Mostrando recursos 281 - 300 de 23.500

  1. Active accountability: A cross-case study of two schools negotiating improvement, change, and organizational integrity

    Gasoi, Emily
    Educational accountability has come to be defined almost exclusively in terms of schools meeting external standards of improvement. Building on a body of scholarship that presents schools as complex organizations, this research proposes that a more robust understanding of educational accountability must be grounded in practitioners perceptions of what being accountable means and how they enact accountable practices within the context of their particular school settings. Specifically, this study draws on one line of scholarship that conceptualizes strong internal accountability as the alignment between individual, collective, and organizational understandings of for what and to whom each is accountable, and another...

  2. Antiquity, prehistory, culture: American narratives of the distant past, 1787--1867

    Mucher, Christen
    This dissertation traces the ways in which history was imagined in the 18th and 19th centuries in the New World. By looking at non-professional history writers of the period—such as poets, fiction writers, linguists, politicians, and especially explorer/archaeologists—I have found that the past has been imagined and organized in no one way, and that the turn to archaeological and other material objects from the "past" consistently exerted power over the development of different ways for creating historical narratives. My main claim is that the belief objects "tell stories" and provide unparalleled access to the past can be tracked to the...

  3. Conceptual flexibility: Behavioral and neural variations in semantic memory retrieval

    Hsu, Nina Shen
    Understanding the neural organization of semantic memory — our shared general knowledge — has the potential to uncover the neural mechanisms by which we give meaning to the endless array of objects that we encounter in the world. One prominent set of theories posits a distributed organization of semantic memory — remembering object features activates brain regions overlapping with or adjacent to regions involved in perceiving and acting on those features (e.g., Allport, 1985). Despite accumulated evidence favoring these theories, it is important to understand both the commonalities in the mapping between perception and memory, as well as meaningful variability...

  4. The process of adoption of small scale irrigation in rural Mexico

    Martinez de Benitez, Elvia
    Case studies about the process of production in agriculture of four Mexican Communities with small scale irrigation are presented. ^ Peasantry is viewed as a sui-generis system of production with a rationality which guides productive decisions for the obtention of a culturally defined subsistence level, which cannot be measured by the common factor of money. Peasant economic units are seen as subordinated parts of a dominant socio-economic system. Relations of domination are explained by the concept of articulation which is manifested by the asymmetry of exchanges with the larger system to the detriment of the peasants. Exchanges imply transferences of...

  5. The electronic, structural and sensing properties of graphene nanostructures

    Lu, Ye
    The work presented in this thesis focuses on the electronic, structural and chemical properties of graphene nanostructures. ^ In the first set of experiments we investigate the intrinsic sensing properties of pristine graphene, prospects of chemical sensors derived from single stranded DNA (ss-DNA) decorated graphene and photosensitivity of polyhistidine-tagged (His-tagged) protein functionalized graphene transistors. As a true 2D material, graphene has all its atoms on its surface, very high room temperature carrier mobility and relatively low electrical noise. These advantages render graphene as a very promising candidate for sensor/detector applications. These applications require the fabrication of graphene electronic devices through...

  6. Piezoelectric aluminum nitride dual-beam relays for mechanical computing

    Sinha, Nipun
    The continuous scaling of the metal-oxide-semiconductor-field-effect-transistor (MOSFET) has led to the emergence of some key issues, like high standby leakage and inability to rapidly scale supply voltages, which are due to the fundamental physics of operation of the CMOS transistor. No alternatives or roadmap for solving these challenges has yet been identified. The recognition of this problem by the industry has led to a demand on the development of alternative technologies such as mechanical relays. ^ This work describes the design, fabrication and testing of dual-beam mechanical relays for the development of logic elements that can be integrated with present...

  7. A macroeconomic approach to a firm's capital structure

    Katagiri, Mitsuru
    In this paper, I investigate the logic behind cross sectional dispersion of firm’s capital structure. I incorporate the trade off between tax benefits and financial distress costs into a dynamic general equilibrium model with heterogeneous firms and their endogenous entry/exit, and compute an equilibrium firm distribution. ^ The main findings are summarized as follows. First, I find that the equilibrium distribution approximates the dispersion of firms’ capital structure well. Second, I find that it simultaneously accounts for the relationship of capital structure to profitability and firm size. The key mechanisms are the difference in responses to persistent and transitory productivity...

  8. Commanding military power: Organizational sources of victory on the battlefield

    Grauer, Ryan D
    Why are some militaries more powerful than others? The answer to this question is important for both scholars and practitioners of international relations. For scholars, knowing why some actors are more capable of generating military force than others facilitates deeper understandings of the factors, dynamics, and processes that drive world politics. For practitioners, such knowledge can improve budgetary and strategic decision-making in an uncertain international environment. Despite the importance of this question, however, current scholarship does not provide a clear answer. This dissertation presents a new framework for thinking about the sources of military power. Drawing on the logic of...

  9. Tainted altruism: Explorations into charitable credit for doing good

    Lin, Fern
    There has been much research on prosocial behavior, especially on factors that increase prosocial behavior and prosocial actors’ motives. Few researchers, however, have investigated how people perceive prosocial actors. When do prosocial actors get more—or less—“charitable credit” for their good deeds? While some factors that affect charitable credit are obvious, I demonstrate two that are not. First, I demonstrate that charitable donors get less credit when they have a personal connection to the target cause. Even in the absence of clear potential gain, these donors are nonetheless perceived as more selfishly motivated. A personal connection increases the likelihood of supporting...

  10. The Constitutive A Priori and the Structure of Physical Knowledge

    Franco, Paul L
    My dissertation aims to answer two questions: first, what does it mean for certain elements of knowledge to be constitutive of the possibility of physical knowledge and how is it connected to a priority? Second, given that constitutive elements can be abandoned and new ones adopted in response to logical, mathematical, and physical findings, what distinguishes them from mere empirical statements? In answering these questions, I claim that physical knowledge is made possible by certain a priori elements of knowledge that provide the criteria for making well-formed, precise, and determinate empirical statements about objects, their behavior, and their relationships in...

  11. BYNUM: THE COMING OF MILL VILLAGE LIFE TO A NORTH CAROLINA COUNTY (TEXTILES, OCCUPATIONAL FOLKLORE, LABOR HISTORY, WORKERS, SOUTHERN UNITED STATES)

    DE NATALE, DOUGLAS PAUL
    The textile industry of the southeastern United States has engendered an extensive literature concerning southern mill life, but it is a literature burdened with a common frustration. No study sufficiently accounts for the attitudes and actions of southern mill workers, whose history of labor relations strongly contrasts with that of northeastern industrial workers. Southern mill workers are commonly judged passive and self-abasing, trapped in a submissive role by the system of paternalism. This supposed passivity is considered the lingering effect of workers' previous, long-term experience at the bottom of the social hierarchy. This view rests on an entrenched tradition of...

  12. Identity, Identification, and Media Representation in Video Game Play: An audience reception study

    Shaw, Adrienne
    Research on minority representation in video games usually asserts: 1. the industry excludes certain audiences by not representing them; 2. everyone should be provided with characters they can identify with; and 3. media representation has knowable effects. In contrast, this dissertation engages with audiences' relationship to gamer identity, how players interact with game texts (identification and interaction), and their thoughts about media representation. This dissertation uses interviews and participant observation to investigate why, when and how representation is important to individuals who are members of marginalized groups, focusing on sexuality, gender and race, in the U.S. The data demonstrate that...

  13. Regulatory conformance checking: Logic and logical form

    Dinesh, Nikhil
    We consider the problem of checking whether an organization conforms to a body of regulation. Conformance is studied in a runtime verification setting. The regulation is translated to a logic, from which we synthesize monitors. The monitors are evaluated as the state of an organization evolves over time, raising an alarm if a violation is detected. An important challenge to this approach comes from the fact that regulations are commonly expressed in natural language. The translation to logic is difficult. Our goal is to assist in this translation by: (a) the design of logics that let us formalize regulation one...

  14. Your Ad Here: The Cool Sell of Guerrilla Marketing

    Serazio, Michael
    This dissertation examines the development of guerrilla marketing strategies and techniques. At the dawn of the 21st century, as the traditional advertising model evolves thanks to changes in technology, markets, commercial clutter, and audience cynicism, marketers are increasingly exploring new and re-imagining old ways of communicating brand messages and managing consumers. By studying the practice of guerrilla marketing – the umbrella term here for an assortment of product placement, outdoor alternative-ambient, word-of-mouth, and consumer-generated approaches – we can better understand an emergent media environment where cultural producers like advertisers strategize and experiment with the dissemination of information and the application...

  15. Endings in short biblical narratives

    Zeelander, Susan B
    There has been much study of the narrative aspects of the Bible in recent years, but the ends of biblical narratives—how the ends contribute to closure for their stories, whether there are closural conventions that biblical writers regularly used, in what ways the ending strategies affect the whole narrative—have not been studied. Knowledge of closural conventions can address these questions and even whether biblical writers used them intuitively or intentionally. This dissertation is the first thorough study of the ends of biblical narratives; its prime data are the relatively short narratives in Genesis 1-35 and 38. ^ The first step...

  16. Incomplete information and robustness in strategic environments

    Penta, Antonio
    Game theoretic modeling involves making assumptions on agents' infinite hierarchies of beliefs. These assumptions are understood to be only approximately satisfied in the actual situation. Thus, the significance of game theoretic predictions depend on robustness properties of the solution concepts adopted. Chapter 1 discusses recent results in this research area and their relations with the results obtained in the subsequent chapters. Chapter 2 explores the impact of misspecification of higher order beliefs in static environments, when arbitrary common knowledge assumptions on payoffs are relaxed. (Existing literature focuses on the extreme case in which all such assumptions are relaxed.) Chapter 3...

  17. Aura: Programming with authorization and audit

    Vaughan, Jeffrey A
    Standard programming models do not provide direct ways of managing secret or untrusted data. This is a problem because programmers must use ad hoc methods to ensure that secrets are not leaked and, conversely, that tainted data is not used to make critical decisions. This dissertation advocates integrating cryptography and language-based analyses in order to build programming environments for declarative information security, in which high-level specifications of confidentiality and integrity constraints are automatically enforced in hostile execution environments.^ This dissertation describes Aura, a family of programing languages which integrate functional programming, access control via authorization logic, automatic audit logging, and...

  18. Why girls fight: Female violence in inner cities

    Ness, Cindy D
    Drawing heavily on Edward Sapir's synthesis of culture and personality, this study explores both the social and cultural organization of female youth violence in two Philadelphia inner city neighborhoods on a collective level as well as the individual-level responses to those structuring conditions. The dissertation considers girls' everyday street fights, which constitute the majority of encounters in which girls in inner cities physically aggress. The study especially seeks to consider the instrumental and symbolic value that physical aggression has for girls in inner cities. It addresses both the "emotional logic" that underlies and organizes girls' thinking about violence and how...

  19. Investigations into the problems of moral cognition

    DeScioli, Peter
    Evolutionary theorists since Darwin have viewed morality as a system designed for altruism. However, the experimentally demonstrated properties of moral cognition show that morality is not well engineered to deliver benefits to family, friends, or groups. Instead, it appears that human morality is underlain by a distinct cognitive system that is separate from systems responsible for human altruism. Here I suggest that a careful dissection of moral cognition will require attention to the strategic interactions among perpetrators, victims, and condemners, because these interactions ultimately determine the functionality of moral systems. In particular, I claim that actor conscience must be distinguished...

  20. A Paris of the mind: French emigre fiction and the exiled Republic of Letters: 1789-1815

    McCartney, Elizabeth
    In Le voyageur sentimental en France, sous Robespierre (An VII), François Vernes de Genève suggests, "[R]end[ons] quelque force à…la législation du sentiment." He addresses a central contradiction of the French Revolution—that France's enlightenment-era democracy imposed tyrannical bans on its vibrant cultural milieu. This dissertation draws on newspapers, memoirs, journals, and novels to show how émigrés from France took their literary assets—prized authors, literary newspapers, salons, and printing presses—abroad, causing a schism that pitted the First Republic of France against an "exiled Republic of Letters." In the first section, it reconstructs the publishing and printing venues of the major works of...

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