
Bonorino, Pablo
En este trabajo se abordan dos problemas relacionados con los entimemas (entendidos como argumentos incompletos) formulados en procedimientos penales para apoyar la verdad de un enunciado fáctico: (1) ¿Cómo se puede justificar la atribución de un enunciado a un texto que no lo contiene?, y (2) ¿Cómo se puede escoger la premisa tácita a incorporar durante la reconstrucción cuando el texto admite más de una interpretación? Se rechazan dos variantes de deductivismo (ingenua y sofisticada) por no ser capaces de responder a sus críticos sin abandonar su compromiso con la lógica deductiva. Se defiende un modelo interpretativo como alternativa, basado...

Patrick Blackburn; Balder Ten Cate
In this paper we argue that hybrid logic is the deductive setting most natural for Kripke semantics. We do so by investigating hybrid axiomatics for a variety of systems, ranging from the basic hybrid language (a decidable system with the same complexity as orthodox propositional modal logic) to the strong Priorean language (which offers full firstorder expressivity). We show that hybrid logic offers a genuinely firstorder perspective on Kripke semantics: it is possible to define base logics which extend automatically to a wide variety of frame classes and to prove completeness using the Henkin method. In the weaker languages, this...

Jack L. Krogstad; Jack L. Krogstad
itz, and Sterling emphasize the central importance of fundamental propositions in accounting theory construction. Theory building in accounting has proceeded, however, without the insight provided by delineation of the respective natures and functions germane to different types of fundamental propositions. Accounting theorists have not gone far enough in identifying the unique roles of the various statements used as basic assumptions in theory construction. Accordingly, premises, axioms, and postulates are differentiated in harmony with philosophic substance. Premises are closely linked to systems of formal deductive logic and the inherent processes of valid inference. Axioms are used in theoretical systems to specify...

Yann Loyer; Umberto Straccia
Abstract. Different manyvalued logic programming frameworks have been proposed to manage uncertain information in deductive databases and logic programming. A feature of these frameworks is that they rely on a predefined assumption or hypothesis, i.e. an interpretation that assigns the same default truth value to all the atoms of a program, e.g. in the open world assumption, by default all atoms have unknown truth value. In this paper we extend these frameworks along three directions: (i) we will introduce nonmonotonic modes of negation; (ii) the default truth values of atoms need not necessarily to be all equal each other; and...

Ulisses Ferreira; Http://www. Ufba. Br; Escola Politécnica; Av. Caetano Moura; Bahia Brazil
Abstract — Uncertainty is a research topic which has not only been well known to the AI community but also, more recently, in the programming languages community at some extent. This paper joins the well known uncertainty model of MYCIN, extended, with a sevenvalued deductive logic introduced here, working towards the unification of two different forms of representation, and of reasons, as humans always do. This sevenvalued logic is introduced by myself as a novelty, here in the present paper, after having proposed a similar but simplified fivevalued logic and a system, but this sevenvalued logic is fully compatible with...

Branden Fitelson
Abstract. First, a brief historical trace of the developments in confirmation theory leading up to Goodman’s infamous “grue ” paradox is presented. Then, Goodman’s argument is analyzed from both Hempelian and Bayesian perspectives. A guiding analogy is drawn between certain arguments against classical deductive logic, and Goodman’s “grue ” argument against classical inductive logic. The upshot of this analogy is that the “New Riddle ” is not as vexing as many commentators have claimed (especially, from a Bayesian inductivelogical point of view). Specifically, the analogy reveals an intimate connection between Goodman’s problem, and the “problem of old evidence”. Several other...

Teodor Przymusinski
We introduce a uniform nonmonotonic framework for knowledge representation based on epistemic logic which is sufficiently general to encompass several nonmonotonic formalisms, including circumscription, autoepistemic logic, various semantics proposed for logic programs and deductive databases (stable semantics, wellfounded semantics and stationary semantics) as well as Gelfond’s epistemic specifications. The existence of such a uniform framework allows us not only to provide simpler and perhaps more natural definitions of various formalisms but it also enables us to better understand mutual relationships existing between them.

George Bowles
Abstract: In this paper I examine five distinctions between deductive and inductive arguments, concluding that the best of the five defines a deductive argument as one in which conclusive favorable relevance to its conclusion is attributed to its premises, and an inductive argument as any argument that is not deductive. This distinction, unlike its rivals, is both exclusive and exhaustive; permits both good and bad arguments of each kind; and is both useful and needed in evaluating at least some arguments. In past years a debate flourished concerning the content and value of the distinction between deductive and inductive arguments....

Xiaolei Qian
Database programming requires having the knowledge of database semantics both to maintain database integrity and to explore more optimization opportunities. Automated programming of database transactions is desirable and feasible. In general, transactions use simple constructs and algorithms; specifications of database semantics are available; and transactions perform small incremental updates to database contents. Automated programming in such a restricted but wellunderstood and important domain is promising. We approach the synthesis of database transactions that preserve the validity of integrity constraints using deductive tachniques. A transaction logic is developed as the formalism with which the synthesis is conducted. Transactions are generated as...

Thomas Hofweber

Reasoning with limited computational resources (such as time or memory) is an important problem, in particular in knowledgeintensive embedded systems. Classical logic is usually considered inapropriate for this purpose as no guarantees regarding deadlines can be made. One of the more interesting approaches to address this problem is built around the concept of active logics. Although a step in the right direction, active logics still do not offer the ultimate solution. Our work is based on the assumption that Labeled Deductive Systems offer appropriate metamathematical methodology to study the problem. As a first step, we have reformulated a pair of...

Barry Nurcombe; Ina Fitzhenrycoor
Informationprocessing research into the natural process of clinical reasoning is reviewed and the University of Vermont diagnostic reasoning research project is described. Experienced psychiatric diagnosticians use a hypotheticodeductive logic. The development of a profile of diagnostic competencies is outlined and a course in diagnostic reasoning for medical students, which specifically objectified the tactics and strategy of reasoning and resulted in a significant improvement in the profile of competencies, is described. Finally, the organisation of a diagnostic formulation is discussed. It is hard to think about thinking. No wonder, then, that research into clinical reasoning has been impeded by obstacles and...

Blackburn, Patrick; Ten Cate, Balder
In this paper we argue that hybrid logic is the deductive setting most natural for Kripke semantics. We do so by investigating hybrid axiomatics for a variety of systems, ranging from the basic hybrid language (a decidable system with the same complexity as orthodox propositional modal logic) to the strong Priorean language (which offers full firstorder expressivity). We show that hybrid logic offers a genuinely firstorder perspective on Kripke semantics: it is possible to define base logics which extend automatically to a wide variety of frame classes and to prove completeness using the Henkin method. In the weaker languages, this...

David Botting; Waller Waller Guarini
Abstract: I will show that there is a type of analogical reasoning that instantiates a pattern of reasoning in confirmation theory that is considered at best paradoxical and at worst fatal to the entire syntactical approach to confirmation and explanation. However, I hope to elaborate conditions under which this is a sound (although not necessarily strong) method of reasoning. It does not, as its exponents claim, instantiate a pattern of reasoning distinct from deductive and inductive logic.

Valdez, Néstor Jorge; Falappa, Marcelo Alejandro
In logic programming, Horn clauses play a basic role, and in many logical constructs their consideration is important. In this paper we study the multiple revision of a belief base where the underlying logic is composed by Horn clauses. The main di culties as to restricting to the Horn fragment for revision operators by a single sentence are analyzed, and general results are presented about multiple revision operators on belief bases. We de ne prioritized multiple revision operators under a more restricted logic than classical propositional logic, i.e. Horn logic.
We propose a set of postulates and representation theorems for each...

Larshenrik Eriksson
Abstract. We describe how the calculus of partial inductive definitions is used to represent logics. This calculus includes the powerful principle of definitional reflection. We describe two conceptually different approaches to representing a logic, both making essential use of definitional reflection. In the deductive approach, the logic is defined by its inference rules. Only the succedent rules (in a sequent calculus setting – introduction rules in a natural deduction setting) need be given. The other rules are obtained implicitly using definitional reflection. In the semantic approach, the logic is defined using its valuation function. The latter approach often provides a...

Stephen Sharot
The rational choice theorists of religion have attempted to build upa body of transcultural, universalistic generalizations, be~nning with basic axioms ofhuman rationality. The problematics of the perspective's analytical focus on one type of rationality are ma & evident by a comparison u,ith Max Weber's types of action. The influence of the American reli~ous experience is evident in the perspective's formulations and explanations, and conceptual and theoretŸ problems arise when th perspective is applied to non.westem reli~on. The relationstª between otherwor/d/:y rewards and supernatural beings proposed by the theory has to bemodified with respect o eastem religions. Monopolista and pluralism take...

Yulia S. Korukhova; Postgraduate Student
In [Manna and Waldinger, 1992] the deductive tableau method was proposed. It is appropriate for the synthesis of functional programs. The specification of a program is taken as a mathematical existence theorem and we prove the existence of an object that satisfies the specified conditions. Specification is based on predicatelogic, because it is quite general and appropriate for deductive methods. If other

Ian K. Piumarta; Umcs Knowledgebased; Umcs An; Objectbased Design; Method Concurrent Programs
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Bertil Rolf
Whatever the nature of reasoning skills, such skills are rare [4], [2]. Thus, it would be desirable to develop support for them and to cultivate and strengthen them through proper education in reasoning. The background for my discussion is the development of support for reasoning skills that our research team has been conducting for some time (www.athenasoft.org). Design of support or education for reasoning depends on concepts of reasoning skills. The essence of reasoning is to construct or evaluate relations of dependence. If D can be proved from A, B and C, there is a logical dependence between these items....