Assessment, Risk Management, and Children's Environmental Health
- Gail Charnley; Ph. D
oncern about the impact of the environment on health has become almost a religious issue in the United States, and one of the most controversial health issues is how best to protect children from environmental contaminants. Our ability to assess risks to children’s health from chemical contaminants in the environment has become more sophisticated, as children’s special behavior and consumption patterns are studied and factored in. Our understanding of the potential developmental toxicity of chemicals, especially developmental neurotoxicity, is incomplete, however, and should be improved. Surprisingly, data show that children generally are not more susceptible to chemical toxicity than adults,...
Evolution, the Five Factor Model, and Levels of Personality
- Kevin Macdonald
This paper interprets the Five Factor Model as subsuming variation in normative, species-typical systems with adaptive functions in the human environment of evolutionary adaptedness. It is argued that the evolutionary logic of personality systems is apparent in the patterning of mean sex differences in personality. Personality systems are conceptualized as evolved motivational systems with an affective core. The evolved motive dispositions at the core of personality anchor a hierarchy of levels of cognitive and behavioral functioning aimed at attaining or avoiding the affective states central to these personality systems. Personality systems are seen as often in dynamic conflict within individuals...
Verification of RTL generated from scheduled behavior in a high-level synthesis flow
- Pranav Ashar; Subhrajit Bhattacharya; Anand Raghunathan; Akira Mukaiyama
We propose a complete procedure for verifying register-transfer logic against its scheduled behavior in a high-level synthesis en-vironment. Our proposal advances the state of the art because it is the first such verification procedure that is both complete and prac-tical. Hardware verification is known to be a hard problem and the proposed verification technique leverages off the fact that high-level synthesis- performed manually or by means of high-level synthesis software- proceeds from the algorithmic description of the design to structural RTL through a sequence of very well de-fined steps, each limited in its scope. The major contribution is the partitioning...
REVIEW Arm Edema in Breast Cancer Patients
- Virginia S. Erickson; Marjorie L. Pearson; Patricia A. Ganz; John Adams; Katherine L. Kahn
The improvement in the life expectancy of women with breast cancer raises important questions about how to im-prove the quality of life for women sustaining complications of breast cancer treatment. In particular, attention to com-mon problems, such as arm edema, is of critical importance. We reviewed published breast cancer guidelines and litera-ture identified via MEDLINE ® searches in an effort to sum-marize the research literature pertinent to management of breast cancer-related arm edema, including incidence, prevalence, and timing; risk factors; morbidity; prevention; diagnosis; and efficacy of nonpharmacologic and pharmaco-logic interventions. We found that arm edema is a common complication of...
Non-Linear and Optimal Direct Torque Control of AC Drive using Fuzzy-GA
- Rahul Malhotraa; Narinder Singhb; Yaduvir Singhc
This paper implements and compares Fuzzy-GA Direct Torque Control of AC drive with a fuzzy logic stand alone control architecture model. Fuzzy rules are generated by designers using trial and error method. Genetic Algorithm based fuzzy rules increase effectiveness and feasibility of control system. Direct Torque Control induction motors are characterized by complex, highly non-linear and time varying dynamics and inaccessibility of some states and output for measurements. The flux and torque control techniques are helpful to a certain extent to motor problems but they eventually deteriorate the performance. Intelligent controllers are considered to be the potential solution to such...
R (1997c), Ternary and Quaternary Lattice Diagrams for LinearlyIndependent Logic
- Marek A. Perkowski; Edmund Pierzchala; Rolf Drechsler
Ternary and Quaternary Lattice Diagrams are introduced that can find applications to submicron design, and design-ing new fine-grain digital, analog and mixed FPGAs. They expand the ideas of Lattice diagrams [6, 111 and Linearly
IDEA (International Data Encryption Standard)
- Onur Tigli; The George
Standard) is presented. The design is implemented using RTL design techniques by employing Verilog HDL for both design and verification. Logic synthesis is completed by applying several different ASIC synthesis techniques to achieve the lowest possible area and the highest possible throughput. The design is based on a bit parallel approach in the submodules and a pipelined approach in the main encryption module. Basic building blocks such as adders and multipliers were designed for the lowest area/highest throughput principle. With a system clock frequency of 10 MhZ the designed device permits a data conversion rate of 193.9 Mbits/sec.
Establishment of an Experimental Intracranial Internal Carotid Artery Model and the Application in Covered-Stent Navigability Testing
- J. Xie; M. -h. Li; H. -q. Tan; Y. -q. Zhu; Y. -d. Li; C. -h. Fan; D. -j. Hu; R. -h. Qiao
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The carotid siphon is a natural barrier to intracranial interventions. Our aim was to make a model of the human intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) and to test the navigability of covered stents for intracranial applications. MATERIALS ANDMETHODS: A digital tube was made on the basis of rawMR images of the human ICA. It was transferred into 10 physical models and then coated with silicone by using a 3D rapid prototyping (RP) machine. Ten dogs then underwent surgery. Their common carotid arteries (CCAs) were exposed, cut, and passed through 1 of the tubes. Finally, the vascular models...
A mechanization of strong Kleene logic for partial functions. SEKI-Report SR-93-20 (SFB), Universität des Saarlandes
- Manfred Kerber; Michael Kohlhase; Fachbereich Informatik; Universität Des Saarl
Abstract. Even though it is not very often admitted, partial functions do play a significant role in many practical applications of deduction sys-tems. Kleene has already given a semantic account of partial functions using three-valued logic decades ago, but there has not been a satisfac-tory mechanization. Recent years have seen a thorough investigation of the framework of many-valued truth-functional logics. However, strong Kleene logic, where quantification is restricted and therefore not truth-functional, does not fit the framework directly. We solve this problem by applying recent methods from sorted logics. This paper presents a reso-lution calculus that combines the proper treatment...
Multi-bit carry chains for high-performance reconfigurable fabrics
- Michael T. Frederick; Arun K. Somani
Ripple-carry architectures are the norm in today’s reconfig-urable fabrics. They are simple, require minimal routing, and are easily formed across arbitrary cells in a fabric. How-ever, their computation delay grows linearly with operand width. Many different fabric carry-chains have been pre-sented in literature offering non-linear delays, but generally require a significant investment in routing and processing area. Carry-skip chains are well-known in arithmetic logic design, and although they too possess a linear delay, their performance is 2x or more faster than simple ripple-carry schemes. They require an expanded carry chain and minimal extra logic, but offer impressive speed-ups for arithmetic....
Petri nets as models of linear logic
- Glynn Winskel; Ny Munkegade
The chief purpose of this paper is to appraise the feasibility of Girard's linear logic as a specication language for parallel processes. To this end we propose an interpretation of linear logic in Petri nets, with respect to which we investigate the expressive power of the logic. 1
At Home in the Nation: Coloniality, Contested Citizenship and the Structural Embeddedness of Vigilantism and Border Violence along the U-S///Mexico Border
- Roberto Hernández
In this paper, which forms part of my larger dissertation project, I focus on the rise of recent civilian patrols operating on the U-S///Mexico border1 to interrogate shifting discourses of citizenship and belonging, the persistence of structural racism in/through othering, and some of the mechanisms which I argue uphold these logico-structurally embedded violences. I situate this work in my dissertation—a longue durée analysis of the racialized/gendered logics of nations and violence vis-à-vis what Aníbal Quijano has termed “coloniality of power”2—where I examine manifestations of violence that we associate with three distinct historical moments and conceptual frames: the frontier, the border...
Optimum design of forging dies using the finite element method
- F. R. Biglari; N. P. O’dowd; R. T. Fenner
In this paper, a die design method is presented for multistage forging of engineering components. Backward deformation analysis is used to reverse the deformation process and determine an optimum intermediate die shape. In the backward deformation method, the final component shape is taken as the starting point, and the die is moved in the reverse direction with boundary nodes being released as the die is raised. A boundary node releasing decision making strategy based on fuzzy logic is used to define the boundary condition in each backward time increment. To specify the die wear tolerance, the total friction work of...
- Wpp C; K)x C
Abstract. We are motivated by the connection between Boolean algebra and propositional logic, cylindric algebra and predicate logic, Keisler’s L(V, ν,m) logic and polyadic algebra , to introduce an algebra calling weak probability polyadic algebra which ’corresponds ’ to the weak probability logic with infinitely predicates L(V, ν,m, R), introduced in . Structure (B,+, ·,−, 0, 1, C(K), Cr(K), Sτ), where (B,+, ·,−, 0, 1) is a Boolean algebra, C(K), C r (K) and Sτ are unary operations on B, for each sequence (K) of ordinals from β of length α, α ≤ β, each r ∈ R (R is...
What sensing tells us: Towards a formal theory of testing for dynamical systems
- Sheila A. Mcilraith; Richard Scherl
Just as actions can have indirect effects on the state of the world, so too can sensing actions have indirect effects on an agent’s state of knowledge. In this paper, we investigate “what sensing actions tell us”, i.e., what an agent comes to know indirectly from the outcome of a sensing action, given knowledge of its actions and state constraints that hold in the world. To this end, we propose a formalization of the no-tion of testing within a dialect of the situation calculus that includes knowledge and sensing actions. Realizing this for-malization requires addressing the ramification problem for sensing...
VERY FIRST DRAFT
- Christine Neuhold
Following the logic that “interests ” turn to where the (institutional) „power “ is, the Commission and the Council have been the main targets of interest group contacts until the Single European Act (1987). Subsequent to the upgrading of the European Parliament’s (EP) role, by way of the co-operation and co-decision procedure, the focus has however increasingly shifted to this institution. It is interesting to note that the EP, as the only directly elected EU institution, portrays itself as the forum with which especially the „less organised interest groups “ try to form alliances ” on issues that concern „civil...
1Ontological Tools for Geographic Representation
- Roberto Casati; Barry Smith; Achille C. Varzi
Abstract. This paper is concerned with certain ontological issues in the foundations of geographic representation. It sets out what these basic issues are, d cribes the tools needed to deal with them, and draws some implications for a general theory of spatial representa-tion. Our approach has ramifications in the domains of mereology, topology, and the the-ory of location, and the question of the interaction of these three domains within a unified spatial representation theory is addressed. In the final part we also consider the idea of non-standard geographies, which may be associated with geography under a classical concep-tion in the...
- Maria Luisa; Dalla Chiara; Roberto Giuntini
Quantum computational logics (QCLs) are new forms of quantum logic, that represent a natural logical abstraction from the theory of logical gates in quantum computation (). In these logics formulas denote quantum in-formation quantities (qubits, quregisters or mixtures of quregisters), while the logical connectives are interpreted as special quantum logical gates (uni-tary operators of convenient Hilbert spaces). As a consequence, any formula can be regarded as an economical description of a quantum circuit (). The standard semantics of QCLs does not take into account any approximation methods, which instead play an important role in a number of quantum com-putational problems...
Table of Contents
- Won W. Koo; Richard D. Taylor
Dean Bangsund for their constructive comments and suggestions. Special thanks go to Ms. Carol Jensen who helped to prepare the manuscript. The authors assume responsibility for any errors of omission, logic, or otherwise. We would be happy to provide a single copy of th`is publication free of charge. You can
Formal verification of a big integer library
- Sabine Fischer
We present formal correctness of a big integer library based on dynamically allocated lists. The package has been implemented in a restricted C-dialect. In addition to the standard operations for big integers, we provide a function which computes modulo exponentiation results using the square-and-multiply algorithm. Functional correctness has been verified using the Hoare logic environment of the in-teractive theorem prover Isabelle. We deal with heap modi-fication and pointer aliasing using predicates and lemmas. 1