Introducing grades in deontic logics
- Pilar Dellunde; In Their Article; Tom R. Burns
Abstract. In this paper we define a framework to introduce gradedness in Deontic logics through the use of fuzzy modalities. By way of example, we instantiate the framework to Standard Deontic logic (SDL) formulas. Given a deontic formula Φ ∈ SDL, our language contains formulas of the form r → NΦ or r → PΦ, where r ∈ [0, 1], expressing that the preference or probability degree respectively of a norm Φ is at least r. We present sound and complete axiomatisations for these logics.
What does ‘face’ mean to the Japanese? Understanding the import of ‘face’ in Japanese business interaction
- Michael Haugh
Japan has the second largest economy in the world, and is a major trading partner for countries throughout the Asia-Pacific, including China and the United States. Due to the importance of the Japanese economy for international trade and business, ways in which to successfully conduct business with the Japanese have been the topic of both popular “how to ” manuals and academic research. This work has focused on various dimensions underlying Japanese business practices, including such aspects as organisational structure, meeting practices, and negotiation tactics, but one area that has been fairly neglected in those discussions thus far is the...
Oscar Wilde’s Artificiality and the Logic of Genuine Pluralism
- Jeremy Barris
Oscar Wilde’s artificial, nonsensical aesthetic is really a magnificently rigorous and just pluralism. His artificiality of style and wit presents the serious and un-artificial possibility of things ’ being essentially otherwise than they are understood to be in any given stand-point. His aesthetic impact itself consists in a fresh opening of essential or constitutive or ontological spaces or standpoints. But this opening of spaces is thoroughly self-canceling, and so is also a validation of essential spaces exactly as they are. This validation, then, involves self-canceling recognition of mutually exclusive “spaces. ” The principle at work is that constitutive difference between...
Taking a Lea in Global
- Robert F. Lusch Stephen
more advanced than previous models or competing offerings; instead, one of the pri-mary keys to building a winner is a firm’s ability to embed significantly greater service potential in a relatively simple device or service. For example, the Apple iPod is not valued by customers because it’s a mobile MP3 player (there are many similar and even technically superior devices) or because it carries the Apple brand (most iPod users do not own a MacIntosh computer). Its superior value to users stems from its unique feel and shape, ease of use, and simplicity of its software, coupled with a new...
Insecurity, Citizenship, and Globalization: The Multiple Faces of State Protection*
Adopting a long-term historical perspective, this article examines the growing com-plexity and the internal tensions of state protection in Western Europe and North America. Beginning with Charles Tilly’s theory about state building and organized crime, the discussion follows with a critical analysis of T. H. Marshall’s article on citizenship. Arguing that state protection has become far more multifaceted than what Marshall’s triadic model suggests, the article shows how this protection frequently transcends the logic of individual rights while increasing the reliance of citizens on the modern state. The last section formulates a critique of the idea formulated by theorists like...
Embedding Multiset Constraints into a Lazy Functional Logic Language* P.
- Fac De Cc. Matems
Abstract. In recent works, we have proposed a general framework for lazy functional logic programming with algebraic polymorphic types, i.e., parametric datatypes whose data constructors fulfill a given set of equa-tional axioms. The aim of this paper is to investigate implementation techniques for an extended instance of this framework, namely, lazy functional logic programming with multisets and constraints. We con-sider a language (named Seta) which supports a polymorphic datatype Mset(a) along with specific constraints for multisets: strict equality (al-ready present in the general framework), disequality, membership and non-membership. We describe a quite readable Prolog-based implemen-tation which can be executed on...
Fault secure encoder and decoder for nanomemory applications
- Helia Naeimi; André Dehon
Abstract—Memory cells have been protected from soft errors for more than a decade; due to the increase in soft error rate in logic circuits, the encoder and decoder circuitry around the memory blocks have become susceptible to soft errors as well and must also be protected. We introduce a new approach to design fault-se-cure encoder and decoder circuitry for memory designs. The key novel contribution of this paper is identifying and defining a new class of error-correcting codes whose redundancy makes the de-sign of fault-secure detectors (FSD) particularly simple. We fur-ther quantify the importance of protecting encoder and decoder circuitry...
Cause and Logic of Therapy
- Michael F. O'rourke; Michel E. Safar; Michael F. O’rourke; Michel E. Safar
Information about reprints can be found online at: Reprints: document. Permissions and Rights Question and Answer this process is available in the click Request Permissions in the middle column of the Web page under Services. Further information about Office. Once the online version of the published article for which permission is being requested is located, can be obtained via RightsLink, a service of the Copyright Clearance Center, not the EditorialHypertensionin Requests for permissions to reproduce figures, tables, or portions of articles originally publishedPermissions: by guest on March 5,
An Incremental Temporal Partitioning Method for Real-Time Reconfigurable Systems
Abstract: In this paper, a temporal partitioning algorithm is presented which partitions data flow graphs in a real-time domain. Timing constraint is a critical factor in temporal partitioning of real-time reconfigurable design. An incremental algorithm is presented to partition data flow graphs while meeting the timing constraints by obtaining the target number of partitions. In addition, the proposed algorithm attempts to minimize the logic resources used for implementing the real-time application. In this algorithm, selecting the appropriate nodes and moving them between subsequent partitions results in more area balanced partitions and less number of partitions.
An empirical study of the use of relevance information in inductive logic programming. Machine Learning Research (to appear
- Ashwin Srinivasan; Ross D. King; Michael E. Bain; Richard Dybowski; Kathryn Blackmond Laskey; James Myers; Simon Parsons
Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) systems construct models for data using domain-specific back-ground information. When using these systems, it is typically assumed that sufficient human exper-tise is at hand to rule out irrelevant background information. Such irrelevant information can, and typically does, hinder an ILP system’s search for good models. Here, we provide evidence that if expertise is available that can provide a partial-ordering on sets of background predicates in terms of relevance to the analysis task, then this can be used to good effect by an ILP system. In particu-lar, using data from biochemical domains, we investigate an incremental strategy...
Runtime monitoring of metric first-order temporal properties
- David Basin; Felix Klaedtke; Birgit Pfitzmann
ABSTRACT. We introduce a novel approach to the runtime monitoring of complex system proper-ties. In particular, we present an online algorithm for a safety fragment of metric first-order temporal logic that is considerably more expressive than the logics supported by prior monitoring methods. Our approach, based on automatic structures, allows the unrestricted use of negation, universal and existential quantification over infinite domains, and the arbitrary nesting of both past and bounded future operators. Moreover, we show how to optimize our approach for the common case where structures consist of only finite relations, over possibly infinite domains. Under an additional restric-tion,...
Performance Assessment of Fuzzy Logic Control Routing Algorithm with Different Wavelength Assignments in DWDM Networks*
- I-shyan Hwang; San-nan Lee; I-cheng Chang
DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing) is an effective technique to make use of the large amount of bandwidth in optical fibers to meet the broadband re-quirement of multimedia applications. The routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) algorithm efficiently manages optical network resources and is separated from the opti-cal topology. This paper proposes a dynamic LLR algorithm using fuzzy logic control (FLC LLR) with different wavelength assignments. The unexpected traffic load is in-creased when the traffic load is high and the lightpath is long for the LLR routing algo-rithm. How to balance the traffic load of each link and minimize the hop...
Uncertainty and partial non-uniform assumptions in parametric deductive databases
- Yann Loyer; Umberto Straccia
Abstract. Different many-valued logic programming frameworks have been proposed to manage uncertain information in deductive databases and logic programming. A feature of these frameworks is that they rely on a predefined assumption or hypothesis, i.e. an interpretation that assigns the same default truth value to all the atoms of a program, e.g. in the open world assumption, by default all atoms have unknown truth value. In this paper we extend these frameworks along three directions: (i) we will introduce non-monotonic modes of negation; (ii) the default truth values of atoms need not necessarily to be all equal each other; and...
Time-Of-Flight Trigger Board at CDF§
- Damian Ricci
A Time-Of-Flight detector (TOF) was implemented into the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment in order to provide particle identification. TOF consists of scintillator Bars, Photo Multipliers (PMT), and ADC/Memory (ADMEN) that convert digitally charged of pulses from both sides of TOF scintillator Bars and the Time-Of-Flight Trigger Board (TOTRIB). TOTRIB reports coincidences from the east and west side of the detector, helping filter unwanted information that comes from the collision and the photo multipliers. The resulting hits will be analyzed and classified to determine the particles. TOTRIB was designed and built by using Orcad software. The construction of TOTRIB...
Achieving scalability in parallel tabled logic programs
- Ricardo Rocha; O Silva; Vı́tor Santos Costa
Tabling or memoing is a technique where one stores in-termediate answers to a problem so that they can be reused in further calls. Tabling is of interest to logic programming because it addresses some of most significant weaknesses of Prolog. Namely, it can guarantee termination for programs with the bounded term-size property. Tabled programs ex-hibit a more complex execution mechanism than traditional Prolog’s left-to-right search with backtracking. The reason is that Prolog programs are highly recursive and generate multiple answers. This rather involved execution mecha-nism requires a more complex implementation than tradi-tional Prolog. The declarative nature of tabled logic programming...
Binding without pronouns (and pronouns without binding
- Pauline Jacobson
1.1. Variable-free semantics and the hypothesis of direct co mpositionality This paper is rooted in the hypothesis of "direct compositionality " (cf., Montague, 1973). In its broadest formulation, this hypothesis is that the syntax and semantics work in tandem in such a way that the syntactic combinatory operations specify a set of well-formed expression and each such operation is coupled with a semantic operation which provides a model-theoretic interpretation for the expression. I also assume a general Categorial Grammar (CG) implementation of this, whereby the syntactic category of an expression encodes its combinatory possibilities and its semantic type and where...
THE ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF ENTERPRISE FUNCTIONING Concepts of Strong Comparability and Commensurability Versus Concepts of
- Weak Sustainability; Remigijus Čiegis; Raimondas Čiegis; Edmundas Jasinskas
The possibilities to evaluate sustainability are essen-tial for sustainable development. In this article some theoretical concepts, essential for evaluation of sustain-ability, are analysed. As the objectives, for this the con-tent of concepts of strong comparability and commensu-rability and strong and weak sustainability are critically investigated. First, the essence of the sustainability con-cept is discussed. Then the role of strong comparability and commensurability concepts in evaluation of sustain-ability are analyzed. The role of capital factor in strong and weak sustainability concepts is elaborated. As the methods of the research, logic abstraction, which encom-passes generalisations on theoretical systems analysis of the problems...
- Vladimir Pletser; Dirk Huylebrouck
Abstract. In 1950, the Belgian Prof. J. de Heinzelin discovered a bone at Ishango, a Congolese village at the sources of the Nile. The artefact has patterned notches, making it the first tool showing logic reasoning. Here, Pletser proposes his new “slide rule” interpretation, rejecting former “arithmetic game ” and “calendar ” explanations. Counting methods of present day civilisations in Africa provide circumstantial evidence for Pletser’s hypothesis. Moreover, it confirms de Heinzelin’s archaeological evidence about relationships between Egypt, West Africa and Ishango. It points towards the use of the base 12, which anthropologist Thomas had studied in West Africa some...
1Practical Response Time Estimation in Parallel Relational Database Systems
- N. Tomov; E. Dempster; M. H. Williams; A. Burger; H. Taylor; P. J. B. King
Abstract — An analytical approach to response time estimation in parallel relational database systems has been developed. It is based on a representation of database activity, in which queries are mapped to low-level patterns of resource consumption, capturing the execution logic of relational operators and mechanisms such as pipelined and partitioned execution. Resource usage profiles are mapped to open multi-class queueing networks. Queue waiting times are estimated using a heuristic rule, which labels resources as M/M/1 or M/G/1 queues. From these and the resource usage profile the average response time of a query is obtained. Synchronisation mechanisms such as pipelines...
Traffic jam driving with NMV avoidance
- Milanés, Vicente; Alonso, L.; Villagrá, J.; Godoy, Jorge; Pedro, Teresa de; Oria, J.
In recent years, the development of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) - mainly based on lidar and cameras - has considerably improved the safety of driving in urban environments. These systems provide warning signals for the driver in the case that any unexpected traffic circumstance is detected. The next step is to develop systems capable not only of warning the driver but also of taking over control of the car to avoid a potential collision. In the present communication, a system capable of autonomously avoiding collisions in traffic jam situations is presented. First, a perception system was developed for urban...