow management in an economic community. Although there is an increasingly shared view that capital flow management measures should be part of the routine policy toolkit of emerging market economies, the logic of an economic community appears incompatible with extensive controls on capital flows. Substantial, if not complete, capital account liberalization must therefore take place across ASEAN. Few ASEAN countries are expected to have dismantled all capital account restrictions by 2015, thus requiring little need to introduce an...

  17. Applying the Lessons of Asia : The IMF’s Crisis Management Strategy in 2008

    Shinji Takagi
    The paper examines the recent European crisis management programs of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to see how the lessons of Asia were applied. Compared to the Asian programs of 1997, the European programs of 2008 were better funded and their structural conditionality more focused. Other than these, the overall thrust of the programs was similar : fiscal and monetary tightening, coupled with banking reforms. The real difference, however, was not so much about content but about philosophy. Relative to the Asian programs, the European programs were characterized by more emphasis on ownership, greater collaboration among stakeholders, more realistic assumptions...

  18. Managing Capital Flows in an Economic Community : The Case of ASEAN Capital Account Liberalization

    Yung Chul Park; Shinji Takagi
    The paper uses the emerging Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Economic Community as a motivation to explore the issue of capital flow management in an economic community. Although there is an increasingly shared view that capital flow management measures should be part of the routine policy toolkit of emerging market economies, the logic of an economic community appears incompatible with extensive controls on capital flows. Substantial, if not complete, capital account liberalization must therefore take place across ASEAN. Few ASEAN countries are expected to have dismantled all capital account restrictions by 2015, thus requiring little need to introduce an...

  19. Managing Capital Flows in an Economic Community : The Case of ASEAN Capital Account Liberalization

    Yung Chul Park; Shinji Takagi
    The paper uses the emerging Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Economic Community as a motivation to explore the issue of capital flow management in an economic community. Although there is an increasingly shared view that capital flow management measures should be part of the routine policy toolkit of emerging market economies, the logic of an economic community appears incompatible with extensive controls on capital flows. Substantial, if not complete, capital account liberalization must therefore take place across ASEAN. Few ASEAN countries are expected to have dismantled all capital account restrictions by 2015, thus requiring little need to introduce an...

  20. Trade Policy Mix under the WTO : Protection of TRIPS and R&D Subsidies

    Moonsung Kang
    This paper provides a theoretical framework to explain why governments seek restrictions on IPR protection and allow R&D subsidies through multilateral trade agreements such as the TRIPS Agreement and the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures. After 7 years of discussion, the Uruguay Round extends GATTs trade-liberalizing philosophy to worldwide use of subsidies as a secondary means to intervene in international trade. Through the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures the WTO tries to preserve one of basic principles of GATTs philosophy : Fair Competition. The principle of Fair Competition is of particular importance in understanding the WTO. To harness...

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