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Nomenclatura Unesco > (11) Lógica

Mostrando recursos 81 - 100 de 164,486

81. Entre: de repente, sin fin, lo innombrable - Giannopoulou, Efpraxia
Etiquetamos para reducir nuestra incertidumbre; clasificamos en base a términos opuestos para poder entender. El universo y el espacio construido en particular, se explican desde una arquitectónica dual: dentro – fuera, arriba – abajo, derecha – izquierda, día – noche, hombre – mujer. Lo que nos diferencia como grupo, raza o género, distinguiendo los modos de vivir, las ideologías y las teorías, es la relación que establecemos entre los términos opuestos: entre lo individual y lo colectivo, lo privado y lo público, la imaginación y la realidad, la identidad y la otredad, el orden y el caos, el deseo y...

82. Producing All Ideals of a Forest, Formally (Verification Pearl) - Filliâtre, Jean-Christophe; Pereira, Mário
In this paper we present the first formal proof of an implementation of Koda and Ruskey's algorithm, an algorithm for generating all ideals of a forest poset as a Gray code. One contribution of this work is to exhibit the invariants of this algorithm, which proved to be challenging. We implemented, specified and proved this algorithm using the Why3 tool. This allowed us to employ a combination of several automated theorem provers to discharge most of the verification conditions, and the Coq proof assistant for the remaining two.

83. The Matrix Reproved (Verification Pearl) - Clochard, Martin; Gondelman, Léon; Pereira, Mário
In this paper we describe a complete solution for the first challenge of the VerifyThis 2016 competition held at the 18th ETAPS Forum. We present the proof of two variants for the multiplication of matrices: a naive version using three nested loops and the Strassen's algorithm. The proofs are conducted using the Why3 platform for deductive program verification, and automated theorem provers to discharge proof obligations. In order to specify and prove the two multiplication algorithms , we develop a new Why3 theory of matrices and apply the proof by reflection methodology.

84. Controlo e avaliação das características antropométricas e capacidades físicas: caracterização ao longo de uma época desportiva e desenvolvimento de uma plataforma para avaliação - Silva, Rui Miguel Almeida Dias
Os objetivos do presente estudo foram: (i) analisar a evolução das características antropométricas e capacidades físicas ao longo de uma época desportiva (comparação entre sub-15, sub-17 e sub-19) e (ii) desenvolver uma plataforma informática para auxiliar o controlo e avaliação. No primeiro trabalho a amostra foi constituída por um total de 50 jogadores portugueses de elite Sub-15 (idade de 14.0 ± 0.1 anos; n=16), Sub-17 (idade de 15.6 ± 0.5 anos; n=14) e Sub-19 (idade de 17.2 ± 0.7 anos; n=20) e foram controlados em três (3) momentos de avaliação; após o período de preparação geral (avaliação pré época), após...

85. Paired structures in knowledge representation. - Montero, Javier; Bustince, H.; Franco, C.; Rodríguez, Juan Tinguaro; Gómez, Daniel; Pagola, M.; Fernández, J.; Barrenechea, E.
In this position paper we propose a consistent and unifying view to all those basic knowledge representation models that are based on the existence of two somehow opposite fuzzy concepts. A number of these basic models can be found in fuzzy logic and multi-valued logic literature. Here it is claimed that it is the semantic relationship between two paired concepts what determines the emergence of different types of neutrality, namely indeterminacy, ambivalence and conflict, widely used under different frameworks (possibly under different names). It will be shown the potential relevance of paired structures, generated from two paired concepts together with...

86. Parentiu i salut entre els imazighen rifenys de Catalunya - Casado i Aijón, Irina
Aquesta tesi és una monografia etnogràfica que se sustenta en 9 anys de recerca entre la població rifenya de Catalunya (en especial de la comarca d’Osona). Els rifenys són la població amazigh (berbers) provinent de les muntanyes del Rif, al nord del Marroc. Fonamentada en l’observació participant com a tècnica principal i també en les entrevistes en profunditat i semipautades, aquesta recerca aborda la descripció i l’anàlisi etnogràfica del procés reproductiu de la població rifenya, entès aquest com les formes de representació, conceptualització i les pràctiques que tenen com a objectiu la reproducció del grup i del seu ordre social....

87. Ceci n'est pas une épidémie: Sobre las pipas de fumar y la gripe como dispositivo de saber-poder. - Cárdenas Olesti, Noèlia
La investigación que se presenta a continuación pretende visibilizar y explicar cómo los saberes disponibles sobre la gripe, transmitidos a través de los medios de comunicación, forman parte del proceso de control y gobierno de los sujetos-cuerpo. Para lograr este objetivo, abordado dentro de los límites teóricos de las propuestas foucaultianas, he intentado conocer el significado de “la gripe” desde 1900 hasta nuestros días, he analizado las relaciones de poder en la producción del discurso y significado de esta enfermedad (en su forma estacional o pandémica), y, finalmente, he explicado algunos de los efectos del discurso de la gripe sobre...

88. Una evaluación del enfoque de las Normas Internacionales de Información Financiera (NIIF) desde la teoría de la contabilidad y el control - Mauricio Gómez V.
El proceso de regulación contable internacional para las organizaciones empresariales ha sido orientado desde un enfoque que debe ser evaluado a la luz de la teoría de la contabilidad y el control. Varios de los criterios adoptados en dicha regulación permiten la instrumentación de objetivos y funciones para la información financiera en los mercados, que alejan a la contabilidad financiera de fines subsecuentes e indispensables en las organizacionales, como la productividad. Esto es problemático debido a que la contabilidad financiera es la base estructural de la racionalidad técnico-instrumental de la empresa y es la columna vertebral de los demás sistemas...

89. Character strengths and virtues - Mariana Gancedo

The target of this work is to carry out a critical analysis about some of the underlying epistemological assumptions in Peterson and Seligman’s book Character Strengths and Virtues. A handbook and classifications (2004). This is a theoretical investigation that belongs to the epistemology of psychology field. According to the theory proposed by Serroni Copello (2003), a critic progress rational criterion is methodologically applied. The analysis points out some epistemological weakness that leads to incongruences in the statements and conclusions of the investigations, such as: the absence of a unified theory, a candid search of objectivity, and the...

90. Study of a family that overcomes poverty issues: family resilience? - María Ángela Mattar Yunes; Heloísa Szymanski

Generally, researches with families focus the difficulties and the negative aspects of family life by bringing up their maladjustments and failures. The interest in family resilience contributes to change this logic by demonstrating the healthy aspects of the family world. Nevertheless, the term resilience presents ideological controversies which are more severe when the discussion is about families and poverty. In order to diminish these contradictions this study adopted a systemic concept of resilience which refers to “those processes that make possible to overcome adversities”. A case study was realized with a low income family who...

91. La arquitectura organizacional y las capacidades estratégicas empresariales empresariales - Jesús Perdomo-Ortiz
El diseño organizacional y la teoría basada en los recursos han sido las dos áreas de la economía de la empresa que más desarrollo e impacto en la gerencia, y en el estado del arte de la disciplina, han tenido durante los últimos 15 años. Este documento aborda desde una perspectiva comparada ambos temas y encuentra una estrecha relación de mutuo apoyo conceptual. Es importante precisar que el presente documento no es una revisión de la literatura sobre diseño o arquitectura organizacional; no obstante se soporta en un conjunto de lecturas centradas en dicha temática. En este sentido, el objetivo...

92. Seguimiento a la dinámica competitiva de dos grupos económicos colombianos - Carlos Rodríguez Romero; Edison Jair Duque Oliva
Diferentes tipos de trabajos describen la importancia de la dinámica de multimercados para explicar cómo compiten las empresas que coinciden en diferentes sectores de su actividad. En este artículo se busca presentar inicialmente el cuerpo teórico que soporta la dinámica competitiva, para luego ejemplificar su aplicación en un estudio analítico que identifique las acciones competitivas, no sólo de los dos conglomerados colombianos más importantes, sino también de los individuos que se encuentran al mando de estas organizaciones. La investigación utiliza el análisis estructurado de contenido a través fuentes secundarias para identificar las acciones competitivas de las organizaciones estudiadas en el...

93. Temporal Logics for Concurrent Recursive Programs: Satisfiability and Model Checking - Benedikt Bollig; Aiswarya Cyriac; Paul Gastin; Marc Zeitoun
We develop a general framework for the design of temporal logics for concurrent recursive programs. A program execution is modeled as a partial order with multiple nesting rela-tions. To specify properties of executions, we consider any temporal logic whose modalities are definable in monadic second-order logic and that, in addition, allows PDL-like path expressions. This captures, in a unifying framework, a wide range of logics defined for ranked and unranked trees, nested words, and Mazurkiewicz traces that have been studied separately. We show that satisfiability and model checking are decidable in EXPTIME and 2EXPTIME, depending on the precise path modalities.

94. Message-Passing Automata are expressively equivalent to EMSO Logic - Benedikt Bollig; Martin Leucker
We study the expressiveness of finite message-passing automata with a priori unbounded FIFO channels and show them to capture exactly the class of MSC languages that are definable in existential monadic second-order logic interpreted over MSCs. Furthermore, we prove the monadic quantifier-alternation hierarchy over MSCs to be infinite and conclude that the class of MSC languages accepted by message-passing automata is not closed under complement.

95. Model Checking Probabilistic Distributed Systems - Benedikt Bollig; Martin Leucker
Protocols for distributed systems make often use of random transitions to achieve a common goal. A popular example are randomized leader election protocols. We introduce probabilistic product automata (PPA) as a natural model for this kind of systems. To reason about these systems, we propose to use a product version of linear temporal logic (LTL ⊗). The main result of the paper is a model-checking procedure for PPA and LTL ⊗. With its help, it is possible to check qualitative properties of distributed systems automatically.

96. Automata and Logics for Message Sequence Charts - Benedikt Bollig
A message-passing automaton is an abstract model for the implementation of a distributed system whose components communicate via message exchange and thereby define a collection of communication scenarios called message sequence charts. In this thesis, we study several variants of message-passing automata in a unifying framework. We classify their expressiveness in terms of state-space properties, synchronization behavior, and acceptance mode and also compare them to algebraic characterizations of sets of message sequence charts, among them the classes of recognizable and rational languages. We then focus on finite-state devices with global acceptance condition that communicate via a priori unbounded channels. We...

97. Parameterized Modal Satisfiability - Antonis Achilleos; Michael Lampis; Valia Mitsou
We investigate the parameterized computational complexity of the satisfiability problem for modal logic and attempt to pinpoint relevant struc-tural parameters which cause the problem’s combinatorial explosion, beyond the number of propositional variables v. To this end we study the modal-ity depth, a natural measure which has appeared in the literature, and show that, even though modal satisfiability parameterized by v and the modality depth is FPT, the running time’s dependence on the parameters is a tower of exponentials (unless P=NP). To overcome this limitation we propose possible alternative parameters, namely diamond dimension and modal width. We show fixed-parameter tractability results...

98. On Temporal Logics with Data Variable Quantifications: Decidability and Complexity - Fu Song; Zhilin Wu
Although data values are available in almost every computer system, reasoning about them is a challenging task due to the huge data size or even infinite data domains. Temporal logics are the well-known specification formalisms for reactive and concur-rent systems. Various extensions of temporal logics have been proposed to reason about data values, mostly in the last decade. Among them, one natural idea is to ex-tend temporal logics with variable quantifications ranging over an infinite data domain. Grumberg, Kupferman and Sheinvald initiated the research on this topic recently and obtained several interesting results. However, this is still a lack of...

99. Automata and Logics for Concurrent Systems: Five Models in Five Pages - Benedikt Bollig
We survey various automata models of concurrent systems and their connection with monadic second-order logic: finite automata, class memory automata, nested-word automata, asynchronous automata, and message-passing automata.

100. Solving parity games by a reduction to SAT - Keijo Heljanko; Misa Keinänen; Martin Lange; Ilkka Niemelä
This paper presents a reduction from the problem of solving parity games to the satisfiability problem in propositional logic (SAT). The reduction is done in two stages, first into difference logic, i.e. SAT combined with the theory of integer dif-ferences, an instance of the SAT modulo theories (SMT) framework. In the second stage the integer variables and constraints of the difference logic encoding are re-placed with a set of Boolean variables and constraints on them, giving rise to a pure SAT encoding of the problem. The reduction uses Jurdziński’s characterisation of winning strategies via progress measures. The reduction is motivated...

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