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Nomenclatura Unesco > (11) Lógica

Mostrando recursos 81 - 100 de 132,389

81. Procedimiento para la aplicación del método de los índices - Medina León, Alberto; Nogueira-Rivero, Dianelys; Medina Nogueira, Daylin
El presente trabajo propone una modificación al método de los índices utilizado para la asignación de tareas a puestos cuando existe la posibilidad de ejecución del mismo en varios puestos de trabajo y la selección conlleva a la obtención de distintos niveles de eficiencia en el cumplimiento de la tarea.Las modificaciones propuestas imponen una mayor complejidad de la heurística del método, al plantear la determinación de los índices de una forma dinámica, una constante actualización de la capacidad disponible y, por tanto, la determinación de las posibilidades reales de los puestos para acometer las tareas. No obstante, el procedimiento es...

82. Aplicación de solución difusa de la negociación a tres casos de estudio. - González Caballero, Erick; Espín Andrade, Rafael Alejandro
Compensatory Negotiation Solution by Knowledge Engineering (CNSKE) is a new solution for decision support in bargaining that is based on mathematics, artificial intelligence and logic, specifically Cooperative n-person games, Knowledge Engineering and Compensatory Fuzzy Logic (CFL). An advantage of this solution, upon its predecessors, is the interpretability of its compounds predicates because of the logic system used. The potential of this tool is shown through its application in the study of three real cases. Case study was used as a method to confirm that the SCNIC is applicable for solving real negotiations. In all cases analyzed, the result was that...

83. Búsqueda de predicados difusos en una base de datos utilizando metaheurísticas. - Ceruto Cordovés, Taimí; Rosete Suárez, Alejandro; Espín Andrade, Rafael Alejandro
En este trabajo se propone un enfoque más flexible para la representación del conocimiento extraído de una base de datos (predicados), debido a que brinda la posibilidad de descubrir conocimiento que ninguno de los métodos anteriores permite (ID3, Apriori, K-Medias, etc), por estar enfocados en un modelo determinado. Los predicados obtenidos se representan haciendo uso de la forma normal conjuntiva o disyuntiva. Para su evaluación se utiliza el valor de verdad con respecto a los datos, basado en el uso de diferentes operadores de lógica difusa. El aprendizaje es no supervisado y para la búsqueda se utilizan algoritmos metaheurísticos.

84. How Do Energy Prices, and Labor and Environmental Regulations Affect Local Manufacturing Employment Dynamics? A Regression Discontinuity Approach - Matthew E. Kahn; Erin T. Mansur
Manufacturing industries differ with respect to their energy intensity, labor-to-capital ratio and their pollution intensity. Across the United States, there is significant variation in electricity prices and labor and environmental regulation. This paper uses a regression discontinuity approach to examine whether the basic logic of comparative advantage can explain the geographical clustering of U.S. manufacturing. Using a unified empirical framework, we document that energy-intensive industries concentrate in low electricity price counties, labor-intensive industries avoid pro-union counties, and pollution-intensive industries locate in counties featuring relatively lax Clean Air Act regulation. We use our estimates to predict the likely jobs impacts of...

85. Logic-based assessment of the compatibility of UMLS ontology sources - Ernesto Jiménez-ruiz; Bernardo Cuenca Grau; Ian Horrocks; Rafael Berlanga
Background: The UMLS Metathesaurus (UMLS-Meta) is currently the most comprehensive effort for integrating independently-developed medical thesauri and ontologies. UMLS-Meta is being used in many applications, including PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov. The integration of new sources combines automatic techniques, expert assessment, and auditing protocols. The automatic techniques currently in use, however, are mostly based on lexical algorithms and often disregard the semantics of the sources being integrated. Results: In this paper, we argue that UMLS-Meta’s current design and auditing methodologies could be significantly enhanced by taking into account the logic-based semantics of the ontology sources. We provide empirical evidence suggesting that UMLS-Meta...

86. Rádio Escolar: ampliando o universo cultural dos estudantes - Brutti, Sonilda Martins
Este trabalho monográfico tem por objetivo investigar sobre o potencial da Rádio escolar para a ampliação do universo cultural dos alunos do Ensino Fundamental de uma escola pública do Rio Grande do Sul. O problema da investigação trata de como a Rádio Escolar pode ampliar o universo cultural dos alunos considerando as diferenças culturais. O contexto da pesquisa foi o do espaço da Rádio escolar em funcionamento e as pessoas envolvidas com o processo de desenvolvimento do Projeto Rádio CEM. Parte-se do entendimento de que na escola existem culturas diferentes e do pressuposto de que a programação da Rádio escolar...

87. Quantifier Elimination Technics for Program Validation - J.-P. Bodeveix; J. -p. Bodeveix; M. Filali; M. Filali; Irit-universit'e Paul Sabatier
We study the automation of the verification of programs of which state space is infinite or parameterized. This paper presents methods allowing the transformation of some second-order formulas into equivalent formulas expressed in a weaker but decidable logic. Two technics are considered: quantifier elimination and reduction to finite domain. We illustrate these technics on the validation of memory coherency protocols. Contents 1 Introduction 4 2 Program semantics 4 2.1 Program state : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :...

88. Cellular Gate Technology - Thomas Knight Jr; Gerald Jay Sussman
. We propose a biochemically plausible mechanism for constructing digital logic signals and gates of significant complexity within living cells. These mechanisms rely largely on co-opting existing biochemical machinery and binding proteins found naturally within the cell, replacing difficult protein engineering problems with more straightforward engineering of novel combinations of gene control sequences and gene coding regions. The resulting logic technology, although slow, allows us to engineer the chemical behavior of cells for use as sensors and effectors. One promising use of such technology is the control of fabrication processes at the molecular scale. 1 Introduction Cells provide an isolated,...

89. On the automatic validation of parameterized Unity programs - J.-P. Bodeveix; M. Filali; Irit-universit'e Paul Sabatier
. We study the automation of the verification of Unity programs with infinite or parameterized state space. This paper presents methods allowing the transformation of some second-order formulas expressing invariants into equivalent formulas expressed in a weaker but decidable logic. Two technics are considered: quantifier elimination and reduction to finite domain. 1 Introduction In the last few years, many program validation tools have been developed [12, 14]. Their aim is to check temporal properties of concurrent programs. In general, these tools can automate the verification process when the program state space is finite. However, if the program space is either...

90. Extended Abstract: Hardware Verification, Boolean Logic Programming, Boolean Functional Programming - Enrico Tronci; Functional Programming (e. G. See
) Boolean Functions (namely: Binary Decision Diagrams, BDDs, see [3]). Model Checking (MC), however, has an intrinsic limitation: it does not allow automatic global optimization of the verification task until a (BDD) Enrico Tronci 1 representation for the system to be verified is generated. Removing such limitation will allow us to enlarge the Dip. Matematica Pura ed Applicata, Univeristà di class of FSSs automatically verifiable. The following will L'Aquila, Coppito, 67100 L'Aquila, Italy clarify the matter. In our context an MC problem can be seen as a pair tronci@smaq20.univaq.it (M, j), where M (the model) is a finite list of...

91. Will The Robot Do The Right Thing? - C Fl Ying Zhang; Ying Zhang; Ying Zhang; Alan K. Mackworth; Alan K. Mackworth; Alan K. Mackworth
Constraint Nets have been developed as an algebraic on-line computational model of robotic systems. A robotic system consists of a robot and its environment. A robot consists of a plant and a controller. A constraint net is used to model the dynamics of each component and the complete system. The overall behavior of the system emerges from the coupling of each of its components. The question posed in the title is decomposed into two questions: first, what is the right thing? second, how does one guarantee the robot will do it? We answer these questions by establishing a formal approach...

92. SAT Based ATPG Using Fast Justification and Propagation in the Implication Graph - Paul Tafertshofer; Andreas Ganz
In this paper we present new methods for fast justification and propagation in the implication graph (IG) which is the core data structure of our SAT based implication engine. As the IG model represents all information on the implemented logic function as well as the topology of a circuit, the proposed techniques inherit all advantages of both general SAT based and structure based approaches to justification, propagation, and implication. These three fundamental Boolean problems are the main tasks to be performed during Automatic Test Pattern Generation (ATPG) such that the proposed algorithms are incorporated into our ATPG tool TIP which...

93. Interaction of Agents and Environments - Alexander Letichevsky; David Gilbert
. A new abstract model of interaction between agents and environments considered as objects of different types is introduced. Agents are represented by means of labelled transition systems considered up to bisimilarity. The equivalence of agents is characterised in terms of an algebra of behaviours which is a continuous algebra with approximation and two operations: nondeterministic choice and prefixing. Environments are introduced as agents supplied with an insertion function which takes the behaviour of an agent and the behaviour of an environment as arguments and returns the new behaviour of an environment. Arbitrary continuous functions can be used as insertion...

94. Putting Declarative Meta Control to Work - Apollo Hogan; Reinhard Stolle; Elizabeth Bradley
We present a logic programming system that accomplishes three important goals: equivalence of declarative and operational semantics, declarative specification of control information, and smoothness of interaction with nonlogic -based programs. The language of the system is that of Generalized Horn Clause Intuitionistic Logic with negation as inconsistency. Meta level predicates are used to specify control information declaratively, compensating for the absence of procedural constructs that usually facilitate formulation of e#- cient programs. Knowledge that has been derived in the course of the current inference process can at any time be passed to non-logic-based program modules. Traditional SLD inference engines maintain...

95. First Order Abduction Via Tableau and Sequent Calculi - Marta Cialdea Mayer; Fiora Pirri
The formalization of abductive reasoning is still an open question: there is no general agreement on the boundary of some basic concepts, such as preference criteria for explanations, and the extension to first order logic has not been settled. Investigating the nature of abduction outside the context of resolution based logic programming still deserves attention, in order to characterize abductive explanations without tailoring them to any fixed method of computation. In fact, resolution is surely not the best tool for facing meta-logical and proof-theoretical questions. In this work the analysis of the concepts involved in abductive reasoning is based on...

96. Actions Speak Louder than Words: Proving Bisimilarity for Context-Free Processes - Hans Hüttel; Colin Stirling
Baeten, Bergstra, and Klop (and later Caucal) have proved the remarkable result that bisimulation equivalence is decidable for irredundant context-free grammars. In this paper we provide a much simpler and much more direct proof of this result using a tableau decision method involving goal-directed rules. The decision procedure also provides the essential part of the bisimulation relation between two processes which underlies their equivalence. We also show how to obtain a sound and complete sequentbased equational theory for such processes from the tableau system and how one can extract what Caucal calls a fundamental relation from a successful tableau. An...

97. A Critical Examination of the Cohen-Levesque Theory of Intentions - Munindar P. Singh
. We examine the formal theory of intentions recently proposed by Cohen & Levesque [2]. We evaluate the assumptions made by this theory and their consequences relative to fairly general intuitions about intentions, especially as they are applied in AI domains. We show that the theory is conceptually problematic and that certain technical claims made by the authors are false or counterintuitive in most natural scenarios. Keywords: intentions, logic in AI. 1 Introduction It is of great use to a scientific discipline when its theories are critically examined and their unstated assumptions, and the unexpected consequences of their explicit assumptions,...

98. Specifying Performance Measures for PEPA - Graham Clark; Stephen Gilmore; Jane Hillston
. Stochastic process algebras such as PEPA provide ample support for the component-based construction of models. Tools compute the numerical solution of these models; however, the stochastic process algebra methodology lacks support for the specification and calculation of complex performance measures. This paper addresses that problem by presenting a performance specification language which supports high level reasoning about PEPA models, allowing the description of equilibrium (steady-state) measures. The meaning of the specification language can be made formal by examining its foundations in a stochastic modal logic. A case-study is presented to illustrate the approach. 1 Introduction Performance Evaluation Process Algebra...

99. Beth Definability for the Guarded Fragment - Eva Hoogland; Maarten Marx; Martin Otto
. The guarded fragment (GF) was introduced in [ABN98] as a fragment of first order logic which combines a great expressive power with nice modal behavior. It consists of relational first order formulas whose quantifiers are relativized by atoms in a certain way. While GF has been established as a particularly well-behaved fragment of first order logic in many respects, interpolation fails in restriction to GF, [HM99]. In this paper we consider the Beth property of first order logic and show that, despite the failure of interpolation, it is retained in restriction to GF. Being a closure property w.r.t. definability,...

100. An Empirical Evaluation of Optimization Strategies for ABox Reasoning in Expressive Description Logics - Volker Haarslev; Ralf Möller
This paper presents an evaluation of a new description logic reasoner called RACE which implements TBox and ABox reasoning for the description logic ALCNH_R+ supporting number restrictions, role hierarchies, and transitively closed roles. Tests on benchmark ABoxes indicate a speedup of several orders of magnitude compared to previous systems.

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