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Nomenclatura Unesco > (11) Lógica

Mostrando recursos 41 - 60 de 143,224

41. Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric

42. Uncertain deduction and conditional reasoning - Evans, Jonathan St. B. T.; Thompson, Valerie A.; Over, David E.
There has been a paradigm shift in the psychology of deductive reasoning. Many researchers no longer think it is appropriate to ask people to assume premises and decide what necessarily follows, with the results evaluated by binary extensional logic. Most every day and scientific inference is made from more or less confidently held beliefs and not assumptions, and the relevant normative standard is Bayesian probability theory. We argue that the study of “uncertain deduction” should directly ask people to assign probabilities to both premises and conclusions, and report an experiment using this method. We assess this reasoning by two Bayesian...

43. Helping Reasoners Succeed in the Wason Selection Task: When Executive Learning Discourages Heuristic Response but Does Not Necessarily Encourage Logic - Rossi, Sandrine; Cassotti, Mathieu; Moutier, Sylvain; Delcroix, Nicolas; Houdé, Olivier
Reasoners make systematic logical errors by giving heuristic responses that reflect deviations from the logical norm. Influential studies have suggested first that our reasoning is often biased because we minimize cognitive effort to surpass a cognitive conflict between heuristic response from system 1 and analytic response from system 2 thinking. Additionally, cognitive control processes might be necessary to inhibit system 1 responses to activate a system 2 response. Previous studies have shown a significant effect of executive learning (EL) on adults who have transferred knowledge acquired on the Wason selection task (WST) to another isomorphic task, the rule falsification task...

44. Técnicas de transmisión por paquetes alternativas a S-ALOHA basadas en CDMA para sistemas de comunicaciones móviles - Alonso Zárate, Luis Gonzaga; Pérez Romero, Jordi; Agustí Comes, Ramon; Sallent Roig, José Oriol
En esta comunicación se presentan los protocolos de acceso aleatorio ISMA y DQRAP adaptados para sistemas de comunicaciones móviles por paquetes basados en la técnica DS/CDMA. El primero de ellos mejora la eficiencia de los sistemas puramente aleatorios como S-ALOHA gracias a la información que la estación base proporciona respecto del estado de ocupación de los diferentes recursos. A su vez, DQRAP basa su funcionamiento en dos colas lógicas destinadas, respectivamente, a la resolución de colisiones y a la transmisión, lo que permite un acceso más regulado al sistema. Ambos algoritmos son comparados con S-ALOHA, lo que muestra la mejora introducida.

45. O Semeador - Grupo de Trabalho e Acção Cultural G.T.A.C. : uma história de educação popular e associativismo em Portalegre no 25 de Abril de 1974 - Farinha, Ilda Maria Alves
É no contexto de forte movimento popular que nasce em Portalegre uma Associação, “O Semeador” – Grupo de Trabalho e Acção Cultural – GTAC. Foi escolhido este objecto de estudo pelo interesse, curiosidade e necessidade de compreensão das lógicas e das dinâmicas que deram origem à sua criação, do impacto que teve na época, do desenvolvimento que teve ao longo dos anos e da herança que deixou. Este trabalho, sustentado por um estudo de caso, tem como enfoque o associativismo, a educação popular e a alfabetização, elementos chave do contexto político-cultural em que o “O Semeador”- GTAC, associação para a promoção...

46. Dimensões Formativas dos Processos de Reconhecimento, Validação e Certificação de Competências Desenvolvidos num Centro de Novas Oportunidades - Silva, Maria Jerónima Laranjo Fonseca da
No quadro das actuais orientações de política educativa, a situação das qualificações escolares e profissionais da população activa portuguesa surge como justificação da criação de medidas para incentivar o investimento nos processos de reconhecimento validação e certificação de competências (RVCC). A rede nacional de Centros Novas Oportunidades (CNO), sob a direcção da Agência Nacional para a Qualificação, enquadra-se nesta orientação, constituindo-se como a “porta de entrada” para formações de educação e formação de adultos ou para o desenvolvimento do processo de reconhecimento, validação e certificação de competências. Os processos de RVCC, actualmente desenvolvidos nos CNO, são frequentemente encarados nalguma literatura (programática...

47. Devs and Fuzzy logic to model and simulate a manufacturing process - De Gentili, Emmanuelle; De Cicco, Ange; Santucci, Jean-François
isbn : 0-7695-2504-0

48. Goodbye Descartes. The End of Logic and the Search for a New Cosmology of the Mind. Keith Devlin. - Wulff Barreiro, Enrique
International audience

49. Introduction to linear logic - Beffara, Emmanuel
Master

50. Sellers in e-marketplaces: a fuzzy Logic based decision support system - Kolomvatsos, Kostas; Anagnostopoulos, Christos; Hadjiefthymiades, Stathes
Web business models typically rely on environments where entities, not known in advance, try to negotiate and agree on the purchase of products. Such environments are termed Electronic Markets (EMs). In EMs there are two main groups of entities: the buyers and the sellers. Intelligent agents can play the role of buyers and sellers as delegates of them. Agents, acting autonomously, can guarantee the efficiency in the discovery of items of interest to the buyer. The interaction between buyers and sellers can be modeled as a zero knowledge negotiation. In this paper, we discuss basic characteristics of the negotiation and...

51. Analysis of FPGA based Designs using Min-max Number - Shruti Patil
Cost of an FPGA implementation is given by propagation time and number of logic cells required. Before implementation, a rough idea of cost of design is necessary in order to take design decisions related to target technology to be selected, FPGA implementation, decomposition strategies, etc. This paper attempts to perform a complete mathematical analysis of general functions to be implemented on a general target technology, to give an idea of the cost of the FPGA design. It does so by stating mathematical formulae that directly give the min-max number of logic cells required to implement a function.

52. A type-theoretic foundation of . . . - Zena M. Ariola , Hugo Herbelin , Amr Sabry
There is a correspondence between classical logic and programming language calculi with first-class continuations. With the addition of control delimiters (prompts), the continuations become composable and the calculi are believed to become more expressive. We formalise that the addition of prompts corresponds to the addition of a single dynamically-scoped variable modelling the special top-level continuation. From a type perspective, the dynamicallyscoped variable requires effect annotations. From a logic perspective, the effect annotations can be understood in a standard logic extended with the dual of implication, namely subtraction.

53. An Extensible Theory of Indexed Types - Daniel R. Licata, et al.
Indexed families of types are a way of associating run-time data with compile-time abstractions that can be used to reason about them. We propose an extensible theory of indexed types, in which programmers can define the index data appropriate to their programs and use them to track properties of run-time code. The essential ingredients in our proposal are (1) a logical framework, which is used to define index data, constraints, and proofs, and (2) computation with indices, both at the static and dynamic levels of the programming language. Computation with indices supports a variety of mechanisms necessary for programming with...

54. Optimum functional decomposition using encoding - Rajeev Murgai; Robert K. Brayton; Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli
In this paper, we revisit the classical problem of functional decomposition [1, 2] that arises so often in logic synthesis. One basic problem that has remained largely unaddressed to the best of our knowledge is that of decomposing a function such that the resulting sub-functions are simple, i.e., have small number of cubes or literals. In this paper, we show howto solve this problem optimally. We show that the problem is intimately related to the encoding problem, which is also of fundamental importance in sequential synthesis, especially state-machine synthesis. We formulate the optimum decomposition problem using encoding. In general, an...

55. BDD-BASED LOGIC OPTIMIZATION SYSTEM - Congguang Yang; Maciej Ciesielski

56. Finding complex disjunctive decompositions of logic functions. - Maurizio Damiani; Valeria Bertacco
This paper extends the previous work [1] on simple disjunctive decompositions to the important case of complex disjunctive decompositions. We pinpoint the sources of additional complexity of handling this decomposition style, and relate it to the existence of encoding don’t care conditions [2]. We define two classes of complex decompositions, almost- and perfect decompositions, respectively. For these decompositions, the decomposition problem can be separated from the encoding problem. From a theoretical standpoint, we prove that a logic function has a unique perfect decomposition. For a given function, both types of decomposition can be found by an efficient decomposition algorithm, that...

57. An Extensible Theory of Indexed Types - Daniel R. Licata, et al.
Indexed families of types are a way of associating run-time data with compile-time abstractions that can be used to reason about them. We propose an extensible theory of indexed types, in which programmers can define the index data appropriate to their programs and use them to track properties of run-time code. The essential ingredients in our proposal are (1) a logical framework, which is used to define index data, constraints, and proofs, and (2) computation with indices, both at the static and dynamic levels of the programming language. Computation with indices supports a variety of mechanisms necessary for programming with...

58. BDS: A BDD-BASED LOGIC OPTIMIZATION SYSTEM - C. Yang, et al.

59. Co-pensamiento y posicionamiento clínico político: una mirada sobre la clínica, la producción de subjetividad y la docencia universitaria - Rinaldi, Nicolás Darío
El trabajo está fundado desde la insistencia de dos planteos: El primero en torno a cómo entender la psicología y cómo abordar el estudio de lo psíquico; y el segundo, sobre cómo pensar la clínica y las intervenciones en las condiciones contemporáneas. Es por ello, que nos detendremos en trabajar la pregunta sobre: ¿Cómo realizar una capacitación clínica dentro del aprendizaje de la psicología, en la formación de psicólogos? Interrogante que se produce a partir de encontrarnos en un "nudo teórico, práctico, epistemológico, político y ético- problemático", en una tensión que se desprende de la yuxtaposición de desarrollos propios a la disciplina...

60. Guillaume d'Ockham et la théologie - Biard, Joël
La place du franciscain Guillaume d'Ockham dans l'histoire de la théologie est controversée. En effet, dès le XIVe siècle, il développa des positions nominalistes non seulement en logique et en philosophie mas également en théologie. L'ockhamisme devient synonyme de " voie moderne "tant par l'introduction de méthodes d'analyse logico-linguistique que par le recours à la toute-puissance divine, y compris dans des questions comme celle de la grâce. Cette théorie de la grâce et du salut fut le point de départ de controverses ultérieures qui conduisirent jusqu'à Luther. Cet ouvrage tente de cerner la pensée de Guillaume d'Ockham non pas à partir des...

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