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Nomenclatura Unesco > (11) Lógica > (1102) Lógica deductiva
(1102.01) Analogía (1102.02) Álgebra de Boole
(1102.03) Lógica formal (1102.04) Lenguajes formalizados
(1102.05) Sistemas formales (1102.06) Fundamentos de matemáticas
(1102.07) Generalización (1102.08) Lógica matemática
(1102.09) Lógica modal (1102.10) Teoría de modelos
(1102.11) Teoría de pruebas (1102.12) Cálculo proposicional
(1102.13) Funciones recursivas (1102.14) Lógica simbólica
(1102.15) Teoría de lenguajes formales (1102.99) Otras (especificar)

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 898

1. Derivación deductiva de programas funcionales con patrones - Velázquez Iturbide, Ángel
Una de las dificultades principales en el desarrollo de software es la ausencia de un marco conceptual adecuado para su estudio. Una propuesta la constituye el modelo transformativo, que entiende el desarrollo de software como un proceso iterativo de transformación de especificaciones: se parte de una especificación inicial que va transformándose sucesivamente hasta obtener una especificación final que se toma como programa. Este modelo básico puede llevarse a la práctica de varias maneras. En concreto, la aproximación deductiva toma una sentencia lógica como especificación inicial y su proceso transformador consiste en la demostración de la sentencia; como producto secundario de la demostración se deriva un programa que satisface la especificación inicial. La tesis...

2. The role of logical interpretations on program development - Martins, Manuel A.; Madeira, Alexandre; Barbosa, L. S.
Stepwise refinement of algebraic specifications is a well known formal methodology for program development. However, traditional notions of refinement based on signature morphisms are often too rigid to capture a number of relevant transformations in the context of software design, reuse, and adaptation. This paper proposes a new approach to refinement in which signature morphisms are replaced by logical interpretations as a means to witness refinements. The approach is first presented in the context of equational logic, and later generalised to deductive systems of arbitrary dimension. This allows, for example, refining sentential into equational specifications and the latter into modal...

3. Análisis del marco conceptual para la preparación y presentación de estados financieros conforme al modelo internacional IASB - Montes Salazar, Carlos Alberto; Montilla Galvis, Omar de Jesús; Mejía Soto, Eutimio
A conceptual framework is a theory fundament which, as a constitution, drives the accounting normative-technical ruling development. The Framework uses a deductive logic itinerary and, through inference, derives, from superior environment and appropriate accounting system postulates, the accounting standards associated with specific ends. The system can be assumed as teleological.This article analyses, in a schematical way, the conceptual guidance in the financial reports preparing and presenting process. Reports confectioned according International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) are considered to be useful in economical decision taking by the users of information.

4. Argumentos, formalización y lógica informal - Harada, Eduardo
The aim of this article is to show thatthere are fundamental philosophical problemsaround informal logic, which philosophy oflogic should pay attention to. This article iscontrary to the idea that this discipline is onlya “deductive formal logic applied to ordinarylanguage, with didactic aims”. On the contrary,it is shown that informal logic’s subject matteris different from formal logic’s, because theformer does not study inferences or reasoningbut arguments, in short, their semantics,pragmatics, rhetorical and dialogue aspects.Finally, it explains that the main philosophicalproblem of informal logic, namely, if argumentscould be formalized, is still open and thereare two extreme positions about this problem:formalism and informalism.

5. Sistema de tareas docentes para el trabajo independiente en Medicina Natural y Tradicional - Juviel Rodríguez, Matilde Norma; Trujillo Juviel, Pablo
Fundamento: el trabajo independiente es una modalidad de organización docente que contribuye a que los alumnos aprendan a estudiar con sus propios esfuerzos, estimulen su actividad creadora y formen hábitos correctos para la autosuperación.Objetivo: diseñar un sistema de tareas docentes para desarrollar habilidades de trabajo independiente a través de los contenidos de Medicina Natural y Tradicional.Métodos: se realizó una investigación de tipo descriptivo, en la Filial Universitaria de la Salud de Aguada de Pasajeros durante el curso 2012-2013. Se utilizaron como métodos teóricos: analítico-sintético, inductivo-deductivo e histórico-lógico; empíricos: análisis documental, observación, entrevistas a profesores y estudiantes, y para la valoración...

6. Necesidades de aprendizaje sobre rehabilitación bucomaxilofacial en residentes y especialistas de Neurocirugía - Monteagudo Santiago, Janet; Ardisana Santana, Ernesto Fidel; Acosta Rodríguez, Juan Carlos
Fundamento: la prótesis bucomaxilofacial comprende la rehabilitación morfofuncional de las estructuras intrabucales y parabucales por medios artificiales.Objetivo: identificar las necesidades de aprendizaje y las insuficiencias en el desarrollo de habilidades sobre rehabilitación bucomaxilofacial en residentes y especialistas de Neurocirugía.Métodos: se realizó una investigación descriptiva transversal en el Hospital Universitario “Arnaldo Milián Castro” de Villa Clara, entre enero-mayo de 2014. Se utilizaron métodos teóricos: analítico-sintético, histórico-lógico e inductivo-deductivo; empíricos: análisis documental del programa de la especialidad de Neurocirugía y el plan de superación de los últimos 5 años, y encuesta en forma de cuestionario de respuestas breves al total de la...

7. Artificial Intelligence 128 (2001) 203–235 A logic-based theory of deductive arguments ✩ - Anthony Hunter B
We explore a framework for argumentation (based on classical logic) in which an argument is a pair where the first item in the pair is a minimal consistent set of formulae that proves the second item (which is a formula). We provide some basic definitions for arguments, and various kinds of counter-arguments (defeaters). This leads us to the definition of canonical undercuts which we argue are the only defeaters that we need to take into account. We then motivate and formalise the notion of argument trees and argument structures which provide a way of exhaustively collating arguments and counter-arguments. We...

8. Exstensions of Deductive Concept in Logic Programing and Some Applications - Ivana Berković; Biljana Radulović; Petar Hotomski
Abstract. The paper presents ATP – a system for automated theorem proving based on ordered linear resolution with marked literals, its putting into the base of prolog-like language and some applications. This resolution system is especially put into the base of prolog-like language, as the surrogate for the concept of negation as definite failure. This logical complete deductive base is used for building a descriptive logical programming language LOGPRO, which enables eliminating the defects of PROLOG-system (the expansion concerning Horn clauses, escaping negation treatment as definite failure), but keeping the main properties of PROLOG-language and possibilities of its expansions. Some...

9. What you always wanted to know about Datalog (and never dared to ask - Stefan Ceri; Georg Gottlob; Letizia Tanca
Abstract-Datalog is a database query language based on the logic programming paradigm; it has been designed and intensively studied over the last five years. We present the syntax and semantics of Datalog and its use for querying a relational database. Then, we classify optimization methods for achieving efficient evaluations of Datalog queries, and present the most relevant methods. Finally, we discuss various exhancements of Datalog, currently under study, and indicate what is still needed in order to extend Datalog’s applicability to the solution of real-life problems. The aim of this paper is to provide a survey of research performed on...

10. A Transformation Technique for Datalog Programs Based on Non-Deterministic Constructs - Petros Potikas; Panos Rondogiannis; Manolis Gergatsoulis
Recently, a novel transformation technique for Datalog programs, called the branching transformation, was introduced by the authors. In this paper we propose a signicant extension of the branching transformation which we believe opens-up a promising new direction of research in the area of value-propagating Datalog optimizations. One of the novel characteristics of the proposed approach is that the target language is DatalognS extended with choice predicates, a form of non-deterministic construct that was originally introduced in the area of intensional logic programming. Keywords: Logic Program Transformations, Deductive Databases. 1

11. Logic and Databases - Johann Eder
Logic and databases have gone a long way together since the advent of relational databases. Already the first basic query languages for relational databases beside relational algebra - tuple calculus and domain calculus - are actually a subset of first order predicate logic. Furthermore logic proved to be very adequate for establishing a sound theory for relational databases. When attempts were made to integrate AI and database technology in form of expert database systems or knowledge base management systems logic provided a unifying framework although several differences in the use of logic in the both fields have been discovered. The...

12. Extending Classical Logic with Inductive Definitions - Marc Denecker
The goal of this paper is to extend classical logic with a generalized notion of inductive definition supporting positive and negative induction, to investigate the properties of this logic, its relationships to other logics in the area of non-monotonic reasoning, logic programming and deductive databases, and to show its application for knowledge representation by giving a typology of definitional knowledge.

13. Extending Classical Logic with Inductive Definitions - Marc Denecker
The goal of this paper is to extend classical logic with a generalized notion of inductive definition supporting positive and negative induction, to investigate the properties of this logic, its relationships to other logics in the area of non-monotonic reasoning, logic programming and deductive databases, and to show its application for knowledge representation by giving a typology of definitional knowledge.

14. Revising Horn Theories - James P. Delgrande; Pavlos Peppas
This paper investigates belief revision where the underlying logic is that governing Horn clauses. It proves to be the case that classical (AGM) belief revision doesn’t immediately generalise to the Horn case. In particular, a standard construction based on a total preorder over possible worlds may violate the accepted (AGM) postulates. Conversely, Horn revision functions in the obvious extension to the AGM approach are not captured by total preorders over possible worlds. We address these difficulties by first restricting the semantic construction to “well behaved” orderings; and second, by augmenting the revision postulates by an additional postulate. This additional postulate...

15. A Buchholz Rule for Modal Fixed Point Logics - Gerhard Jäger; Thomas Studer
Buchholz’s Ωµ+1-rules provide a major tool for the proof-theoretic analysis of arithmetical inductive definitions. The aim of this paper is to put this approach into the new context of modal fixed point logic. We introduce a deductive system based on an Ω-rule tailored for modal fixed point logic and develop the basic techniques for establishing soundness and completeness of the corresponding system. In the concluding section we prove a cut elimination and collapsing result similar to that of Buchholz [3].

16. Super Logic Programs - Stefan Brass; Jürgen Dix; Teodor C. Przymusinski
Recently, considerable interest and research e#ort has been given to the problem of finding a suitable extension of the logic programming paradigm beyond the class of normal logic programs. In order to demonstrate that a class of programs can be justifiably called an extension of logic programs one should be able to argue that: . the proposed syntax of such programs resembles the syntax of logic programs but it applies to a significantly broader class of programs; . the proposed semantics of such programs constitutes an intuitively natural extension of the semantics of normal logic programs; . there exists a...

17. Paraconsistent Logic Programs - João Alcântara; Carlos Viegas Damásio; Luís Moniz Pereira
We propose a framework which extends Antitonic Logic Programs [3] to an arbitrary complete bilattice of truth-values, where belief and doubt are explicitly represented. Based on Fitting's ideas, this framework allows a precise definition of important operators found in logic programming such as explicit negation and the default negation. In particular, it leads to a natural integration of explicit negation with the default negation through the coherence principle [20]. According to this principle, the explicit negation entails the default negation. We then define Coherent Answer Sets, and the Paraconsistent Well-founded Model semantics, generalizing paraconsistent semantics for logic programs (for instance,...

18. Antitonic Logic Programs - Carlos Viegas Damásio; Luís Moniz Pereira
In a previous work we have de ned Monotonic Logic Programs which extend de nite logic programming to arbitrary complete lattices of truth-values with an appropriate notion of implication. We have shown that this framework is general enough to capture Possibilistic Logic Programming, Hybrid Probabilistic Logic Programs, Fuzzy Logic Programming, Probabilistic Deductive Databases, and Generalized Annotated Logic Programs. However, none of these semantics de ne a form of non-monotonic negation, which is fundamental for several knowledge representation applications. In the spirit of our previous work, we generalise our framework of Monotonic Logic Programs to allow for rules with arbitrary antitonic...

19. An Experimental Study on the Complexity of Left-Deep Join Ordering Problems for Cyclic Queries - Birgitta König-Ries; Sven Helmer; Guido Moerkotte
Not only in deductive databases, logic programming, and constraint satisfaction problems but also in object bases where each single dot in a path expression corresponds to a join, the optimizer is faced with the problem of ordering large numbers of joins. This might explain the renewed interest in the join ordering problem. Although many join ordering techniques have been invented and benchmarked over the last years, little is known on the actual effectiveness of the developed methods and the cases where they are bound to fail. The problem attacked is the discovery of parameters and their qualitative influence on the...

20. Motivação dos servidores públicos: um caso na saúde pública na Amazônia - Oliveira, Tiago Luz; Silva, Luis Cláudio de Jesus
For some time, many management scholars, along with researchers from other fields such as psychology and economics, concentrate their studies in understanding the factors related to quality of work life. This new look, just illustrates the great importance of human resources for organizations, highlighting the need to attract and keep people motivated and satisfied with and to work. In this article the aim is to identify the levels and main factors that cause satisfaction and dissatisfaction in the work of civil servants of the Ministry of Health of Roraima - SESAU / RR. In the literature review, and conceptualize people management...

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