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Nomenclatura Unesco > (11) Lógica

Mostrando recursos 81 - 100 de 161,730

81. Las Juntas departamentales en la FAHCE-UNLP: un análisis de los cambios y continuidades a través del tiempo - Duarte, Yamila; Montenegro, Jésica
En este trabajo nos proponemos analizar la configuración y reconfiguración de un organismo legítimo de participación y representación política de los diversos claustros, en el gobierno universitario a nivel departamental en la Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educación de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Para esto, nos proponemos reconstruir la historia de la configuración de las Juntas Consultivas Departamentales (JCD) y presentar las condiciones políticas que posibilitaron la modificación y posterior institucionalización de las denominadas Juntas Asesoras Departamentales (JAD). Esta Unidad académica (UA) se organiza bajo una lógica disciplinar (Clark, 1983), brinda treinta y un carreras de grado,...

82. Eco-cities, Smart-cities : Soluciones a los retos de la ciudad contemporánea - González Izquierdo, María
Hoy en día las ciudades, como centros de innovación y economía global, constituyen el principal asentamiento de la humanidad. Con los avances tecnológicos de los últimos tiempos se ha impulsado el crecimiento económico, el consumo y la riqueza, propiciando una explosión demográfica sin precedentes, que se concentra sobre todo en las ciudades. Sin embargo, todo esto ha traído consigo graves consecuencias ambientales y sociales que amenazan a la humanidad y a la salud del planeta, como son el calentamiento global, la elevada contaminación, la congestión, la dispersión urbana, la pobreza urbana generalizada, etc. Así, desde el punto de vista de los diseños y...

83. Autonomous classification models in ubiquitous environments - Abad Arranz, Miguel Angel
Stream-mining approach is defined as a set of cutting-edge techniques designed to process streams of data in real time, in order to extract knowledge. In the particular case of classification, stream-mining has to adapt its behaviour to the volatile underlying data distributions, what has been called concept drift. Moreover, it is important to note that concept drift may lead to situations where predictive models become invalid and have therefore to be updated to represent the actual concepts that data poses. In this context, there is a specific type of concept drift, known as recurrent concept drift, where the concepts represented...

84. A marca Montijo: aplicação da metodologia ideas (R)evolution: modelo left and right branding - Fontes, João Paulo
As marcas territoriais são a resposta a um novo paradigma de desenvolvimento das identidades territoriais e nos dias de hoje chegam a uma nova era, a era da co-criação, a era em que criar uma marca, deve ser um processo conjunto onde os públicos e stakeholders envolvidos, têm papel fundamental. O Montijo não é exceção, e nesta lógica de interação, conhecemos um concelho com grandes valências, uma vastidão e diversidade humana e territorial fantásticas, uma bonita história e tradição, uma maravilhosa e benéfica posição geográfica, vários produtos regionais e fatores atrativos, mas carente de ligação, carente de uma conexão constante,...

85. Which place are we speaking from? Returning to a long standing talk about Law and Sociology - Wanda Capeller
Legal scholars that seek to perform social legal studies have to face the challenges and transformations of a globalized society. Legal education without a sociological perspective will not provide the theoretical tools to understand the complexities of the social world that go beyond the normative and formal logic. This article reveals the difficulties to tackle the conflictual relationship between Law and Sociology of Law, which is a consequence of the epistemological irony of the adoption of philosophical positivism by legal scholars. If Social Science tends to ignore Law as a founding element of social practices, many sociological paradigms mobilized Law...

86. A FUZZY-BASED CONGESTION CONTROLLER FOR CONTROL AND BALANCE CONGESTION IN GRIED-BASED WSN - Ali Dorri; Seyed Reza Kamel
A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is deployed with a large number of sensors with limited power supply in a wide geographically area. These sensors collect information depending on application. The sensors transmit the data towards a base station called sink. Due to the relatively high node density and source-to-sink communication pattern, congestion is a critical issue in WSN. Congestion not only causes packet loss, but also leads to excessive energy consumption as well as delay. To address this problem, in this paper we propose a new fuzzy logic based mechanism to detect and control congestion in WSN. In the proposed approach, a Monitor Node for each grid...

87. The Foundations of Understanding Religious Wisdom in the Discourse of Molavi - majid sadeghi; mohammad nasr e esfahani
Molavi has called religious and divine knowledge as religious wisdom. In his view, religion is a strong and unique kind of knowledge. Religious wisdom is a transcendental wisdom which aims to explain and provide various strategies for spiritual transcendence of human being. Other kinds of wisdom are physical wisdoms whose task is to explain the living and worldly affairs. He considers knowledge of self, God and the text as mediating between man and religious wisdom. In his view, anyone who lacks such kinds of knowledge as prerequisites of understanding religious wisdom should not expect the grasp of this kind of wisdom....

88. Semantic and Morphologic Analysis of Hojviri’s Dialectics - E Azimi Yancheshmeh; M Abedi
Dialectic is one of the expressive types of analogy in logic which is used in the form of question and response between two persons. Considering the definition of dialectic and type of dialectic discussions in Kashf al-Mahjoub, the word “debate-like” which has a semantic scope between debate and dialectic was chosen in this article. Then, all debate-likes were analyzed under two general categories of “semantic” and “morphological” analysis. In the first section, as a result of semantic analysis, the most important intellectual and ideological preoccupations of sufis and religious scholars were obtained. In the second section, all debate-likes were described...

89. Does Xaje Nasir-oddin-e Tusi Believe in Three-valued Logic? - Ali Reza Darabi; Asad _allahe falahiy
In his book Asaso Al-eqtebas, Xaje Nasir-od-dine-e Tousi has given an analysis of connected conditional propositions which is similar to the analysis of the conditional propositions in three-valued logic. It raises the following question: does Tusi accept propositions with values other that “True” and “False”? In this article we consider Tusi’s view and those of his followers, and compare it with those who accept the three valued logic. We will show that Xaje didn’t believe that propositions can have a third value. Also we will show that in his analysis of connected conditional proposition Xaje Nasir does not use the...

90. Necessary Conclusions in Moods with only One Necessary Premise A problem in Aristotelian modal syllogism - F Nabati
There are many criticisms about Aristotelian modal syllogism. Some logicians tried to provide adequate formulation of his total system but they were not successful. Therefore some logicians decided to account for those parts of the system which had been more controversial. The most controversial of the system is the "two barbaras" problem. The problem is about Aristotle's claim that moods with necessary major premise and assertoric minor premise have necessary conclusion while moods with assertoric major premise and necessary minor premise do not have necessary conclusion. Some logicians accept this, some believe that both of them have necessary conclusion, and...

91. Intra-Rule Existential Commitment of Al-Tousi on Contraposition and the Problem of Inversion - A Falahiy
Many rules of Ancient Logic need the existence of the subject, and this existence can be either added into the propositions’ structures or regarded as a part of the rules, as enthymematic premise. The two approaches can be named “intra-proposition” and “intra-rule” commitments. The first thinkers who used the latter explicitly are Avicenna and Nasir Al-din Al-Tousi, respectively, on Obversion and Contraposition. Al-Tousi added the proviso of the existence of the subject as not only the premise of Contraposition, but also as its conclusion. In contemporary period, Al-Muzaffar added Inversion to the body of Ancient Logic’s rules. Inversion can be...

92. Metaphysical Modality, Modality of Predicate and the Theory of - l nabavi
Aristotle in the Organon (1949: 9,30 a ,15-19) explicitly states that in a categorical syllogism when the minor premise is absolute (without modality operator) and the major is necessary, the conclusion will be necessary too. This Aristotle's view has been the source of many conflicts and disputes in the history of logic. The famous logicians and historians of logic in the twentieth century as "Nicholas Rescher" and "Becker" believe that Aristotle's view is justifiable and defensible (at least compared to the first figure) only if, the modality of major premise is considered as the property of predicate (modality de re)....

93. Lozomieh in Ibn Sina’s Logic and its Relation to Various Kinds of Conditionals in Modern Logic with Analysis and Critique of Some Views - M Hajihosseini
According to Ibn Sina's logic, Lozomieh is the only conditional that is suitable to be named real conditional. Also Lozomieh is among the foundations of Ibn Sina’s logic that the rules Modus Ponens and Modus Tollens would be applied only to it. Analyzing the relation between premises and conclusion in various kinds of syllogism in ancient Logic shows the importance of Lozomieh too. After providing the truth conditions of Lozomieh, the central aim of the present article is to review different views about Lozomieh and its relation to various kinds of conditionals in Modern logic. These views are as follows:...

94. The Possibility of Moral Reasoning in Hare’s Prescriptivism - m zamani; mh Mahdavinejad; a Azhdar; R Taghian Varzaneh
The contemporary approaches to moral philosophy have experienced diverging directions regarding the possibility and justification of reasoning. Hare claims that in spite of the fact that intuitivists like Moore, Ross, and Prichard block the use of reasoning by accepting the intuitiveness of knowledge of good and bad, emotivism takes the same rout by focusing on emotions and emphasizing the freedom of choice. While descriptivism and also naturalism accept the possibility of reasoning through admitting the indicative nature of ethical speech, they reject or limit the freedom of choice. He tries to justify both the freedom of choice and the possibility...

95. Possible Worlds in the Plantinga\'s Thought and its Relationship with the Concept of Nafs-al-Amr in Islamic Philosophy - M Zali; R Alemi; M Ghavam Safari
Although the concepts of necessity and possibility (modal concepts) are inseparable concepts of metaphysics, the empiricist philosophers have traditionally challenged them. In the twentieth century, these criticisms were proposed by Quine in a new form. However, the emergence of the concept of possible worlds in semantics of modal logic made the belief that the challenge of empiricism may be defeated. In explaining the nature of possible worlds, there are two different approaches. Some philosophers believe that the concepts of possible worlds, necessity, possibility, essential, and accidental are members of a network. On the other hand, some philosophers use the reductive...

96. Philosophical Foundations of Intuitionistic Logic - L Nabavi; MA Hojati; H Alaeenezhad
Intuitionistic logic, as a non-classical logic, encompasses the principles of logical reasoning which were used by L. E. J. Brouwer in developing his intuitionistic mathematics. Brouwer rejected the principle of the excluded middle on the basis of his philosophy. In his philosophical view, logic is the application of mathematics to the language of mathematics. In other words, logic studies the patterns that characterize valid inference. The resulting linguistic system of logic may be studied mathematically, even independently of the mathematical activities that it was originally abstracted from. In this paper, the philosophical basis of Brouwer’s view about Logic and Mathematics...

97. Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature - A Jafari Eskandari
Richard McKay Rorty (1932-2007) is the American neo-pragmatist. Criticizing the prevalent issues of traditional philosophy such as truth, knowledge, objectivity, logic and philosophy, he considers epistemology a modern subject which emerged via forging the mind by Rene Descartes. In his view, separation of mind–body is an unprecedented matter created in Descartes philosophy. He thinks that, in creating such a matter, Descartes was aided by the big and strong image of human mind as a large mirror which reflects the world. Rorty states that this image is not trustable. This study investigates the view of Rorty about mind and body. The...

98. Probability Arguments in Criminal Law - Illustrated by the Case of Lucia de Berk - Herman Philipse
Which logic of probability should be applied with regard to factual hypotheses in criminal cases? In this article, I discuss two possible logical reconstructions of the so-called Coincidence Argument, which played a crucial role in the conviction of Lucia de Berk by the Court of Appeal of The Hague (Gerechtshof ’s-Gravenhage) in 2004. If the argument is construed as an instance of the Law of Likelihood, nothing follows with regard to the probability that Lucia was a serial killer. If, however, the Argument from Coincidence may be interpreted charitably as an instance of Bayesian updating, the Court of The Hague...

99. Gobernanza Urbana y Participación Comunitaria. Los Casos de Barcelona, Bilbao y Pamplona (Urban Governance and Community Involvement. Cases of Barcelona, Bilbao and Pamplona) - Imanol Telleria; Igor Ahedo Gurrutxaga

This article is based on a detailed study of three cases (Barcelona, ​​Pamplona and Bilbao) trying to address from a theoretical perspective a more current characterization of urban movements, joining in a framework of analysis the contributions of the American and European schools study of social movements. To do this, we present the results of empirical research conducted in the districts of the three cities and perform a comparison of the most important variables.

This research shows that urban movements have become increasing their ability to access aided by the opening of opportunities on local governance (EOP) and have driven...

100. A fuzzy PID-controlled SMA actuator for a two-DOF joint - Shi Zhenyun; Wang Tianmiao; Liu Da; Ma Chen; Yuan Xiangnan
Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator is a potential advanced component for servo-systems of aerospace vehicles and aircraft. This paper presents a joint with two degrees of freedom (DOF) and a mobility range close to ±60° when driven by SMA triple wires. The fuzzy proportional-integral-derivative (PID)-controlled actuator drive was designed using antagonistic SMA triple wires, and the resistance feedback signal made a closed loop. Experiments showed that, with the driving responding frequency increasing, the overstress became harder to be avoided at the position under the maximum friction force. Furthermore, the hysteresis gap between the heating and cooling paths of the strain-to-resistance...

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