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Nomenclatura Unesco > (11) Lógica

Mostrando recursos 281 - 300 de 145,776

281. La philosophie du Son - Casati, Roberto; Dokic, Jérôme
We discuss the distinction between the sensory modalities; the metaphysics of sounds; and the structure of sound space. We defend a physicalist conception of sounds, without accepting the identification of sounds with sound-waves in the medium. Sounds, we hold, are events in resonating objects. We evaluate the two main accounts of orientation in perceptual space: relationism (the theory that an object's position in the perceptual field is determined only by its relation to other objects) and absolutism (the theory that an object's position in the perceptual field is determined only by intrinsic, non-reducible orientation properties). We then address Strawson's problem...

282. Logical reasons - Engel, Pascal
I argue in this paper that there is a structural analogy between the problem of moral reasons (Smith 1994) in metaethics and the problem of logical reasons in the philosophy of logic: how can logical reasons move us to infer? I review various answers to this problem and argue that any solution to it must involve a psychology story about inference.

283. "the Moral Logic and Growth of Suicide Terrorism" - Atran, Scott
Suicide attack is the most virulent and horrifying form of terrorism in the world today. The mere rumor of an impending suicide attack can throw thousands of people into panic. This occurred during a Shi‘a procession in Iraq in late August 2005, causing hundreds of deaths. Although suicide attacks account for a minority of all terrorist acts, they are responsible for a majority of all terrorism-related casualties, and the rate of attacks is rising rapidly across the globe. During 2000–2004, there were 472 suicide attacks in 22 countries, killing more than 7,000 and wounding tens of thousands. Most have been...

284. Moderate Relativism - Recanati, François
In modal logic, propositions are evaluated relative to possible worlds. A proposition may be true relative to a world w, and false relative to another world w'. Relativism is the view that the relativization idea extends beyond possible worlds and modalities. Thus, in tense logic, propositions are evaluated relative to times. A proposition (e.g. the proposition that Socrates is sitting) may be true relative to a time t, and false relative to another time t'. In this paper I discuss, and attempt to rebut, two classical objections to Relativism. The first objection, due to Frege, is the objection from incompleteness....

285. Che cosa spiega una teoria dell'arte? (What is a theory of art about?) - Casati, Roberto
Lo spazio logico delle teorie artistiche, e una proposta per una teoria sociale dell'arte.

286. Can mereological sums serve as the semantic values of plurals? - NICOLAS, David
Friends of plural logic—like Oliver & Smiley (2001), Rayo (2002), Yi (2005), and McKay (2006)—have argued that a semantics of plurals based on mereological sums would be too weak, and they have adduced several examples in favor of their claim. However, they have not considered various possible counter-arguments. So how convincing are their own arguments? We show that several of them are easily answered, while some others are more problematic. Overall, the case against mereological singularism—the idea that mereological sums can serve as the semantic values of plurals—turns out to be less strong than what it is usually presented to...

287. False Truths - Stojanovic, Isidora
One of the most interesting and fruitful applications of logics, classical or other, has been in supplying formal frameworks for the semantics of natural language. In this paper, I discuss the following puzzle: there seem to be arguments that are logically valid - more precisely, that are instances of the rule of universal instantiation, and yet, the utterance of the premise is intuitively true while the conclusion is false. I will discuss two strategies, developed in response to different sorts of problems, that seem immediately applicable to this puzzle. While the so-called contextualist strategy blocks the puzzle at the level...

288. How Words Could End a War - Atran, Scott; Ginges, Jeremy
AS diplomats stitch together a cease-fire between Hamas and Israel, the most depressing feature of the conflict is the sense that future fighting is inevitable. Rational calculation suggests that neither side can win these wars. The thousands of lives and billions of dollars sacrificed in fighting demonstrate the advantages of peace and coexistence; yet still both sides opt to fight. This small territory is the world's great symbolic knot. “Palestine is the mother of all problems” is a common refrain among people we have interviewed across the Muslim world: from Middle Eastern leaders to fighters in the remote island jungles...

289. Proofs, Reasoning and the Metamorphosis of Logic - Joinet, Jean-Baptiste
Revised version of a conference given under title "From Natural Deduction to the nature of reasoning", at the colloquium Natural Deduction organized by Luiz Carlos Pereira and dedicated to the work of Dag Prawitz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 2001.

290. Meaning, Context, and Logical Truth - Stojanovic, Isidora
Included in a special issue, edited by J. van Benthem and A. Gupta, on "Logic and Philosophy Today"

291. Notas sobre el fundamento racional de aspectos estéticos en las teorías científicas - Ferro, Virginia
Tradicionalmente la Filosofía de la Ciencia ha estudiado aspectos de indole racional o cognoscitivos vinculándolos con el llamado "criterio de demarcación". Desde ésta mirada son consideradas como características deseables en una teoría científica: la consistencia, la parsimonia, la pertinencia, la falsabilidad o testabilidad, la reproductibilidad, la corregibilidad y dinámica, la posibilidad de integración con teorías previas. Weinberg, en "El sueño de una Teoría Final" (1994), discute qué se entiende en Física por "Belleza" de una teoría, centrándose en aspectos tales como: simplicidad, simetría, inevitabilidad y rigidez lógica. Posturas filosóficas poskuhnianas (Mc Allister, 1995; 1996) y Chandrasekhar (1987) han realizado aportes...

292. Logic of Time Division on Intervals of Finite Size - Tulenheimo, Tero
Logic of time division (or TD) was formulated in (Tulenheimo, 2008). It is syntactically like basic modal logic with an additional unary operator but it has an interval-based semantics. The formula is interpreted as meaning 'the current interval has a finite partition of size at least two such that all its members are non-empty and satisfy .' In the present paper the expressive power of TD is studied on the class K_fin of all intervals of finite size. This logic is characterized from the viewpoint of formal language theory by using certain regular-like operators. We prove that TD is not...

293. Insights into Modal Slash Logic and Modal Decidability - Tulenheimo, Tero
Publication in the series REPORTS IN INFORMATION SCIENCES, no 6, of SCHOOL OF INFORMATION SCIENCES, UNIVERSITY OF TAMPERE

294. Logic of gauge - Afriat, Alexander
The logic of gauge theory is considered by tracing its development from general relativity to Yang-Mills theory, through Weyl's two gauge theories. A handful of elements---which for want of better terms can be called \emph{geometrical justice}, \emph{matter wave}, \emph{second clock effect}, \emph{twice too many energy levels}---are enough to produce Weyl's second theory; and from there, all that's needed to reach the Yang-Mills formalism is a \emph{non-Abelian structure group} (say $\mathbb{SU}\textrm{(}N\textrm{)}$).

295. Rational planning for individual needs and capacities. Principles and Contexts - Picavet, Emmanuel; Guibet Lafaye, Caroline
Practical rationality, when collective choices are at stake, should certainly rely on principles. These principles are perhaps not without effect on our representation of the problems to be addressed in collective action. The authors investigate how this structuring role of pragmatic principles accounts for notable context-dependent features of governance procedures. In the field of social policies, for example, the enhancement of personal autonomy has come to the forefront of collective challenges. Capacity-based approaches indicate a way to put into question those conceptions of autonomy which lead to an excessively uniform treatment of individuals. Following these approaches, the beneficiaries of social...

296. Inquiry, Refutations and the Inconsistent - Baskent, Can
In this paper, I discuss the connection between Lakatosian method of proofs and refutations, Hintikkan models of interrogative inquiry and para-consistency. I bridge these different schools with dialectic, and their under-lying reliance on the inconsistent. Key words Lakatos's proofs and refutations, Hintikka's interrogative mod-els of inquiry, paraconsistency.

297. Which Society, Which Software? - Baskent, Can
In this paper, I discuss social software from the philosophical perspective of non-classical logic, and advocate incorporating non-classical logical tools into social software. In order to achieve this, I raise two questions: "Which Society?" and "Which Software". Similar to logical pluralism, I argue for a pluralistic view of social software.

298. O prestígio na capa : a construção jornalística da figura do editor de livros no suplemento Sabático (2010-2013) - Müller, Mariana Scalabrin
Esta dissertação busca identificar os índices de prestígio acionados pelo suplemento Sabático (2010-2013) na construção jornalística da figura do editor de livros feita a partir da capa, espaço emblemático de consagração. Baseado em um contrato que tem valor fiduciário, o jornalismo é capaz de legitimar e deslegitimar, conferir visibilidade ou silenciar, formando supostos consensos sobre a cultura de uma época. Os suplementos culturais atuam como um sistema perito, que foge da lógica diária de cobertura. Para atingir os objetivos propostos, reunimos todas edições do Sabático publicadas pelo jornal O Estado de S. Paulo, 160 ao todo, e mapeamos o conteúdo...

299. Sequential Logic of Polarity Determination during the Haploid-to-Diploid Transition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae - Zapanta Rinonos, Serendipity; Rai, Urvashi; Vereb, Sydney; Wolf, Kyle; Yuen, Eric; Lin, Cindy; Tartakoff, Alan Michael
In many organisms, the geometry of encounter of haploid germ cells is arbitrary. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the resulting zygotes have been seen to bud asymmetrically in several directions as they produce diploid progeny. What mechanisms account for the choice of direction, and do the mechanisms directing polarity change over time? Distinct subgroups of cortical “landmark” proteins guide budding by haploid versus diploid cells, both of which require the Bud1/Rsr1 GTPase to link landmarks to actin. We observed that as mating pairs of haploid cells form zygotes, bud site specification progresses through three phases. The first phase follows disassembly and limited...

300. Gene-Gene and Gene-Environment Interactions in Ulcerative Colitis - Wang, Ming-Hsi; Fiocchi, Claudio; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Ripke, Stephan; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Rebert, Nancy; Duerr, Richard H.; Achkar, Jean-Paul
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified at least 133 ulcerative colitis (UC) associated loci. The role of genetic factors in clinical practice is not clearly defined. The relevance of genetic variants to disease pathogenesis is still uncertain because of not characterized gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. We examined the predictive value of combining the 133 UC risk loci with genetic interactions in an ongoing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) GWAS. The Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium (WTCCC) IBD GWAS was used as a replication cohort. We applied logic regression (LR), a novel adaptive regression methodology, to search for high order interactions. Exploratory genotype...

 

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