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Nomenclatura Unesco > (11) Lógica > (1102) Lógica deductiva
(1102.01) Analogía (1102.02) Álgebra de Boole
(1102.03) Lógica formal (1102.04) Lenguajes formalizados
(1102.05) Sistemas formales (1102.06) Fundamentos de matemáticas
(1102.07) Generalización (1102.08) Lógica matemática
(1102.09) Lógica modal (1102.10) Teoría de modelos
(1102.11) Teoría de pruebas (1102.12) Cálculo proposicional
(1102.13) Funciones recursivas (1102.14) Lógica simbólica
(1102.15) Teoría de lenguajes formales (1102.99) Otras (especificar)

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 907

1. La invención de nuevos dispositivos: el "montaje del marco de la escena" en una clínica de la "esquizofrenia" - Zanchettin, Joceline Fátima
La experiencia clínica con pacientes “esquizofrénicos” es el disparador teórico y clínico de la presente investigación. La búsqueda de respuestas, ante el acontecimiento siempre inédito de la escucha psicoanalítica del sujeto, dio lugar a una investigación cuyo objetivo es: analizar el encuadre, la pertinencia y la eficacia de una modalidad de intervención clínica que apunte al montaje del “marco de la escena” en el tratamiento psicoanalítico del sujeto en la psicosis esquizofrénica. El abordaje histórico y actual de los desarrollos con respecto a la esquizofrenia en la psiquiatría y en el psicoanálisis, nos permitió delimitar el campo de investigación, de...

2. Derivación deductiva de programas funcionales con patrones - Velázquez Iturbide, Ángel
Una de las dificultades principales en el desarrollo de software es la ausencia de un marco conceptual adecuado para su estudio. Una propuesta la constituye el modelo transformativo, que entiende el desarrollo de software como un proceso iterativo de transformación de especificaciones: se parte de una especificación inicial que va transformándose sucesivamente hasta obtener una especificación final que se toma como programa. Este modelo básico puede llevarse a la práctica de varias maneras. En concreto, la aproximación deductiva toma una sentencia lógica como especificación inicial y su proceso transformador consiste en la demostración de la sentencia; como producto secundario de la demostración se deriva un programa que satisface la especificación inicial. La tesis...

3. The role of logical interpretations on program development - Martins, Manuel A.; Madeira, Alexandre; Barbosa, L. S.
Stepwise refinement of algebraic specifications is a well known formal methodology for program development. However, traditional notions of refinement based on signature morphisms are often too rigid to capture a number of relevant transformations in the context of software design, reuse, and adaptation. This paper proposes a new approach to refinement in which signature morphisms are replaced by logical interpretations as a means to witness refinements. The approach is first presented in the context of equational logic, and later generalised to deductive systems of arbitrary dimension. This allows, for example, refining sentential into equational specifications and the latter into modal...

4. Análisis del marco conceptual para la preparación y presentación de estados financieros conforme al modelo internacional IASB - Montes Salazar, Carlos Alberto; Montilla Galvis, Omar de Jesús; Mejía Soto, Eutimio
A conceptual framework is a theory fundament which, as a constitution, drives the accounting normative-technical ruling development. The Framework uses a deductive logic itinerary and, through inference, derives, from superior environment and appropriate accounting system postulates, the accounting standards associated with specific ends. The system can be assumed as teleological.This article analyses, in a schematical way, the conceptual guidance in the financial reports preparing and presenting process. Reports confectioned according International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) are considered to be useful in economical decision taking by the users of information.

5. Argumentos, formalización y lógica informal - Harada, Eduardo
The aim of this article is to show thatthere are fundamental philosophical problemsaround informal logic, which philosophy oflogic should pay attention to. This article iscontrary to the idea that this discipline is onlya “deductive formal logic applied to ordinarylanguage, with didactic aims”. On the contrary,it is shown that informal logic’s subject matteris different from formal logic’s, because theformer does not study inferences or reasoningbut arguments, in short, their semantics,pragmatics, rhetorical and dialogue aspects.Finally, it explains that the main philosophicalproblem of informal logic, namely, if argumentscould be formalized, is still open and thereare two extreme positions about this problem:formalism and informalism.

6. Sistema de tareas docentes para el trabajo independiente en Medicina Natural y Tradicional - Juviel Rodríguez, Matilde Norma; Trujillo Juviel, Pablo
Fundamento: el trabajo independiente es una modalidad de organización docente que contribuye a que los alumnos aprendan a estudiar con sus propios esfuerzos, estimulen su actividad creadora y formen hábitos correctos para la autosuperación.Objetivo: diseñar un sistema de tareas docentes para desarrollar habilidades de trabajo independiente a través de los contenidos de Medicina Natural y Tradicional.Métodos: se realizó una investigación de tipo descriptivo, en la Filial Universitaria de la Salud de Aguada de Pasajeros durante el curso 2012-2013. Se utilizaron como métodos teóricos: analítico-sintético, inductivo-deductivo e histórico-lógico; empíricos: análisis documental, observación, entrevistas a profesores y estudiantes, y para la valoración...

7. Necesidades de aprendizaje sobre rehabilitación bucomaxilofacial en residentes y especialistas de Neurocirugía - Monteagudo Santiago, Janet; Ardisana Santana, Ernesto Fidel; Acosta Rodríguez, Juan Carlos
Fundamento: la prótesis bucomaxilofacial comprende la rehabilitación morfofuncional de las estructuras intrabucales y parabucales por medios artificiales.Objetivo: identificar las necesidades de aprendizaje y las insuficiencias en el desarrollo de habilidades sobre rehabilitación bucomaxilofacial en residentes y especialistas de Neurocirugía.Métodos: se realizó una investigación descriptiva transversal en el Hospital Universitario “Arnaldo Milián Castro” de Villa Clara, entre enero-mayo de 2014. Se utilizaron métodos teóricos: analítico-sintético, histórico-lógico e inductivo-deductivo; empíricos: análisis documental del programa de la especialidad de Neurocirugía y el plan de superación de los últimos 5 años, y encuesta en forma de cuestionario de respuestas breves al total de la...

8. Artificial Intelligence 128 (2001) 203–235 A logic-based theory of deductive arguments ✩ - Anthony Hunter B
We explore a framework for argumentation (based on classical logic) in which an argument is a pair where the first item in the pair is a minimal consistent set of formulae that proves the second item (which is a formula). We provide some basic definitions for arguments, and various kinds of counter-arguments (defeaters). This leads us to the definition of canonical undercuts which we argue are the only defeaters that we need to take into account. We then motivate and formalise the notion of argument trees and argument structures which provide a way of exhaustively collating arguments and counter-arguments. We...

9. Declarative languages -- paradigm of the past or challenge of the future - Rainer Manthey
Declarative database query languages have recently been criticized by the research community. Proponents of database programming languages and objectoriented databases recommended doing away with declarative means for specifying retrieval, except for perhaps ad-hoc querying. Supporters of deductive databases and logic programming want to extend declarative query languages into full programming languages while retaining dedarativity. It is our conviction that neither approach will lead to a satisfactory solution. We claim instead that languages offeting both paradigms in full extension are desirable and can be achieved without suffering from the drawbacks encountered when simply combining existing query and programming languages. In this...

10. kLog -- A Language for Logical and Relational Learning with Kernels - Paolo Frasconi; Fabrizio Costa; Luc De Raedt; Kurt De Grave
kLog is a logical and relational language for kernel-based learning. It allows users to specify logical and relational learning problems at a high level in a declarative way. It builds on simple but powerful concepts: learning from interpretations, entity/relationship data modeling, logic programming and deductive databases (Prolog and Datalog), and graph kernels. kLog is a statistical relational learning system but unlike other statistical relational learning models, it does not represent a probability distribution directly. It is rather a kernel-based approach to learning that employs features derived from a grounded entity/relationship diagram. These features are derived using a novel technique called...

11. A Transformation Technique for Datalog Programs Based on Non-Deterministic Constructs - Petros Potikas; Panos Rondogiannis; Manolis Gergatsoulis
Recently, a novel transformation technique for Datalog programs, called the branching transformation, was introduced by the authors. In this paper we propose a significant extension of the branching transformation which we believe opens-up a promising new direction of research in the area of value-propagating Datalog optimizations. One of the novel characteristics of the proposed approach is that the target language is DatalognS extended with choice predicates, a form of non-deterministic construct that was originally introduced in the area of intensional logic programming. Keywords: Logic Program Transformations, Deductive Databases. 1

12. The Branching-Time Transformation Technique for Chain Datalog Programs - Panos Rondogiannis; Manolis Gergatsoulis
The branching-time transformation technique has proven to be an efficient approach for implementing functional programming languages. In this paper we demonstrate that such a technique can also be defined for logic programming languages. More specifically, we first introduce Branching Datalog, a language that can be considered as the basis for branching-temporal deductive databases. We then present a transformation algorithm from Chain Datalog programs to the class of unary Branching Datalog programs with at most one IDB atom in the body of each clause. In this way, we obtain a novel implementation approach for Chain Datalog, shedding at the same time...

13. INDALOG: A Declarative Deductive Database Language - Jesús M. Almendros-Jiménez; Antonio Becerra-Terón
In this paper we present the main features of a deductive database language named INDALOG based on the integration of functional and logic paradigms. As most deductive database systems, INDALOG allows the handling of negation, higher-order functions, grouping operators, support for aggregation, handling of non-ground facts, and support for indexing structures on both extensional and intensional relations of a database. Moreover, we present the semantic foundations of this language. 1

14. Exstensions of Deductive Concept in Logic Programing and Some Applications - Ivana Berković; Biljana Radulović; Petar Hotomski
Abstract. The paper presents ATP – a system for automated theorem proving based on ordered linear resolution with marked literals, its putting into the base of prolog-like language and some applications. This resolution system is especially put into the base of prolog-like language, as the surrogate for the concept of negation as definite failure. This logical complete deductive base is used for building a descriptive logical programming language LOGPRO, which enables eliminating the defects of PROLOG-system (the expansion concerning Horn clauses, escaping negation treatment as definite failure), but keeping the main properties of PROLOG-language and possibilities of its expansions. Some...

15. What you always wanted to know about Datalog (and never dared to ask - Stefan Ceri; Georg Gottlob; Letizia Tanca
Abstract-Datalog is a database query language based on the logic programming paradigm; it has been designed and intensively studied over the last five years. We present the syntax and semantics of Datalog and its use for querying a relational database. Then, we classify optimization methods for achieving efficient evaluations of Datalog queries, and present the most relevant methods. Finally, we discuss various exhancements of Datalog, currently under study, and indicate what is still needed in order to extend Datalog’s applicability to the solution of real-life problems. The aim of this paper is to provide a survey of research performed on...

16. A Transformation Technique for Datalog Programs Based on Non-Deterministic Constructs - Petros Potikas; Panos Rondogiannis; Manolis Gergatsoulis
Recently, a novel transformation technique for Datalog programs, called the branching transformation, was introduced by the authors. In this paper we propose a signicant extension of the branching transformation which we believe opens-up a promising new direction of research in the area of value-propagating Datalog optimizations. One of the novel characteristics of the proposed approach is that the target language is DatalognS extended with choice predicates, a form of non-deterministic construct that was originally introduced in the area of intensional logic programming. Keywords: Logic Program Transformations, Deductive Databases. 1

17. Logic and Databases - Johann Eder
Logic and databases have gone a long way together since the advent of relational databases. Already the first basic query languages for relational databases beside relational algebra - tuple calculus and domain calculus - are actually a subset of first order predicate logic. Furthermore logic proved to be very adequate for establishing a sound theory for relational databases. When attempts were made to integrate AI and database technology in form of expert database systems or knowledge base management systems logic provided a unifying framework although several differences in the use of logic in the both fields have been discovered. The...

18. Extending Classical Logic with Inductive Definitions - Marc Denecker
The goal of this paper is to extend classical logic with a generalized notion of inductive definition supporting positive and negative induction, to investigate the properties of this logic, its relationships to other logics in the area of non-monotonic reasoning, logic programming and deductive databases, and to show its application for knowledge representation by giving a typology of definitional knowledge.

19. Extending Classical Logic with Inductive Definitions - Marc Denecker
The goal of this paper is to extend classical logic with a generalized notion of inductive definition supporting positive and negative induction, to investigate the properties of this logic, its relationships to other logics in the area of non-monotonic reasoning, logic programming and deductive databases, and to show its application for knowledge representation by giving a typology of definitional knowledge.

20. Revising Horn Theories - James P. Delgrande; Pavlos Peppas
This paper investigates belief revision where the underlying logic is that governing Horn clauses. It proves to be the case that classical (AGM) belief revision doesn’t immediately generalise to the Horn case. In particular, a standard construction based on a total preorder over possible worlds may violate the accepted (AGM) postulates. Conversely, Horn revision functions in the obvious extension to the AGM approach are not captured by total preorders over possible worlds. We address these difficulties by first restricting the semantic construction to “well behaved” orderings; and second, by augmenting the revision postulates by an additional postulate. This additional postulate...

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