
Bart Geurts
In the psychological literature on reasoning it has always been assumed that if there is such a thing as mental logic, it must be a set of inference rules. This prooftheoretic conception of mental logic is compatible with but doesn’t do justice to what, according to most logicians, logic is about. Thus, the ongoing debate over mental logic is based on a too narrow notion of logic. Adopting the broader perspective suggested by the standard (Tarskian) view on logic helps to clarify the debate and also shows that the case for mental logic is much stronger than its critics would...

Rémi Zajac
Abstract. In this paper, we show how the notion of "codescription " in LFG used for specifying a translation correspondence in a declarative way [Kaplan et al. 89] can be reformulated in a relational framework gaining modularity and reversibility of grammars. We illustrate this approach with a transfer example taken from [Kaplan et al. 89] using a logic formalism which has feature terms as basic data structures. This formalism is based on term rewriting and it integrates a powerful typing mechanism. In this formalism, the integration of a reversible grammar for a "source " language, a reversible contrastive grammar and...

Vineet Gupta

Juan Luis Castro; Jose Manuel Zurita
The main aim of this paper is to create a general truth maintenance system based on the De Kleer algorithm. This system (the ATMS) is to be designed so that it can be used in different propositional monotonic logic models of reasoning systems. The knowledge base system that will interact with it is described. Furthermore, we study the efficiency that transferring the ATMS to a logic with several truth values presupposes. Definitions and properties of the generic ATMS are particularized to interact both with a reasoning system based on muhivalued logic specifically for the case of[O, 1]valued logic and with...

Isaac Huffman; Bradley Hemminger
paper for the M.S. in L.S. degree. April 2006. Advisor Bradley Hemminger. This study describes a webbased survey regarding the effects of webbased survey tools on the survey process in library environments. Library employees who were likely to have conducted an online and print survey were contacted via email and asked to participate anonymously in the survey. The survey asked about survey recruitment, the layout process and various tools for data verification and analysis. A total of twentythree library employees responded. The data was evaluated qualitatively. The survey results indicated that online questionnaires had a positive effect on the survey...

Yang Qu; Juhapekka Soininen; Jari Nurmi
Multitasking on reconfigurable logic can achieve very high silicon reusability. However, configuration latency is a major limitation and it can largely degrade the system performance. One reason is that tasks can run in parallel but configurations of the tasks can be done only in sequence. This work presents a novel configuration model to enable configuration parallelism. It consists of multiple homogeneous tiles and each tile has its own configuration SRAM that can be individually accessed. Thus multiple configuration controllers can load tasks in parallel and more speedups can be achieved. We used a prefetch scheduling technique to evaluate the model...

Alex Dekhtyar; Michael I. Dekhtyar
Two approaches to logic programming with probabilities emerged over time: bayesian reasoning and probabilistic satisfiability (PSAT). The attractiveness of the former is in tying the logic programming research to the body of work on Bayes networks. The second approach ties computationally reasoning about probabilities with linear programming, and allows for natural expression of imprecision in probabilities via the use of intervals. In this paper we construct precise semantics for one PSATbased formalism for reasoning with inteval probabilities, probabilistic logic programs (pprograms), orignally considered by Ng and Subrahmanian. We show that the probability ranges of atoms and formulas in pprograms cannot...

Nicola Fanizzi; Claudia d'Amato
Abstract. This work deals with the application of kernel methods to structured relational settings such as semantic knowledge bases expressed in Description Logics. Our method integrates a novel kernel function for the ALC logic in a support vector machine that could be set up to work with these representations. In particular, we present experiments where our method is applied to the tasks of concept retrieval and query answering on existing ontologies.

Design of wakeupfree issue queues is becoming desirable due to the increasing complexity associated with broadcastbased instruction wakeup. The effectiveness of most wakeupfree issue queue designs is critically based on their success in predicting the issue latency of an instruction accurately. Consequently, the goal of this paper is to explore the predictability of instruction issue latency under different design constraints and to identify the impediments to performance in such wakeupfree architectures. Our results indicate that structural problems in promoting instructions to the head of the instruction queue from where they are issued in wakeupfree architectures, the limited number of candidate...

Andrea Bracciali; Neophytos Demetriou; Ulle Endriss; Antonis Kakas; Wenjin Lu; Kostas Stathis
prosocs agents are software agents that are built according to the kgp model of agency. kgp is used as a model for the mind of the agent, so that the agent can act autonomously using a collection of logic theories, providing the mind’s reasoning functionalities. The behaviour of the agent is controlled by a cycle theory that specifies the agent’s preferred patterns of operation. The implementation of the mind’s generic functionality in prosocs is worked out in such a way so it can be instantiated by the platform for different agents across applications. In this context, the development of a...

Hana Chockler; Orna Kupferman; Moshe Y. Vardi
Abstract. In formal verification, we verify that a system is correct with respect to a specification. Even when the system is proven to be correct, there is still a question of how complete the specification is, and whether it really covers all the behaviors of the system. In this paper we study coverage metrics for model checking. Coverage metrics are based on modifications we apply to the system in order to check which parts of it were actually relevant for the verification process to succeed. We introduce two principles that we believe should be part of any coverage metric for...

Hisashi Komatsu
Since [5], 4valued logic is known to be a useful tool to capture the human reasoning: it is paraconsistent, can treat incompleteness and inconsistency of information etc. In this paper, I propose a 4valued reasoning system with stratified bilattices of [12]. It inherits desirable formal properties of 4valued logic, and further realizes a certain kind of default reasoning and truth maintenance system with a simple, lucid LKstyle calculus without esoteric, exotic 4valued operations in [6, 7, 2, 3] etc. 1

J. P. Gallagher
In this tutorial the specialisation of declarative logic programs is presented. The main correctness results are given, and the outline of a basic algorithm for partial evaluation of a logic program with respect to a goal. The practical considerations of gaining efficiency (and not losing any) are discussed. A renaming scheme for performing structure specialisation is then described, and illustrated on a wellknown string matching example. The basic algorithm is enhanced by incorporating abstract interpretation. A twophase specialisation is then described and illustrated, in which partial evaluation is followed by the detection and removal of useless clauses. This is shown...

David W. Jensen; Ph. D; David A. Greve; Matthew M. Wilding
Three technologies must be advanced to enable the migration of reconfigurable computing from research to security and safety critical applications. Those technologies are rapid dynamic reconfiguration, multiple user support, and secure application separation. All three technologies are necessary to meet the requirements of future avionics, security, and defense applications. In this paper, we present a reconfigurable computing architecture that is explicitly secure for multiple user environments and supports varying degrees of criticality and privilege. At the core of our secure reconfigurable architecture is a realtime Multiple Virtual Machine (MVM) model in a direct execution JVM microprocessor [AW97,DAG98A]. Our architecture provides...

Kaihui Chang; Igor L. Markov
Separate optimizations of logic and layout have been thoroughly studied in the past and are well documented for common benchmarks. However, to be competitive, modern circuit optimizations must use physical and logic information simultaneously. In this work, we propose new algorithms for rewiring and rebuffering — a postplacement optimization that reconnects pins of a given netlist without changing the logic function and gate locations. These techniques are compatible with separate layout and logic optimizations, and appear independent of them. In particular, when the new optimization is applied before or after detailed placement, it approximately doubles the improvement in wirelength. Our...

Génie Logiciel; Méthodes Et Spécifications Formelles; Jeanclaude Royer; Jeanclaude Royer; Jeanclaude Royer
Temporal Logic Verifications for UML: the Vending Machine Example 34 p. Les rapports de recherche de l’Institut de Recherche en Informatique de Nantes sont disponibles aux formats PostScript ® et PDF ® à l’URL:

Marcus Kracht; Hansjörg Tiede
Mathematical linguistics is concerned with the study of mathematical properties of natural languages and linguistic theories. Since the mathematical properties of interest to mathematical linguists are usually from theoretical computer science (complexity classes, language hierarchies, formal learnability), mathematical linguistics can be considered to be an area of theoretical computational linguistics. However, since statistical methods are rarely used in mathematical linguistics, its relationship to current practices in computational linguistics is somewhat limited. While the introduction of logic in linguistic research originally came from semantics, this line of work did not really use sophisticated metaresults. One of the main developments in mathematical...

Stephanie Kemper
Failures within embedded systems of automotive industry, railway technology, and avionics usually have disastrous consequences. Dominant features of such safetycritical systems are that safety not only depends on the values of variables communicated between components, but also on (intercomponent) actions and reactions that arrive in time. For instance, a train controller needs to apply the brakes (reaction) as a response to driving faster (speed value) than the current track situation permits (action). Yet, The System Model We use (timed) constraint automata [1, 2] (TCA) as the underlying formal model, to describe eventbased behaviour and possible data flow (see figure 1)....

This application note provides a detailed description of the metastable behavior in PLDs from both circuit and statistical viewpoints. Additionally, the information on the metastable characteristics of Cypress PLDs presented here can help you achieve any desired degree of reliability. Metastable is a Greek word meaning “in between. ” Metastability is an undesirable output condition of digital logic storage elements caused by marginal triggering. This marginal triggering is usually caused by violating the storage elements’ minimum setup and hold times. In most logic families, metastability is seen as a voltage level in the area between a logic HIGH and a...

Ian Pratthartmann
This paper employs epistemic logic to investigate the philosophical foundations of Bayesian updating in belief revision. By Bayesian updating, we understand the tennet that an agent’s degrees of belief—assumed to be encoded as a probability distribution—should be revised by conditionalization on the agent’s total knowledge up to that time. A familiar argument, based on the construction of a diachronic Dutch book, purports to show that Bayesian updating is the only rational beliefrevision policy. We investigate the conditions under which of the premises of this argument might be satisfied. Specifically, we consider the case of an artificial agent whose representation language...