281.

Fig. 1. Ring group of Bantu languages and surrounding area
- Emmanuel Yenshu Vubo
ABSTRACT The paper explores the principles in the kinship structure of the cluster of speakers of the Ring Group of Grassfi eld Bantu, who are at once matrilineal and patrilineal, living in the south-western edge of the western Cameroon highlands. Although operating in an inverted mirror image, the seemingly opposed kinship structures have a common logic where the basic kinship unit is residential (household). There is an attempt to strike a balance between descent groups without constituting double descent and women occupy positions that stress symmetry rather than subordination, although there is patriarchy. The impact of modernity on matriliny in...

282.

M.: Implementing OCLP as a front-end for answer set solvers: From theory to practice
- Martin Brain; Marina De Vos
Abstract. Ordered Choice Logic Programming (OCLP) allows for preference-based decision-making with multiple alternatives and without the burden of any form of negation. This complete absence of negation does not weaken the lan-guage as both forms (classical and as-failure) can be intuitively simulated in the language. The semantics of the language is based on the preference between al-ternatives, yielding both a skeptical and a credulous approach. In this paper we discuss the theoretical basis for the implementation of an OCLP front-end for an-swer set solvers that can compute both semantics in an efficient manner. Both the basic algorithm and the proposed...

283.

Method and Apparatus for Simultaneous Processing of Multiple Functions
- Andrei, Radu; Zhu, David; Mojarradi, Mohammad Mehdi; Vo, Tuan A.; Stoica, Adrian
Electronic logic gates that operate using N logic state levels, where N is greater than 2, and methods of operating such gates. The electronic logic gates operate according to truth tables. At least two input signals each having a logic state that can range over more than two logic states are provided to the logic gates. The logic gates each provide an output signal that can have one of N logic states. Examples of gates described include NAND/NAND gates having two inputs A and B and NAND/NAND gates having three inputs A, B, and C, where A, B and C...

284.

Fragmentation urbaine à travers les réseaux techniques
- Cabrera Quispe, Juan Edson
Since about three decades ago, the networking services (water, energy, transport and telecommunications) are the subject of studies and mainly reforms (liberalization, privatization and concessions to private companies, etc.) and also an important economic policy issue. However the possible effects of these reforms on the fragmentation or integration of urban societies are still poorly studied, although some studies (mainly on developing cities) support the thesis that there would be a growing urban fragmentation, reinforced by the dominant modes of implementing reforms network services.
One of the most important theses about the subject is in a relatively recent development of the English...

285.

Self - instructive course on principles of databases. In: Sharing good practices : e-learning
- Ivana Ivánová; Wim F. Feringa; Rolf A. De; Bas Retsios; Ivana Ivánová; Wim F. Feringa; Rolf A. De; Bas Retsios; The Netherl; Ivana Ivánová; Wim F. Feringa; Rolf A. De; Bas Retsios; Ivana Ivánová; Wim F. Feringa; Rolf A. De; Bas Retsios
The self-instructive course on Principles of Databases is offered in distance education and covers the regular module of ITC’s degree programs. An important and intended side-effect of the self-instructive approach is the reduction of staff input effort during the course run. A careful course design, with self-explanatory content, should enable students to behave self-instructively during their study.The main learning objective is to make the students understand the logic and principles of database use more than to teach how to operate on a database in a certain database management system (like Microsoft Access). Exercises are in part shaped as educational applets,...

286.

Co-design of fast biologically-plausible vision-based systems for controlling the reactive behaviors of mobile robots
- R. Zapata; D. Roman Ocampo
This paper addresses the co-design of biologically-plausible vision-based algorithms applied to control the reactive behaviors of mobile robots and especially, the control of collision avoidance in unknown and dynamic worlds. Our main tools are Programable Logic Devices like FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) to implement real-time Perception/Actions schemes. 1 Contents

287.

Ontological Feedback in Multiagent Systems1
- Robbert-jan Beun; Rogier M. Van Eijk
When agents transfer information, they need a conceptualisation of the domain of interest and a shared vocabulary to communicate facts with respect to this domain. The conceptualisation can be expressed in a so-called ontology, which is often defined in a formal language, such as a programming language or a formal logic. An ontology abstracts the essence of the domain of interest and helps to catalogue and distinguish various types of objects in the domain, their properties and relationships (see, e.g. [3, 4]). In successful communication and in collaborative performance of tasks, agree-ment between different agents with respect to the ontology...

288.

Motion Segment in Combined Compression and Sagittal Flexion Effect of Loading Rate
- Jaw-lin Wang; Mohamad Parnianpour; Aboulfazl Shirazi-adl; Ali E. Engin
Study Design. A study using a validated viscoelastic finite-element model of a L2–L3 motion segment to iden-tify the load sharing among the passive elements at dif-ferent loading rates. Objective. To enhance understanding concerning the role of the loading rate (i.e., speed of lifting and lowering during manual material handling tasks) on the load shar-ing and safety margin of spinal structures. Summary of Background Data. Industrial epidemio-logic studies have shown that jobs requiring a higher speed of trunk motion contribute to a higher risk of in-dustrial low back disorders. Consideration of the dynamic loading characteristics, such as lifting at different speeds,...

289.

Face Recognition Based on Neuro-Fuzzy System
- Nina Taheri Makhsoos; Reza Ebrahimpour; Alireza Hajiany
This paper investigates the benefits of combining neural networks and fuzzy logic into neuro-fuzzy system, especially for application in face recognition task. The former is the result of combining fuzzy logic and mixture of experts, ME, by multi-layer perceptron networks. In the description of ME, some proposals to improve the performance of model are also described. An analysis comparing the model enhancements proposed in this paper with the corresponding original ME model in face recognition is also presented. Experimental result confirms the importance of combining these two technologies (neural networks and fuzzy logic) in face recognition. Key words: Fuzzy logic,...

290.

Activity packing in FPGAs for leakage power reduction
- Hassan Hassan; Mohab Anis; Antoine El; Daher Mohamed Elmasry
In this paper, two packing algorithms for the detection of ac-tivity profiles in MTCMOS-based FPGA structures are proposed for leakage power mitigation. The first algorithm is a connection-based packing technique by which the proximity of the logic blocks is accounted for, and the second algorithm is a logic-based pack-ing approach by which the weighted Hamming distance between the blocks activities is considered. After both algorithms are ana-lyzed, they are applied to a number of FGPA benchmarks for verifi-cation. Once the activity profiles are realized, sleep transistors are carefully positioned to contain the clustered blocks that share sim-ilar activity profiles. Finally,...

291.

o I
tirety of the external sagittal stratum. It begins at the lateral geniculate body, passes through the temporal and parietal lobes, and terminates in the calcarine area. Many pathologic conditions involve the optic radiation and cause various abnormalities of the visual field. It has been reported that a thin hypointense layer on T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images represents the optic radiation (1). We noted a discrete layer that appeared hy-pointense on T1-weighted images and hyperin-tense on T2-weighted images; therefore, we un-dertook this study to determine whether this thin hyperintense layer represents fibers of the optic radiation. To address this issue, we...

292.

A Method to Solve the Puzzles of Knights and Knaves ∗
In his book ”What is the name of this book? ” Raymond M. Smullyan used a lot of puzzles to illustrate the background of the Gödel incompleteness theorem. These puzzles became popular and nowadays are being published in amusement magazines, too. In each section of the book different conditions are met. In the best known type of puzzles we have only two types of people, knights and knaves. Knights always tell the truth and knaves always lie. We describe a method to formulate this kind of puzzles, then we prove the soundness and the completeness of this logic. At the...

293.

Higher-Order Multi-Valued Resolution
- Michael Kohlhase; Fachbereich Informatik; Ortwin Scheja
ABSTRACT. This paper introduces a multi-valued variant of higher-order res-olution and proves it correct and complete with respect to a variant of Henkin’s general model semantics. This resolution method is parametric in the number of truth values as well as in the particular choice of the set of connectives (given by arbitrary truth tables) and even substitutional quantifiers. In the course of the completeness proof we establish a model existence theorem for this logical system. The work reported in this paper provides a basis for developing higher-order mechanizations for many non-classical logics. KEY WORDS: higher-order logic, resolution, multi-valued, λ-calculus 1

294.

Trope Determination and Contingent Characterization∗
- Jessica Wilson
The view that I hold is not merely that what is given is a ‘thing ’ in the widest sense of the term thing, but that what is given is always given as demanding to be characterised in certain definite respects—e.g., colour, size, weight; or cognition, feeling, conation [...] In being given, it is given as requiring determination with respect to [...] definite determinables [...] Hence any genuine act of characterisation of the thing so given would consist in giving to these mere determinables a comparatively determinate value. W. E. Johnson (Logic, II, 7–8) 0

295.

WRS 2008 Recognizing Strategies
- Bastiaan Heeren; Johan Jeuring
We use strategies to specify how a wide range of exercises can be solved incrementally, such as bringing a logic proposition to disjunctive normal form, reducing a matrix, or calculating with fractions. With such a strategy, we can automatically generate worked-out solutions, track the progress of a student by inspecting submitted intermediate answers, and report back suggestions in case the student deviates from the strategy. Because we can calculate all kinds of feedback automatically from a strategy specification, it becomes less labor-intensive and less ad-hoc to specify new exercise domains and exercises within that domain. A strategy describes valid sequences...

296.

Automatic Identication of Storm Cells Using Doppler Radars
- Hu Sheng Y; Gu Songshan; Zhuang Xudong; Luo Hui
Three storm automatic identication algorithms for Doppler radar are discussed. The WSR-88D Build 7.0 (B7SI) tests the intensity and continuity of the objective echoes by multiple-prescribed thresholds to build 3D storms, and when storms are merging, splitting, or clustered closely, the detection errors become larger. The B9SI algorithm is part of the Build 9.0 Radar Products Generator of the WSR-88D system. It uses multiple thresholds of re
ectivity, newly designs the techniques of cell nucleus extraction and close-storms processing, and therefore is capable of identifying embedded cells in multi-cellular storms. The strong area components at a long distance are saved as...

297.

A Fuzzy Pool Player Robot with Learning Ability
- Mohammad Ebne Alian; Saeed Bagheri Shouraki
Abstract:- Pool Games seem to be one of the most precise activities a human can do, and the accuracy needed for pocketing a ball is so close to the limit of man’s ability. It sounds that fuzzy logic cannot be a good candidate to be employed in this activity since it is known as “imprecise logic ” but as we will show in this paper it may works well for a pool player robot. Roboshark, our gantry pool player robot, uses fuzzy logic for both determining the position of the balls on the table, and for detecting the best possible...

298.

Worst-case optimal conjunctive query answering for an expressive description logic without inverses
- Magdalena Ortiz; Thomas Eiter
Answering conjunctive queries (CQs) has been recognized as a key task for the usage of Description Logics (DLs) in a number of applications, and has thus been studied by many authors. In this paper, we present an algorithm for this prob-lem in the DL ALCH which works in exponential time. It improves over previous algorithms which require double exponential time and is worst-case optimal, as already sat-isfiability testing in ALC is EXPTIME-complete. Further-more, it shows that inverse roles cause an exponential jump in complexity; as recently shown, the problem is 2EXPTIME-complete for ALCI. The algorithm is based on a technique...

299.

DYNAMICAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT OF MECHATRONIC SERVO SYSTEM USING VARIABLE STRUCTURE VELOCITY CONTROLLER
- Vilius Antanas Geleževičius; Nerijus Šulčius
Abstract. A technique of dynamical quality improvement of the mechatronic servo system is presented in the article. Application of variable structure velocity controller, whose control law during the transient regime of the system can be automatically changed from the proportional-integrating (PI) to the proportional (P) law and vice versa, is the core of this technique. Two methods based on fuzzy logic and preprogrammed "Lookup Table " application, ensuring automatic change of velocity controller structure, are proposed and investigated. The simulation results of the servo system confirming suitability of the proposed dynamical quality improvement technique are presented and discussed.

300.

BRICOLAGE AND RESOURCE-SEEKING: IMPROVISATIONAL RESPONSES TO DEPENDENCE IN ENTREPRENEURIAL FIRMS
- Ted Baker; Howard E. Aldrich
We present a general theory of entrepreneurs ’ improvisational responses to resource dependence relations. A test of hypotheses derived for dependence on one type of resource – indispensable employees – supports the theory. Entrepreneurs respond to dependence in ways that emphasize either briocolage (making do with resources at hand) or resource seeking, and their choices influence the emergent design of firms and their human resource practices. 3 The resource dependence perspective has benefited from continued and extensive use for more than 20 years (Pfeffer & Salancik 1978). Despite negative empirical findings and powerful theoretical critiques (Donaldson 1995; Zajac 1988; Zajac...