Clarifying Mixed Bipolar Multiple Inheritance with Exceptions
- Peter W. Eklund
The inheritance problem can be simply stated: for any instantiation of an inheritance network, say a specific hierarchy \Gamma find a conclusion set for \Gamma. In other words find out what is logically entailed by \Gamma. This can be done in two ways: either by defining a deductive or proof theoretic definition to determine what paths are entailed by a network; or by translating the individual links in the network to a more general nonmonotonic logic and using its model and proof theory to generate entailments that correspond to what one would expect from "viewing" the inheritance hierarchy. Two approaches...
BDS: A BDD-Based Logic Optimization System
- Congguang Yang; Maciej Ciesielski; Vigyan Singhal
This paper describes a new BDD-based logic optimization system, BDS. It is based on a recently developed theory for BDD-based logic decomposition, which supports both algebraic and Boolean factorization. New techniques, which are crucial to the manipulation of BDDs in a partitioned Boolean network environment, are described in detail. The experimental results show that BDS has a capability to handle very large circuits. It offers a superior runtime advantage over SIS, with comparable results in terms of circuit area and often improved delay. 1. INTRODUCTION Through the continuously intensive research and development in logic synthesis area for the last twenty...
A Unifying Semantics for Time and Events
- Brandon Bennett; Antony P. Galton
We give a formal semantics for a highly expressive language for representing temporal relationships and events. This language, which we call Versatile Event Logic (VEL), provides a general temporal ontology encompassing many other representations. 1 Introduction Many researchers in the eld of AI have recognised the need for formal representation languages capable of expressing high-level information in a naturalistic form | e.g. (Hayes 1979, Davis 1990). Of central importance to such a representation is a precise analysis of the semantics of actions, events and temporal relations. Among the most inuential of the large number of formalisms proposed to deal with...
Reflection in General Logics, Rewriting Logic, and Maude
- Manuel Clavel
This paper is a summary of my PhD dissertation in which: general axiomatic notions of reflective logic and of strategy, based on the theory of general logics, are proposed; a detailed proof that rewriting logic satisfies the axiomatic definition of reflective logic is given; and the great practical importance of these concepts when a reflective logic becomes implemented as a reflective declarative language---as it is the case for a system such as Maude---is illustrated in a wide range of application areas through relevant examples.
Reasoning about knowledge of unawareness revisited
- Joseph Y. Halpern; Leandro C. Rêgo
In earlier work [Halpern and Rêgo 2006b], we proposed a logic that extends the Logic of General Awareness of Fagin and Halpern
Categorical foundation of quantum mechanics and string theory
- A. Nicolaidis
The unification of Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity remains the primary goal of Theoretical Physics, with string theory appearing as the only plausible unifying scheme. In the present work, in a search of the conceptual foundations of string theory, we analyze the relational logic developed by C. S. Peirce in the late nineteenth century. The Peircean logic has the mathematical structure of a category with the relation Rij among two individual terms Si and Sj, serving as an arrow (or morphism). We introduce a realization of the corresponding categorical algebra of compositions, which naturally gives rise to the fundamental quantum...
- B. Godlin; E. Katz; J. A. Makowsky
Abstract. Many graph polynomials, such as the Tutte polynomial, the interlace polynomial and the matching polynomial, have both a recursive definition and a defining subset expansion formula. In this paper we present a general, logic-based framework which gives a precise meaning to recursive definitions of graph polynomials. We then prove that in this framework every recursive definition of a graph polynomial can be converted into a subset expansion
Primeros conceptos lógicos: expresados de una forma bastante general
- Sobrino, Alejandro; Trillas Ruiz, Enrique
Concepciones sobre la importancia de los contenidos biológicos en la formación del psicólogo
- Audisio, Eduardo Oscar
En este trabajo se estudian las concepciones de estudiantes, docentes y graduados de la carrera de Psicología de la Universidad Nacional de Rosario, acerca de la importancia de los contenidos biológicos en la formación del psicólogo. La investigación se desarrolló en el marco de una lógica cualitativa y la información se recogió mediante entrevistas. En general, los alumnos ingresantes no tienen una clara concepción acerca de la importancia de las ciencias biológicas para su formación. Los estudiantes encuentran dificultades para el estudio de las mismas, las asocian al positivismo, a la medicina, y las perciben como opuestas al psicoanálisis. Los...
Kant's Transcendental Logic
- Edwards, MV
The present work seeks to track the development of the positive doctrines of the Transcendental Aesthetic and Analytic of Kant’s first Critique in light of his innovative vision of a possible science that he entitles transcendental logic. Such a logic, like its ‘general’ counterpart, will amount to an a priori exhibition of the most fundamental operations of the cognitive faculty Kant entitles understanding, but transcendental logic will be distinguished by its capacity to bring into view the status of the understanding not just as a capacity for thinking, but as a capacity for thinking of objects. If such a science...
Assessing market-based environmental policy using a case study of North Pacific fisheries Forthcoming in Global Environmental Change
- Becky Mansfield
This paper uses a case study to provide a critical assessment of arguments underlying market-based environmental policy. Market approaches, which rely on economic incentives and property rights to achieve environmental goals, have become increasingly popular in the past two decades. Proponents argue that market approaches should replace “command and control ” regulation, which works by penalizing environmentally harmful behavior. Synthesizing results of previous research on political economy of the North Pacific pollock fishery, this paper provides evidence that contradicts hypotheses derived from the logic of market approaches. First, a lack of property rights is not the underlying cause of problems...
An Analysis of the Computational Complexity of DeLP through Game Semantics Preliminary Report
- Guillermo R. Simari; Piazza Domenicani; Bolzano Italia
Defeasible Logic Programming (DeLP) is a suitable tool for knowledge representation and reasoning. Its operational semantics is based on a dialectical analysis where arguments for and against a literal interact in order to determine whether this literal is believed by a reasoning agent. The semantics GS is a declarative trivalued game-based semantics for DeLP that is sound and complete for DeLP operational semantics. Complexity theory has become an important tool for comparing different formalism and for helping to improve implementations whenever is possible. For these reasons, it is important to investigate the computational complexity and expressive power of DeLP. In...
Expressiveness of Positive Coalgebraic Logic
- Krzysztof Kapulkin; Alexander Kurz
From the point of view of modal logic, coalgebraic logic over posets is the natural coalgebraic generalisation of positive modal logic. From the point of view of coalgebra, posets arise if one is interested in simulations as opposed to bisimulations. From a categorical point of view, one moves from ordinary categories to enriched categories. We show that the basic setup of coalgebraic logic extends to this more general setting and that every finitary functor on posets has a logic that is expressive, that is, has the Hennessy-Milner property. Keywords: Coalgebra, Modal Logic, Poset
Topological Completeness of First-Order Modal Logic
- Steve Awodey; Kohei Kishida
As McKinsey and Tarski  showed, the Stone representation theorem for Boolean algebras extends to algebras with operators to give topological semantics for (classical) propositional modal logic, in which the “necessity ” operation is modeled by taking the interior of an arbitrary subset of a topological space. This topological interpretation was recently extended in a natural way to arbitrary theories of full first-order logic by Awodey and Kishida , using topological sheaves to interpret domains of quantification. This paper proves the system of full first-order S4 modal logic to be deductively complete with respect to such extended topological semantics. The...
General Dynamic Dynamic Logic
- Patrick Girard; Jeremy Seligman; Fenrong Liu
Dynamic epistemic logic (DEL) extends purely modal epistemic logic (S5) by adding dynamic operators that change the model structure. Propositional dynamic logic (PDL) extends basic modal logic with programs that allow the definition of complex modalities. We provide a common generalisation: a logic that is ‘dynamic ’ in both senses, and one that is not limited to S5 as its modal base. It also incorporates, and significantly generalises, all the features of existing extensions of DEL such as BMS  and LCC . Our dynamic operators work in two steps. First, they provide a multiplicity of transformations of the original...
Chiron: Mechanizing Mathematics in OCaml By
- Hong Ni B. Science
Computer algebra systems such as Maple  and Mathematica  are good at symbolic computation, while theorem proving systems such as Coq  and pvs  are well-developed for creating formal proofs. However, people are searching for a mechanized mathematics system which can provide highly integrated symbolic computation and formal deduction capabilities at the same time. My work is to design and implement the basis for a mechanized mathematics system based on a formal framework, which was previously developed as part of the MathScheme project at McMaster University. The core idea of the framework consists of the notion of a...
Exact Query Reformulation over SHOQ DBoxes
- Enrico Franconi; Volha Kerhet; Nhung Ngo
Abstract We formalise the problem of query reformulation over a description logic ontology and a DBox in a general framework. This framework supports deciding the existence of a safe-range first-order equivalent reformulation of a concept query in terms of the signature of a DBox. A constructive method to compute the reformulation is provided. We are particularly interested in safe-range reformulations since they can be transformed to relational queries and executed using SQL. We also discuss the completeness of the proposed framework with respect to finite and unrestricted models. As a case study we consider ontologies and queries expressed in SHOQ....
Termination in a Hierarchy of General Logic Programs
- Annalisa Bossi; Nicoletta Cocco; Sandro Etalle; Sabina Rossi
We propose a modular approach to termination proofs of logic programs with negation (i.e., general programs). We consider programs consisting of a hierarchy of modules and supply a general method for proving termination by dealing with each module separately. For programs which exhibit a well-behaviour, namely well-moded or well-typed programs, we derive both a simple verification technique and an iterative proof method. Some examples show how our system allows for greatly simplified proofs.
DLV - A System for Declarative Problem Solving
- Thomas Eiter; Wolfgang Faber; Christoph Koch; Nicola Leone; Gerald Pfeifer
DLV is an ecient logic programming and nonmonotonic reasoning (LPNMR) system with advanced knowledge representation mechanisms and interfaces to classic relational database systems. Its core language is disjunctive datalog (function-free disjunctive logic programming) under the Answer Set Semantics with integrity constraints, both default and strong (or explicit) negation, and queries. Integer arithmetics and various built-in predicates are also supported. In addition DLV has several frontends, namely brave and cautious reasoning, abductive diagnosis, consistency-based diagnosis, a subset of SQL3, planning with action languages, and logic programming with inheritance. General Information Currently DLV is available in binary form for various platforms (sparc-sun-solaris2.6,...
Trabajo social y discapacidad intelectual : una perspectiva de género en centros residenciales y de día
- Díaz Jiménez, Rosa
Introducción: este artículo tiene el objetivo de mostrar
la importancia de incorporar la perspectiva de género
en la investigación sobre la intervención de los trabajadores/
as sociales con personas con discapacidad intelectual
en centros residenciales y de día en Andalucía.
Método y materiales: mediante un marco conceptual
interpretativo de lógica ascendente y una metodología
cualitativa bajo los supuestos generales de la “Grounded
Theory”(método comparativo constante y desarrollo de
imaginería analítica) se han realizado entrevistas en profundidad
con profesionales que intervienen en centros
de Andalucía. Se ha realizado un muestreo por saturación
teórica y se ha conformado un caso con diecinueve informantes
para la heterogeneidad contextual y relevancia
en la interacción comunicativa. Resultados: el discurso