Inductive logic and empirical psychology
- Nick Chater; Mike Oaksford; Ulrike Hahn; Evan Heit
An inductive logic is a system for reasoning that derives conclusions which are plausible or credible, but are nonetheless not certain. Thus, inductive logic goes beyond the more familiar systems of deductive logic, in which the truth of the premises requires the truth of the conclusions. Thus, from All people are mortal,
Increasing performance by minimizing the passing of information
- Kenneth T. Sullivan; Dean Kashiwagi; John Savicky; Marie Kashiwagi; Charles Egbu; Chul-ki Chang
Poor construction performance has resulted in researching procurement process efficiency and overall delivery environment. This paper identifies the maximization of the passing of information as one of the root causes of the poor performance. The hypothesis is validated using several approaches: using deductive logic and the analysis by the Kashiwagi Solution Model (KSM), by associating the relationship between the client’s professionals and contractors with the process of outsourcing, quality control, measurement, and the construction industry structure, and ongoing research tests with the US Army Corps of Engineers and US Medical Command (MEDCOM). The hypothesis proposes that as communications between the...
Nigeria Case Study and Regional Analysis
- Eric C. Eboh; Kalu O. Oji; Okey G. Oji; Uzochukwu S. Amakom; Oliver C. Ujah
Country-level studies of agricultural sector in West Africa constitute one of initial steps in the action plan for the preparation of the ECOWAS Common Agricultural Policy Framework. This Nigeria case study focuses on the Nigerian agricultural sector in the contexts of West African Agriculture and the ECOWAS Common Agricultural Policy. It seeks to develop a Nigerian perspective and standpoint for the formulation of the ECOWAS Common Agricultural Policy Framework. It envisions regional approaches and scenarios for the development of Nigerian agriculture within the overall setting of ECOWAS regional integration process. By design, this analysis will feed into the Background Document...
On Relevance in Non-monotonic Reasoning: Some Empirical Studies
- Renée Elio; Francis Jeffry Pelletier
We report empirical results on factors that influence human default reasoning, both in feature-inheritance type problems and in problems that specify information about exceptions to default rules. These factors include similarity between instances that are reasoned about and whether the classes of the instances are naturallyoccurring or classes of artifacts. While in classical deductive logic, a problem's 'correct answer' is defined by the problem's formal structure, we argue that the case is different for default reasoning. The identification of factors that influence people's default inferences can contribute to more robust theories of default reasoning that include principles of relevance. Introduction...
The State of Change: A Survey
- Anthony Bonner; Michael Kifer
. Updates are a crucial component of any database programming language. Even the simplest database transactions, such as withdrawal from a bank account, require updates. Unfortunately, updates are not accounted for by the classical Horn semantics of logic programs and deductive databases, which limits their usefulness in real-world applications. As a short-term practical solution, logic programming languages have resorted to handling updates using ad hoc operators without a logical semantics. A great many works have been dedicated to developing logical theories in which the state of the underlying database can evolve with time. Many of these theories were developed with...
Static Semantics For Normal and Disjunctive Logic Programs
- Teodor C. Przymusinski; Jack Minker
In this paper, we propose a new semantic framework for disjunctive logic programming by introducing static expansions of disjunctive programs. The class of static expansions extends both the classes of stable, well-founded and stationary models of normal programs and the class of minimal models of positive disjunctive programs. Any static expansion of a program P provides the corresponding semantics for P consisting of the set of all sentences logically implied by the expansion. We show that among all static expansions of a disjunctive program P there is always the least static expansion which we call the static completion P of...
On Specification Frameworks and Deductive Synthesis of Logic Programs
- Kung-kiu Lau; Mario Ornaghi
this paper, we take a closer look at such frameworks. We shall explain what they are, and how they can be used to specify properties such as correctness and modularity (and hence reusability). Moreover, we shall show that there is a close two-way relationship between specification frameworks and deductive synthesis. In particular, a deductive synthesis process can provide a useful feedback mechanism which can not only check for desirable properties in the specification framework, but also improve the framework (with regard to such properties) using the result of the synthesis. In our approach to modularity, we borrow many of the...
Using Integrity Constraints as Deletion Rules
- Gerhard Wetzel; Cond Conc
. Integrity constraints can be used to specify properties of predicate definitions in deductive databases and logic programs. Written in if-then form, they lend themselves to generate, in forward reasoning (propagation) style, logically redundant information which is computationally useful. But similarly they may also be used to delete logically redundant information which is useless and possibly slows down the computation due to its presence. This paper focuses on several ways of using integrity constraints in the latter way, i.e. as deletion rules, and also addresses the question whether and how deletion rules can generally be understood as or transformed into...
An Overview of Parallel Strategies for Transitive Closure on Algebraic Machines
- Filippo Cacace; Stefano Ceri; Maurice A. W. Houtsma
An important feature of database technology of the nineties is the use of distributed computation for speeding up the execution of complex queries. Today, the use of parallelism is tested in several experimental database architectures and a few commercial systems for conventional select-project-join queries. In particular, hash-based fragmentation is used to distribute data to disks under the control of different processors, in multi-processor architectures without shared memory, in order to perform selections and joins in parallel. With the development of new (logic) query languages and deductive databases, the new dimension of recursion has been added to query processing. Transitive closure...
formations on SEN, every theory family T of I includes a unique largest theory system
- George Voutsadakis; T Of I
Key words Algebraic logic, equivalent deductive systems, equivalent institutions, algebraizable logics, algebraizable institutions, lattice of theories, Leibniz operator, Leibniz theory systems, protoalgebraic logics, protoalgebraicity, prealgebraicity.
Modeling Uncertainty In Deductive Databases
- Laks V.S. Lakshmanan; Fereidoon Sadri
. Information Source Tracking (IST) method has been developed recently for the modeling and manipulation of uncertain and inaccurate data in relational databases. In this paper we extend the IST method to deductive databases. We show that positive uncertain databases, i.e. IST-based deductive databases with only positive literals in the heads and the bodies of the rules, enjoy a least model/least fixpoint semantics. Query processing in this model is studied next. We extend the top-down and bottom-up evaluation techniques of logic programming and deductive databases to our model. Finally, we study negation for uncertain databases, concentrating on stratified uncertain databases....
An Epistemic Foundation for Logic Programming with Uncertainty
- Laks V.S. Lakshmanan
this paper is primarily with probabilistic extensions to logic programming and deductive databases. Substantial work has been done in this area (see Section 6 for a brief survey). One criticism (e.g. see ) leveled against probabilistic approaches for uncertainty management is how the probabilities representing degree of likelihood can be
"No Collision" in a Protocol with n Stations: a Comparative Study of Formal Proofs
- Agathe Merceron; Monika Müllerburg; G. Michele Pinna
. Formal methods are used both for designing a system and for checking that it satisfies required properties. To provethatafinite system matches its specification, a common line of thought is to express properties in a suitable temporal logic, and with a model checker, automatically verify that the system satisfies them. However this method does not work straightaway for systems composed of n similar components running in parallel, where n is not fixed, like the protocol we present in this paper. Several ways out have been proposed. Wehave selected 3 different methods. We present them, apply them to the protocol and...
Experiments In Learning Nonrecursive Definitions Of Relations With Linus
- Nada Lavrac; Saso Dzeroski; Marko Grobelnik
Many successful inductive learning systems use a propositional attribute-value language for the representation of training examples and induced concept descriptions. Recent developments are concerned with systems that induce concept descriptions in #rst-order logic. In the deductive hierarchical database #DHDB# formalism used in LINUS training examples are given as a relation in the form of ground facts. Concept descriptions have the form of typed nonrecursive rules. Having variables, compound terms and utility predicates#functions in concept descriptions, the DHDB form allows for more compact descriptions of concepts than an attribute-value language. It also allows for learning nonrecursive logical de#nitions of relations. The...
Nonmonotonic Inheritance in Object-Oriented Deductive Database Languages
- Wolfgang May; Paul-Th. Kandzia
Deductive object-oriented frameworks integrate logic rules and inheritance. There, specific problems arise: Due to the combination of deduction and inheritance, (a) deduction can take place depending on inherited facts, thus raising indirect conflicts, and (b) also the class hierarchy and-membership is subject to deduction. From this point of view, we investigate the application of the extension semantics of Default Logic to deductive object-oriented database languages. By restricting the problem to Horn programs and a special type of defaults tailored to the semantics of inheritance, a forwardchaining construction of extensions is possible. This construction is compared with a solution as implemented...
Logic: deductive and inductive [microform].
- Bain, Alexander,
Logic for children [microform] : deductive and inductive : being the substance of two addresses to teachers delivered before the College of Preceptors ... /
- Ellis, Alexander John,
"The first lecture reprinted from the Educational Times for June, July, and August, 1872; the second from the same for March, April, and May, 1873; both with numerous additions."
Logic and education [microform] : an elementary text-book of deductive and inductive logic /
- Lightfoot, John,
Comment Social Psychology and the Pragmatic Conduct of Science
- Christian S. Crandall; Mark Schaller
Abstract. We chart our agreements and disagreements with Wallach and Wallach’s (2001) arguments. After listing some areas of agreement, we then make four arguments that undermine the Wallachs ’ project. First, we argue the discovery of ‘laws ’ is a goal neither of scientists nor of the discipline. Second, we suggest the Wallachs ’ claim that social psycho-logical theories are infused with unfalsifiable theories about the nature of psychological variables misses the logical distinction between measure-ment models and conceptual hypotheses. Third, we look at the role that circularity plays in deductive logic and conclude that circularity is rarely a serious...
Valoraciones del fenómeno de la violencia en la ancianidad
- Pérez Nájera, Celín
El presente trabajo está motivado por la existencia del fenómeno de la violencia sobre los ancianos en el entorno de la familia cubana, analizando en este caso el grupo de riesgo victimal constituido por las personas de la tercera edad, que ha crecido aceleradamente debido al aumento de longevidad de nuestra población. Se ha realizado un estudio de más de veinte autores sobre las definiciones conceptuales de la violencia, sus manifestaciones, la relación víctima- victimario, un pequeño análisis de cómo valorar ésta victimización desde la afectación directa del flagelo en su doble
concepción genérica. Se utilizaron diversos métodos tales como: el...