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Nomenclatura Unesco > (11) Lógica

Mostrando recursos 41 - 60 de 132,692

41. A Pensar Sentidos: sobre la dimensión de la APS en las prácticas en salud mental - Vidal, Andrea
La Ley Nacional de Salud Mental sancionada a fines de 2010 representa el marco legal de un cambio de paradigma en el campo de la Salud Mental, que recupera antiguas prácticas que en nuestro país tuvieron su esplendor en los años que se corresponden en la historia con los procesos revolucionarios y de cambio social, enmarcadas en un quehacer disciplinar militante que no se concebía fuera de lo político e ideológico. Dictadura militar y tiempos de instalación del neoliberalismo de por medio, hicieron sucumbir en diferentes instituciones un modelo de atención que se intenta recuperar desde hace ya algunos años, previamente...

42. Teoria de Piaget : Não tão formal como muitos críticos defendem - Lourenço, Orlando
É sabido que Piaget utilizou a lógica para caracterizar a actividade cognitiva do sujeito. Este recurso à lógica levou muitos críticos a defenderem que a teoria Piagetiana é demasiada abstracta e formal. Neste estudo apresenta-se uma pesquisa empírica baseada na 1ógica das significações que mostra que a teoria de Piaget não reduz os problemas de significado a questões de verdade formal e que, portanto, não é tão formal e abstracta quanto se diz. De modo mais preciso, esta pesquisa examina o papel da implicação significativa (ou «entailment») e da familiaridade na solução de problemas de raciocínio condicional envolvendo os quatro clássicos argumentos lógicos (Modus Ponens, Modus Tollens, Negação do Antecedente e Afirmação do...

43. The distributed ontology, modelling and . . . - Till Mossakowski; Oliver Kutz; Mihai Codescu; Christoph Lange
There is a diversity of ontology languages in use, among them OWL, RDF, OBO, Common Logic, and F-logic. Related languages such as UML class diagrams, entity-relationship diagrams and object role modelling provide bridges from ontology modelling to applications, e.g. in software engineering and databases. Another diversity appears at the level of ontology modularity and relations among ontologies. There is ontology matching and alignment, module extraction, interpolation, ontologies linked by bridges, interpretation and refinement, and combination of ontologies. The Distributed Ontology, Modelling and Specification Language (DOL) aims at providing a unified meta language for handling this diversity. In particular, DOL provides...

44. Diagram Models for Interacting Components - Artur Zawłocki
We present a semantic model and a logic for systems of concurrent components. Following the categorical approach, we define a category of component models in which limits can be used to construct systems from simpler components. A novel idea is to use diagrams in this category, not just limit objects, as models for the logic. The resulting “diagram logic” allows one to specify both behavioural and structural aspects of systems: temporal operators and structural predicates can be freely interleaved. As in first-order logic, system components can be quantified over, bound to variables and classified by predicates. There is a price...

45. Towards Linear Logic Petri Nets -- From P/T-Nets to Object Systems - Berndt Farwer
Linear Logic [Gir87] has been shown to incorporate a fragment suitable for representing P=T -nets and giving an interleaving semantics to the computations of such nets (e.g. [Bro89], [MOM89], [EW90]). This result is generalized to coloured nets. Furthermore a new kind of high-level nets is defined: Linear Logic Petri Nets (LLPN). These nets are used as an intuitive semantics to well-known and new high-level net concepts like object systems ([Val96b]) and agent orientation. Related topics have been addressed in [Far96] and [Far98].

46. Effective metastability of Halpern iterates in CAT(0) spaces - Ulrich Kohlenbach; Laurentiu Leustean
This paper provides an effective uniform rate of metastability (in the sense of Tao) on the strong convergence of Halpern iterations of nonexpansive mappings in CAT(0) spaces. The extraction of this rate from an ineffective proof due to Saejung is an instance of the general proof mining program which uses tools from mathematical logic to uncover hidden computational content from proofs. This methodology is applied here for the first time to a proof that uses Banach limits and hence makes a substantial reference to the axiom of choice.

47. A Heterogeneous Approach to Service-Oriented Systems Specification - Alexander Knapp; Grzegorz Marczyński; Martin Wirsing; Artur Zawłocki
Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is a relatively new approach to software system development. It divides system functionality to independent, loosely coupled, interoperable services. In this paper we propose a new heterogeneous specification approach for SOA systems where a heterogeneous structured specification consists of a number of specifications of individual services written in a “local” logic and where the specification of their interactions is separately described in a “global” logic. A main feature of our global logic is the possibility of describing the dynamic change of service communications over time. Our approach is based on the theory of institutions: we show that...

48. Resynchronizing Model-based Self-adaptive Systems with Environments - Linghao Zhang; Chang Xu; Xiaoxing Ma; Tianxiao Gu; Xuezhi Hong; Chun Cao; Jian Lu
Self-adaptive systems are attractive due to their ability of adapting to changeable environments automatically. However, such systems may be subject to runtime failures when all environmental dynamics cannot be adequately considered at design time. When such failures occur at runtime, a system’s internal adaptation logic usually has become inconsistent with its environment, according to our observation. We call this inconsistency sync-loss error. From our project experiences, we empirically identified a strong correlation between sync-loss error and system failure. This motivated us to fix sync-loss error in order to reduce failure for self-adaptive systems. In this paper, we formulate the problem...

49. What is a Logic Translation? - Till Mossakowski; Răzvan Diaconescu; Andrzej Tarlecki
We study logic translations from an abstract perspective, without any commitment to the structure of sentences and the nature of logical entailment, which also means that we cover both proof-theoretic and modeltheoretic entailment. We show how logic translations induce notions of logical expressiveness, consistency strength and sublogic, leading to an explanation of paradoxes that have been described in the literature. Connectives and quantifiers, although not present in the definition of logic and logic translation, can be recovered by their abstract properties and are preserved and reflected by translations under suitable conditions.

50. Ranl-1 Modal Logics are Coalgebraic - Lutz Schröder; Dirk Pattinson
Coalgebras provide a unifying semantic framework for a wide variety of modal logics. It has previously been shown that the class of coalgebras for an endofunctor can always be axiomatised in rank 1. Here we establish the converse, i.e. every rank 1 modal logic has a sound and strongly complete coalgebraic semantics. This is achieved by constructing for a given modal logic a canonical coalgebraic semantics, consisting of a signature functor and interpretations of modal operators, which turns out to be final among all such structures. The canonical semantics may be seen as a coalgebraic reconstruction of neighbourhood semantics, broadly...

51. Rates of Asymptotic Regularity for Halpern Iterations of Nonexpansive Mappings - Laurentiu Leustean
In this paper we obtain new effective results on the Halpern iterations of nonexpansive mappings using methods from mathematical logic or, more specifically, proof-theoretic techniques. We give effective rates of asymptotic regularity for the Halpern iterations of nonexpansive selfmappings of nonempty convex sets in normed spaces. The paper presents another case study in the project of proof mining, which is concerned with the extraction of effective uniform bounds from (prima-facie) ineffective proofs.

52. Asymptotically nonexpansive mappings in uniformly convex hyperbolic spaces - U. Kohlenbach; L. Leustean
This paper provides a fixed point theorem for asymptotically nonexpansive mappings in uniformly convex hyperbolic spaces as well as new effective results on the Krasnoselski-Mann iterations of such mappings. The latter were found using methods from logic and the paper continues a case study in the general program of extracting effective data from prima-facie ineffective proofs in the fixed point theory of such mappings.

53. Borrowing Interpolation - Răzvan Diaconescu
We present a generic method for establishing interpolation properties by ‘borrowing ’ across logical systems. The framework used is that of the so-caled ‘institution theory’ which is a categorical abstract model theory providing a formal definition for the informal concept of ‘logical system’ and a mathematical concept of ‘homomorphism’ between logical systems. We develop three different styles or patterns to apply the proposed borrowing interpolation method. These three ways are illustrated by the development of a series of concrete interpolation results for logical systems that are used in mathematical logic or in computing science, most of these interpolation properties apparently...

54. Logic - n.n.
In this course we will discuss applications of the Model theory to Algebraic geometry and Analysis. There is long list of examples and I mention only some of applications: 1) Tarski (see [T]) proved the elimination of quantifiers in the theory

55. Implementing Logics: From Genericity to Heterogeneity - Till Mossakowski; Klaus Lüttich
We show how to write an abstract interface corresponding to Meseguer's concept of general logic in Haskell. Based on this, we develop a tool set for structured specifications that are based on such logics, consisting of a parser, a static analysis and a theorem prover. While with Standard ML functors, it is only possible to be generic over an arbitrary logic, we show how true heterogeneity (i.e. for specification involving simultaneously different logics) is achieved in Haskell. Concerning genericity, it is folklore that Standard ML functors can be simulated in Haskell using multiparameter type classes with functional dependencies. On top...

56. Development Graphs -- Proof Management for Structured Specifications - Till Mossakowski; Serge Autexier; Dieter Hutter
Development graphs are a tool for dealing with structured specifications in a formal program development in order to ease the management of change and reusing proofs. In this work, we extend development graphs with hiding (e.g. hidden operations). Hiding is a particularly difficult to realize operation, since it does not admit such a good decomposition of the involved specifications as other structuring operations do. We develop both a semantics and proof rules for development graphs with hiding. The rules are proven to be sound, and also complete relative to an oracle for conservative extensions. We also show that an absolutely...

57. Hume, Mill, Hill, and the Sui Generis Epidemiologic Approach to Causal Inference - Morabia, Alfredo
The epidemiologic approach to causal inference (i.e., Hill's viewpoints) consists of evaluating potential causes from the following 2, noncumulative angles: 1) established results from comparative, observational, or experimental epidemiologic studies; and 2) reviews of nonepidemiologic evidence. It does not involve statements of statistical significance. The philosophical roots of Hill's viewpoints are unknown. Superficially, they seem to descend from the ideas of Hume and Mill. Hill's viewpoints, however, use a different kind of evidence and have different purposes than do Hume's rules or Mill's system of logic. In a nutshell, Hume ignores comparative evidence central to Hill's viewpoints. Mill's logic disqualifies...

58. Relaciones en disputa: nación, género, raza y turismo en Cuba - Alcázar Campos, Ana
En este artículo se analiza la manera en que la introducción del turismo de masas en Cuba, en los años noventa, produce una serie de contradicciones en la ideología nacional cubana, la cual parte del mito fundacional latinoamericano del mestizaje y se refuerza, a partir del triunfo revolucionario de 1959, con la defensa de una supuesta lógica igualitaria. En un contexto caracterizado como aislado —algo vigorizado por el bloqueo estadounidense y las restricciones migratorias cubanas—, las “zonas de contacto” que propicia el turismo problematizan el discurso nacional cubano, en el que la homogeneidad y la unidad en torno a la categoría pueblo invisibilizan elementos como la raza o...

59. Oniromancia y perspectiva entre los ette del norte de Colombia - Niño Vargas, Juan Camilo
In some societies it is considered that dream interpretation is a meaningful and logic task. The explanation of this fact lies within the way in which the world has been socially constructed. The present paper focuses on the shape and articulation of these ideas among the Ette, an indigenous group of North Colombia that has granted the dream experience a central place in their everyday life. For this purpose, certain native notions about cos- mos and dream experience are described and analyzed. It is exposed how, for the Ette, the universe can be apprehended from different perspectives that, although differing...

60. Culturas populares: lo imprescindible de la desfamiliarización - Semán, Pablo
Reconociendo que la dominación simbólica organiza jerarquías culturales, el artículo sostiene que el análisis de estas se oscurece si se deja de lado la agencia que los subalternos retienen y hacen efectiva en los conflictos de perspectivas que marcan la producción simbólica de una sociedad. La producción simbólica de la sociedad es más plural y menos gobernada por la lógica dominante de lo que muchas veces se supone. Cuanto más contemporáneas y próximas son las culturas populares, cuanto más fuerte aparece la imagen de la homogeneidad cultural, más necesaria es la operación típica de la antropología: la captación de la diferencia bajo la forma de una práctica desfamiliarizadora....

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