Memory barriers for LIFO IWSQ on Power
- Richard Bornat
Barriers for LIFO IWSQ on Power, done rather properly. Includes first sight of T and U modalities for universal stable assertions and the B and C operators for and CASable values. This is an attempt to do the barriers for LIFO IWSQ systematically – i.e. with formal treatment of propagation effects. The algorithm is in figure 1 with the authors ’ ordering annotations, which are inadequate: there’s an additional need for an lwsync before line 3 of put() (which can be made conditional, though it doesn’t save very much in this algorithm). Note that sz is local to the owner...
Goa, India Effects of Particle Shape and Microstructure on Strength and Dilatancy During a Numerical Direct Shear Test
- W. M. Yan
ABSTRACT: Discrete element method offers insights into the soil behaviour at the microscopic level. In this investigation, a series of numerical direct shear tests is carried out by a three-dimensional discrete element code PFC 3D. The size of the shear box is 6 cm long, 3 cm wide and 4 cm high. Non-spherical shaped particles are created by joining primary constitutive spherical balls together with the aid of the built-in clump logic in the code. Particles of three different aspect ratios (defined as length/width of a particle): 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0, are generated and studied in this paper. The box...
Lower Bounds on the OBDD Size of Graphs of Some Popular Functions ⋆
- Daniel Sawitzki
Abstract. Ordered binary decision diagrams (OBDDs) are a data structure for Boolean functions which supports many useful operations. It finds many applications in logic design, CAD, model checking, and symbolic graph algorithms. Nevertheless, many simple functions are known to have exponential OBDD size w. r. t. their number of variables. In order to investigate the limits of symbolic graph algorithms which work on OBDD-represented graph instances, it is useful to have simply-structured graphs whose OBDD representation has exponential size. Therefore, we consider fundamental arithmetic and storage access functions with exponential OBDD size and transfer these results to the graphs of...
An Approach to Bar Management by Innovation: A Case Study of the Academic Bar in Bergen Norway
A qualitative research method of an in-depth interview, discussion, and analysis of the Academic Bar (the name and identifying details have been changed to protect his privacy). The strategic value of innovation theory coordinates with the product lifecycle to analyze the value curve of the innovation and then determine the direction of production and marketing. In the competitive environment, the Academic Bar follows development strategy focuses on marketing strategies to create competitive advantages and core competencies to get higher sales volume and to lower their manufacturing costs, creating and operating diverse sales channels. The Academic Bar located in Bergen, Norway,...
Separation predicates: a taste of separation logic in first-order logic
- François Bobot; Jean-christophe Filliâtre
Abstract. This paper introduces separation predicates, a technique to reuse some ideas from separation logic in the framework of program verification using a traditional first-order logic. The purpose is to benefit from existing specification languages, verification condition generators, and automated theorem provers. Separation predicates are automatically derived from user-defined inductive predicates. We illustrate this idea on a non-trivial case study, namely the composite pattern, which is specified in C/ACSL and verified in a fully automatic way using SMT solvers Alt-Ergo, CVC3, and Z3. 1
INDUSTRY COMPENSATION UNDER RELOCATION RISK: A FIRM-LEVEL ANALYSIS OF THE EU EMISSIONS TRADING SCHEME *
- Ralf Martin; Mirabelle Muûls; Laure B. De Preux; Ulrich J. Wagner
When industry compensation is offered to prevent relocation of regulated firms, efficiency requires that payments be distributed across firms so as to equalize marginal relocation probabilities, weighted by the damage caused by relocation. We formalize this fundamental economic logic and apply it to analyze industry compensation rules proposed under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, which allocate permits for free to carbon and trade intensive industries. We estimate that this practice will result in overcompensation in the order of €6.7 billion every year. Efficient allocation would reduce the aggregate risk of job loss by two thirds without increasing aggregate compensation.
spatio-temporal tornado probability forecasts using fuzzy logic and motion variability
Stochastic Process Semantics for Dynamical Grammar Syntax: An Overview. Paper presented at the
- Eric Mjolsness; Guy Yosiphon
We de ne a class of probabilistic models in terms of an operator algebra of stochastic processes, and a representation for this class in terms of stochastic parameterized grammars. A syntactic speci cation of a grammar is formally mapped to semantics given in terms of a ring of operators, so that composition of grammars corresponds to operator addition or multiplication. The operators are generators for the time-evolution of stochastic processes. The dynamical evolution occurs in continuous time but is related to a corresponding discrete-time dynamics. An expansion of the exponential of such time-evolution operators can be used to derive a...
Neural Networks, Qualitative-Fuzzy Logic and Granular Adaptive Systems
- T. Y. Lin
Abstract-Though traditional neural networks and fuzzy logic are powerful universal approximators, however without some refinements, they may not, in general, be good approximators for adaptive systems. By extending fuzzy sets to qualitative fuzzy sets, fuzzy logic may become universal approximators for adaptive systems. Similar considerations can be extended to neural networks.
Degree-of-Belief and Degree-of-Support: Why Bayesians Need Both Notions
I argue that Bayesians need two distinct notions of probability. We need the usual degree-of-belief notion that is central to the Bayesian account of rational decision. But Bayesians also need a separate notion of probability that represents the degree to which evidence supports hypotheses. Although degree-of-belief is well suited to the theory of rational decision, Bayesians have tried to apply it to the realm of hypothesis confirmation as well. This double duty leads to the problem of old evidence, a problem that, we will see, is much more extensive than usually recognized. I will argue that degree-of-support is distinct from...
On the Relations between Structural Case-Based Reasoning and Ontology-based Knowledge Management
- Ralph Bergmann; Martin Schaaf
www.dwm.uni-hildesheim.de Abstract: This paper addresses the relations between ontology-based knowledge management implemented by logic-oriented knowledge representation/retrieval approaches and knowledge management using case-based reasoning. We argue that knowledge management with CBR does not only very much resemble but indeed is a kind of ontology-based knowledge management since it is based on closely related ideas and a similar development methodology, although the reasoning paradigms are different. Therefore, we conclude by proposing to merge logic-oriented and casebased retrieval and also to extend the current view of the semantic web architecture respectively. 1
UCG-E: An equational logic programming system
- Lutz H. Hamel
UCG-E (Hamel, 1991) is an equational logic programming system inspired by O’Donnell’s system (O’Donnell, 1985) and was designed to allow the integration of logic systems into imperative style programming environments. Equational logic systems are interesting, since they may be implemented very efficiently with term rewriting systems (Herman, 1991). Backtracking, a major source of inefficiencies in other logic systems, is unnecessary in equational logic if the confluency of the underlying rewriting system is guaranteed. O’Donnell has identified four restrictions to the form of the equational axioms which assure the confluency of a system. Since the restrictions are purely syntactical, no runtime...
DOI 10.1007/s10992-010-9144-4 Explication of Inductive Probability
- Patrick Maher
Abstract Inductive probability is the logical concept of probability in ordinary language. It is vague but it can be explicated by defining a clear and precise concept that can serve some of the same purposes. This paper presents a general method for doing such an explication and then a particular explication due to Carnap. Common criticisms of Carnap’s inductive logic are examined; it is shown that most of them are spurious and the others are not fundamental.
What does it mean to say that logic is formal
- John Gordon Macfarlane; John Gordon Macfarlane
Much philosophy of logic is shaped, explicitly or implicitly, by the thought that logic is distinctively formal and abstracts from material content. The distinction between formal and material does not appear to coincide with the more familiar contrasts between a priori and empirical, necessary and contingent, analytic and synthetic—indeed, it is often invoked to explain these. Nor, it turns out, can it be explained by appeal to schematic inference patterns, syntactic rules, or grammar. What does it mean, then, to say that logic is distinctively formal? Three things: logic is said to be formal (or “topic-neutral”) (1) in the sense...
GaN HFET digital circuit technology
- Tahir Hussain; Miroslav Micovic; Tom Tsen; Michael Delaney; David Chow; Adele Schmitz; Danny Wong; J. S. Moon; Ming Hu; Janna Duvall; Doug Mclaughlin
We report on a demonstration of GaN digital circuits implemented in a first generation GaN digital technology, which has yielded circuits of considerable complexity. We have implemented simple logic blocks, comparators, ring-oscillators and frequency dividers. We have yielded a 31-stage ring-oscillator using 217 transistors . As a result of unique material characteristics GaN digital control circuits have the potential to operate in high radiation environments, at elevated temperature, and directly from high voltage rails. While we have successfully operated 31-stage GaN ring-oscillators at 265C, we believe that these circuits can operate at significantly higher temperatures and will be tolerant of...
Implicit flow maximization by iterative squaring
- Daniel Sawitzki
Abstract. Application areas like logic design and network analysis produce large graphs G =(V,E) on which traditional algorithms, which work on adjacency list representations, are not practicable anymore. These large graphs often contain regular structures that enable compact implicit representations by decision diagrams like OBDDs , , . To solve problems on such implicitly given graphs, specialized algorithms are needed. These are considered as heuristics with typically higher worstcase runtimes than traditional methods. In this paper, an implicit algorithm for flow maximization in 0–1 networks is presented, which works on OBDD-representations of node and edge sets. Because it belongs to...
Goa, India Intelligent Controller for Mobile Robot: Fuzzy Logic Approach
- M. K. Singh
ABSTRACT: A key issue in the research of an autonomous mobile robot is the design and development of an intelligent controller which can control and enables the robot to navigate in a real world environment, avoiding structured and unstructured obstacles especially in crowded and unpredictably changing environment, whether it is in land, underground, under water, on the air or in space. An intelligent system has the ability to act appropriately in an uncertain environment, where an appropriate action is that which increases the probability of success, and success is the achievement of behavioral sub goals that support the system's ultimate...
A Fuzzy Neural Network Based on the TS Model with Dynamic Consequent Parameters and its Application to Steam Temperature Control System in Power Plants*
- Keming Xie; T. Y. Lin; Jianfeng Nan
This paper presents a new fuzzy-neural network based on the Takagi-Sugeno(TS) model with dynamic consequent parameters. In the first step, this network adopts the least-square method for rough-tuning the consequent parameters; this is an off-line processing. It then in the second step employs the error back-propagation to fine-tune the consequent parameters, which is on-line. The fusion of fuzzy logic and neural network enabling us to captures the physical meaning in the model. In summary, the approach is a semantic oriented approximation of non-linear maps; the optimization of the parameters is fast and efficient. The network is applied to the cascade...
Polluted or nonpolluted- a fuzzy logic approach determing soil pollution
- Marko Komac; Robert Šajn
In this paper a combination of the GIS and the DSS methods is used in order to produce a pollution map of the sampling area. 512 samples of urban soil were collected in the area of Slovenia’s capital – Ljubljana and its vicinity. Samples were analysed for 36 chemical elements, including heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn). A pollution index (PI) for each sampling point was calculated for each of the eight elements. The method of fuzzy logic was used for the classification of the PI into six classes; non-polluted, partially polluted, marginally polluted, polluted,...
- Aseel Alkhelaiwi; Nancy Eaton; Nasser Zawia
The semantics of Prolog programs is usually given in terms of model theoretic semantics. However, this does not adequately characterize the computational behavior of Prolog programs. Prolog implementations typically use a depth-first, left-to-right evaluation strategy based on the textual order of clauses and literals in a program. In this paper we introduce a self-interpreter for Prolog, which is a formalization of the syntax and semantics of Prolog using Prolog. This interpreter is a running program that mimics the depth-first, left-to-right evaluation strategy of Prolog interpreters. This means that, the computational behavior of Prolog is captured by obtaining an operational semantics...