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Nomenclatura Unesco > (11) Lógica

Mostrando recursos 41 - 60 de 136,093

41. iTABLE OF CONTENTS - Cheryl Wachenheim; Richard Rathge
Census and Data Bureau at North Dakota State University for developing the questionnaire and conducting the survey. Thanks are also extended to Norma Ackerson for document preparation and Dwight Aakre, Dean Bangsund, and Larry Leistritz for their useful comments and suggestions. While their input helped strengthen this report, any errors of omission, logic, or otherwise are the sole responsibility of the authors. We would be happy to provide a single copy of this publication free of charge. You can

42. Relating first-order set theories and elementary toposes. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 13(3): 340–358 - Steve Awodey; Carsten Butz; Alex Simpson; Thomas Streicher; Steve Awodey; Carsten Butz; Alex Simpson; Thomas Streicher
This Article is brought to you for free and open access by the Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences at Research Showcase @ CMU. It has

43. Leeds Metropolitan University, - Kiran Voderhobli; Dr. Colin Pattinson; Dr. Helen Donelan
Abstract- Biometric identifiers refer to unique physical properties or behavioral attributes of individuals. Some of the well known biometric identifiers are voice, finger prints, retina or iris, facial structure etc. In our daily interaction with others directly or indirectly, we implicitly use biometrics to know, distinguish and trust people. Biometric identifiers represent the concept of “who a person ’is ” ’by ’gathering ’vital ’characteristics ’that ’don’t ’correspond to any other person. The human brain to some extent is able to ascertain disparities or variation in certain physical attributes and yet verify the authenticity of a person. But this is difficult...

44. A Verifiable High Level Data Path Synthesis Framework
Abstract—This work presents a synthesis framework that generates a formally verifiable RTL from a high level language. We develop an estimation model for area, delay and power metrics of arithmetic components for Xilinx Spartan 3 FPGA family. Our estimation model works 300 times faster than Xilinx’s toolchain with an average error of 6.57 % for delay and 3.76 % for area estimations. Our framework extracts CDFGs from ANSI-C, LRH(+) [1] and VHDL. CDFGs are verified using the symbolic model checker NuSMV [2] with temporal logic properties. This method guarantees detection of hardware redundancy and word-length mismatch related bugs by static...

45. Deductive planning with temporal constraints - Martin Magnusson; Patrick Doherty
papers/notes/magnusson-and-doherty/ Temporal Action Logic is a well established logical formal-ism for reasoning about action and change using an explicit time representation that makes it suitable for applications that involve complex temporal reasoning. We take advantage of constraint satisfaction technology to facilitate such reasoning through temporal constraint networks. Extensions are intro-duced that make generation of action sequences possible, thus paving the road for interesting applications in deductive plan-ning. The extended formalism is encoded as a logic program that is able to realize a least commitment strategy that gener-ates partial order plans in the context of both qualitative and quantitative temporal constraints.

46. Constraints in Procedural and Concurrent Languages - Francesca Rossi; Peter Van Beek; Toby Walsh; Laurent Michel; Christian Schulte
This chapter addresses the integration of constraints and search into programming lan-guages from three different points of views. It first focuses on the use of constraints to model combinatorial optimization problem and to easily implement search procedures, then it considers the use of constraints for supporting concurrent computations and finally turns to the use of constraints to enable open implementations of constraints solvers. The idea of approaching hard combinatorial optimization problems through a combi-nation of search and constraint solving appeared first in logic programming. The genesis and growth of constraint programming within logic programming is not surprising as it catered...

47. XML Query Evaluation via CTL Symbolic Model Checking - Loredana Afanasiev
Abstract. The Extensible Markup Language (XML) was designed to describe the content of a document and its hierarchical structure. The XML Path language (XPath) is a language for selecting elements from XML documents. We propose and implement a linear embedding of the query evaluation problem for Core XPath, the navigational fragment of XPath, into the model checking problem for Computation Tree Logic (CTL). This allows us to evaluate Core XPath queries by exploiting a model checker for CTL. We report on experiments with the state-of-the-art model checker NuSMV, and compare our results with alternative academic XPath processors. 1

48. Submitted for publication, June 2003. Scaling Up ILP to Large Examples: Results on Link Discovery for Counter-Terrorism - Raymond J. Mooney; Prem Melville
Abstract. Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) has been shown to be a viable approach to many problems in multi-relational data mining (e.g. bioinformatics). Link discovery (LD) is an important task in data mining for counter-terrorism and is the focus of DARPA's program on Evidence Extraction and Link Discovery (EELD). Learning patterns for LD is a novel problem in relational data mining that is characterized by having an unprecedented number of background facts. As a result of the explo-sion in the amount of background knowledge, the eÆciency of existing ILP algorithms becomes a serious limitation. This paper presents a new ILP algorithm...

49. H.: Evolutionary algorithms, simulated annealing and tabu search: a comparative study - Habib Youssef; Sadiq M. Sait; Hakim Adiche
Evolutionary algorithms, simulated annealing (SA), and tabu search (TS) are general iterative algorithms for combinatorial optimization. The term evolutionary algorithm is used to refer to any probabilistic algorithm whose design is inspired by evolutionary mechanisms found in biological species. Most widely known algorithms of this category are genetic algorithms (GA). GA, SA, and TS have been found to be very effective and robust in solving numerous problems from a wide range of application domains. Furthermore, they are even suitable for ill-posed problems where some of the parameters are not known before hand. These properties are lacking in all traditional optimization...

50. Policy-driven adaptation of protocol stacks - Liliana Rosa
Today’s mobile applications need to execute in a wide range of heterogeneous devices, that operate in different conditions. In this context, dynamic adaptation of the un-derlying communication support is fundamental to achieve adequate performance. We address the problem of support-ing dynamic adaptation of communication protocol stacks through a policy-oriented approach, which promotes the separation of adaptation from protocol logic. In this paper, we provide an approach overview, and focus on the policy language and modeling primitives that allow to capture the adaptation requirements identified from the experience with Appia framework. 1

51. Solving Power and Trust Conflicts through Argumentation in Agent-mediated Knowledge Distribution∗ - Carlos I. Chesñevar; Jose ́ L. Aguirre
Distributing pieces of knowledge in large, usually distributed orga-nizations is a central problem in Knowledge and Organization manage-ment. Policies for distributing knowledge and information are mostly incomplete or in potential conflict with each other. As a consequence, decision processes for information distribution may be difficult to for-malize on the basis of a rationally justified procedure. This article presents an argumentative approach to cope with this problem based on integrating the JITIK multiagent system with Defeasible Logic Programming (DeLP), a logic programming formalism for defeasible argumentation. We show how power relations, as well as delegation and trust, can be embedded within...

52. Specifying Sequent Calculi Rules for Managing Some Redundancies in Proof Search - Lutovac A. Tatjana
Abstract − A central aspect of proof search is the identification and control over various forms of redundancies in the search space. We investigate systematic techniques for managing some redun-dancies in proof search in sequent calculi. This paper is a summary of some results of our in-vestigation. In particular we have enriched infer-ence rules with some additional information about status the search in order to preclude some re-dundant or useless choices which would otherwise be allowed in the standard sequent system. We have developed a method for detection of redun-dant and eliminable formulae from a given sequent proof and an...

53. Discovering Classes of Strongly Equivalent Logic Programs - Fangzhen Lin; Yin Chen
In this paper we apply computer-aided theorem discovery technique to discover theo-rems about strongly equivalent logic programs under the answer set semantics. Our dis-covered theorems capture new classes of strongly equivalent logic programs that can lead to new program simplification rules that preserve strong equivalence. Specifically, with the help of computers, we discovered exact conditions that capture the strong equivalence between a rule and the empty set, between two rules, between two rules and one of the two rules, between two rules and another rule, and between three rules and two of the three rules. 1.

54. ear Logic (meLL) and Baillot-Mazza Linear Logic by Levels (mL3). We - Marco Gaboardi; Luca Roversi; Luca Vercelli
Abstract. We study the relations betweenMultiplicative Exponential Lin-

55. Extended Fuzzy Description Logics with Comparisons Between Fuzzy Membership Degrees - Kang Da-zhou; Xu Bao-wen; Lu Jian-jiang; Li Yan-hui
Abstract: The representation and application of fuzzy knowledge on the semantic Web often relate to the comparisons between fuzzy membership degrees. However, the current fuzzy extensions of description logics do not support the expression of such comparisons. This paper proposes an extended fuzzy description logic that supports the comparisons of fuzzy membership degrees and the concept constructors from description logic ALCN (attributive concept description language with complements and number restriction), written FCALCN (fuzzy comparable ALCN). FCALCN introduces new forms of atom concepts in order to support the comparisons between fuzzy membership degrees. A reasoning algorithm for FCALCN is proposed, and...

56. Representation and Control in Ixtet, a Temporal Planner - Malik Ghallab; Herv Laruelle
This paper presents a temporal planner, called IxTeT. It focuses on the representation and control issues, arguing for a compromise between the expressiveness and the ei~ciency of the search. The representation re-lies on a point-based reified logic, associated to mldti-valued domain attributes. Hieraxchical planning oper-ators ot~er an expressive description, with parallelism, durations, effects and conditions at various moments of the action. Time in the input scenario enables to take into account predicted forthcoming events and to plan in a dynamic world. A compilation procedure checks the consistency of the operators specified by the user. The control relies on the use...

57. KEY WORDS - Junbeom Yoo; Suhyun Park; Hojung Bang; Taihyo Kim; Sungdeok Cha
In this paper, we propose a testing technique that can directly test FBD programs without generating intermediate code for testing purpose. The previous PLC-based software testing generates an intermediate code such as C, which is equivalent to the original FBD, and targets an intermediate code. In order to apply unit and integration testing techniques to FBDs, we transform FBD program into a control flow graph and apply existing control flow testing coverage criteria to the graph. With our approach, PLC based software designed in FBD language can be tested cost-efficiently because we do not need to generate intermediate code. To...

58. pseudoissue? - Lauri Oksanen
Logic of experiments in ecology: is pseudoreplication a

59. Nuclear Waste Disposal: the Nature of the Problem - Jerry J. Cohen
Abstract – Current plans and policies for the disposal of nuclear waste have been predicated on the beliefs that (1) nuclear waste poses a potential danger of great magnitude because of its extreme toxicity, and (2) the long half-lives of certain components such as plutonium present a threat of unprecedented duration. Evidence is presented indicating that both of these beliefs are technically unfounded and not supported by logic. The potential hazard from nuclear waste disposal is, in fact, comparable to, or less than, that of many other activities routinely practiced and accepted by mankind. Possible reasons for the great disparity...

60. The Logic of Confusion
Abstract The logic of confusion is a way to handle together incompatible “viewpoints”. These viewpoints can be information data, physical exper-iments, sets of opinions or believes. Logics of con-fusion are obtained by generalizing Jaskowski-type semantics and combining it with many-valued se-mantics.

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