Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 279

  1. An Iterative Abstraction Algorithm for Reactive Correct-by-Construction Controller Synthesis

    Mattila, Robert; Mo, Yilin; Murray, Richard M.
    In this paper, we consider the problem of synthesizing correct-by-construction controllers for discrete-time dynamical systems. A commonly adopted approach in the literature is to abstract the dynamical system into a Finite Transition System (FTS) and thus convert the problem into a two player game between the environment and the system on the FTS. The controller design problem can then be solved using synthesis tools for general linear temporal logic or generalized reactivity(1) specifications. In this article, we propose a new abstraction algorithm. Instead of generating a single FTS to represent the system, we generate two FTSs, which are under- and...

  2. Encoding a Dependent-Type Lambda-Calculus in a Logic Programming Language

    Felty, Amy; Miller, Dale
    Various forms of typed λ-calculi have been proposed as specification languages for representing wide varieties of object logics. The logical framework, LF, is an example of such a dependent-type λ-calculus. A small subset of intuitionistic logic with quantification over simply typed λ-calculus has also been proposed as a framework for specifying general logics. The logic of hereditary Harrop formulas with quantification at all non-predicate types, denoted here as hhω, is such a meta-logic that has been implemented in both the Isabelle theorem prover and the λProlog logic programming language. Both frameworks provide for specifications of logics in which details involved...

  3. Step-Indexed Normalization for a Language with General Recursion

    Cainghino, Chris; Sjoberg, Vilhelm; Weirich, Stephanie
    The TRELLYS project has produced several designs for practical dependently typed languages. These languages are broken into two fragments—a logical fragment where every term normalizes and which is consistent when interpreted as a logic, and a programmatic fragment with general recursion and other convenient but unsound features. In this paper, we present a small example language in this style. Our design allows the programmer to explicitly mention and pass information between the two fragments. We show that this feature substantially complicates the metatheory and present a new technique, combining the traditional Girard–Tait method with step-indexed logical relations, which we use...

  4. Nanowire-Based Sublithographic Programmable Logic Arrays

    DeHon, André; Wilson, Michael J.
    How can Programmable Logic Arrays (PLAs) be built without relying on lithography to pattern their smallest features? In this paper, we detail designs which exploit emerging, bottom-up material synthesis techniques to build PLAs using molecular-scale nanowires. Our new designs accommodate technologies where the only post-fabrication programmable element is a non-restoring diode. We introduce stochastic techniques which allow us to restore the diode logic at the nanoscale so that it can be cascaded and interconnected for general logic evaluation. Under conservative assumptions using 10nm nanowires and 90nm lithographic support, we project yielded logic density around 500,000nm^2/or term for a 60 or-term array; a complete...

  5. AHaH computing-from metastable switches to attractors to machine learning.

    Michael Alexander Nugent; Timothy Wesley Molter
    Modern computing architecture based on the separation of memory and processing leads to a well known problem called the von Neumann bottleneck, a restrictive limit on the data bandwidth between CPU and RAM. This paper introduces a new approach to computing we call AHaH computing where memory and processing are combined. The idea is based on the attractor dynamics of volatile dissipative electronics inspired by biological systems, presenting an attractive alternative architecture that is able to adapt, self-repair, and learn from interactions with the environment. We envision that both von Neumann and AHaH computing architectures will operate together on the...

  6. Explicit logic circuits discriminate neural states.

    Lane Yoder
    The magnitude and apparent complexity of the brain's connectivity have left explicit networks largely unexplored. As a result, the relationship between the organization of synaptic connections and how the brain processes information is poorly understood. A recently proposed retinal network that produces neural correlates of color vision is refined and extended here to a family of general logic circuits. For any combination of high and low activity in any set of neurons, one of the logic circuits can receive input from the neurons and activate a single output neuron whenever the input neurons have the given activity state. The strength...

  7. Language, Definition and Transcendence in the Philosophy of Vedantic Non-Dualism. Landmarks for an Aphophatic Knowledge of the Ultimate Reality

    Ioan Dura
    The Transcendence represents the essential issue of each religion or philosophical paradigms. In this study I intent to highlight another paradigm of the language, definition and Transcendence relationship other than the Christian-theological and philosophical- Greek one, namely the philosophy of vedantic non-dualism (Advaita-Vedanta, that is maybe too little explored in the Romanian philosophy. The essence of the Advaita Vedanta philosophy – formulated by Sankara (788-820) – is the understanding of the Ultimate Reality declared in Chandogya-Upanisad VI.2.1 as Onewithout- the-second (Ekamevadvitiyam). The whole philosophical-religious perspective of Sankara depends of this non-dual Ultimate Reality understanding. In this order, I intend to approximate the technical exercise of the definition’s status in Indian logic, in general, and in the Advaita`s optics, in...

  8. Debilidades en los programas que forman docentes en educación matemática percepción de los actores

    Edwin Chaves Esquivel
    Debido a las críticas sobre el bajo rendimiento en matemática a nivel de Enseñanza Media en Costa Rica, donde mucha de la responsabilidad es achacada al docente, surge el cuestionamiento de la calidad del proceso de formación de los docentes de esta disciplina. El presente artículo procura determinar las carencias de los programas académicos que forman profesores en Educación Matemática en el país. Para ellos se consideran las opiniones de estudiantes actuales de estos programas y profesores egresados de los mismos. Se analiza la percepción de 171 estudiantes y 172 docentes obtenida mediante una  encuesta autoadministrada. Existe coherencia en las...

  9. Software educativo CHAKANA: una propuesta para desarrollar la inteligencia lógico-matemática de estudiantes universitarios

    Guido Mazón Fierro
    Introducción: al evidenciar que los jóvenes estudiantes del segundo semestre de la Carrera de Ingeniería en Sistemas y Computación de la Universidad Nacional de Chimborazo (Ecuador) poseen un nivel básico de lógica deductiva, y les cuesta resolver problemas de razonamiento con agilidad - lo cual repercute en un bajo rendimiento en la materia de matemática - el objetivo del presente estudio es facilitar un recurso didáctico asistido por computador para desarrollar la inteligencia lógico-matemática, como es el software educativo Chakana. Método: Cincuenta estudiantes compusieron el universo de investigación y una muestra aleatoria de 19 fue envolucrada en los testes. En...

  10. Eye vascular hemodynamics in patients with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy after surgery with application of the Alloplant biomaterial

    V. U. Galimova,; I. V. Verzakova; Z. Kh. Karimova; E. M. Gareev

    Purpose: To study the optic nerve vascular hemodynamics in patients with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) before and after application of the Alloplant biomaterial.


    Methods: The ultrasound diagnostic system General Electric Ultrasound Logic 7 (U. S.) was used to study hemodynamics. The study was initially conducted before the intervention and after the insertion of the Alloplant biomaterial in subtenon space in a retrobulbar way in the period from 3 to 6 months. The qualitative and quantitative parameters were determined: peak systolic flow velocity (Vmax), final diastolic velocity (Vmin), the index of peripheral resistance to blood flow (resistance index — RI), pulsation index (PI). According to...

  11. THE CONCEPT OF «DEGREE OF FAULT» AS THEORETICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIVIDUALIZATION OF GUILT AND CRITERIA LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY

    Ekaterina Valerievna Yurchak

    The term «degree of fault» is quantitative, it expressed relative burden of guilt, the intensity of mental attitude to face the acts committed. This term is often used in the theory of criminal, civil, labor law, and in judicial practice. Unfortunately, in modern studies of the offense and the legal liability, the question of the degree of guilt proper lighting not found.

    The goal of this study – to investigate one of the basic characteristics of the theoretical fault – her degree, to show how it is determined and what influence on the legal liability and punishment.

  12. Multiple imputation of missing categorical data using latent class models: State of the art

    Davide Vidotto; Maurits C. Kaptein; Jeroen K. Vermunt
    This paper provides an overview of recent proposals for using latent class models for the multiple imputation of missing categorical data in large-scale studies. While latent class (or finite mixture) modeling is mainly known as a clustering tool, it can also be used for density estimation, i.e., to get a good description of the lower- and higher-order associations among the variables in a dataset. For multiple imputation, the latter aspect is essential in order to be able to draw meaningful imputing values from the conditional distribution of the missing data given the observed data. We explain the general logic underlying the...

  13. LA ESTRUCTURA LÓGICA DE LA TEORÍA GENERAL DE KEYNES: UNA CRÍTICA DE BENETTI

    Michel De Vroey
    Este artículo critica el de Benetti "La estructura lógica de la Teoría General de Keynes" Critico el argumento de Benetti de que se necesita una secuencia de tres modelos para fundamentar el concepto de Keynes del desempleo involuntario. De igual forma, critico la idea adelantada por Patinkin y adoptada por Benetti, de que el capitulo 19 de la Teoría General constituye el climax de libro de Keynes y proporciona una explicación de desempleo involuntario en un contexto de precios flexibles.

  14. LA ESTRUCTURA LÓGICA DE LA TEORÍA GENERAL DE KEYNES

    Carlo Benetti
    El objetivo de este artículo es la construcción de la teoría de Keynes, concebida como una estructura compuesta por tres modelos generales y de base que se deducen unos de otros. Se muestra que la ley de Say, a la que se opone Keynes, se puede formalizar por medio de un modelo “recursivo por la oferta”. La crítica de Keynes conduce a un modelo diferente: “uno no walrasiano y de interdependencia general” que no admite la critica del ajuste al equilibrio de pleno empleo. Es un modelo de referencia a partir del cual, en una tercera etapa, se obtiene el...

  15. Proyección de la Norma Terminológica Internacional ISO 29383 en el contexto de las exportaciones colombianas

    Juan Carlos Díaz Vásquez
    Objetivo: el presente artículo se propone exponer la aplicabilidad de la Norma Terminológica Internacional ISO 29383, y su influencia positiva, en el contexto de las exportaciones en Colombia. Por otro lado, busca mostrar parte del trabajo desarrollado en la tesis ''Aplicación de normas terminológicas internacionales en el sector exportador colombiano'', presentada en la Universidad de Viena, Austria. La sección que se expone en este artículo hace parte igualmente del trabajo al interior del Comité Técnico Internacional ISO/TC 37, en cuanto al desarrollo de normas termino-lógicas que buscan tener una aplicabilidad general en los más diversos contextos. Uno de ellos es...

  16. Formal semantics for propositional attitudes

    Daniel Vanderveken
    Contemporary logic is confined to a few paradigmatic attitudes such as belief, knowledge, desire and intention. My purpose is to present a general model-theoretical semantics of propositional attitudes of any cognitive or volitive mode. In my view, one can recursively define the set of all psychological modes of attitudes. As Descartes anticipated, the two primitive modes are those of belief and desire. Complex modes are obtained by adding to primitive modes special cognitive and volitive ways or special propositional content or preparatory conditions. According to standard logic of attitudes (Hintikka), human agents are either perfectly rational or totally irrational. I...

  17. Aristotle's ategorical Syllogisms as Dialectical Games. Work in Progress

    Rahman, Shahid; Crubellier, Michel; Mcconaughey, Zoe
    It is the introduction of book in Preparation on the links between Aristotle's Logic and his dialectics The main claim is that nowadays dialogical frame for logic provides the most accurate reconstruction of Arisotl'es general notion of logic

  18. Universal Logic as a General Theory of Logic

    Musa Akrami
    Nowadays, we are confronted with important debates concerning “pluralism”, “monism”, “relativism”, and “absolutism” in logic on the one hand, and “combinations of logics”, and “translations of logics into each other”, on the other hand. In a global reaction to the plurality of logics. Some important researches have been done in the framework of an extensive project called “universal logic” with two readings: 1) “universal logic as the general theory of logic(s)” or “universal logic as a general theory of logic(s)”; 2) “universal logic as the comprehensive logic”, or “super-logic”, or “mother logic”, a notion which encompasses all logics and generates them.,...

  19. A formação profissional crítica em Serviço Social inserida na ordem do capital monopolista Critical professional background in Social Services within the monopolistic capital order

    Ricardo Silvestre da Silva
    O texto que segue trata sobre as transformações que vêm ocorrendo no ensino superior brasileiro a partir da última década, e como as mesmas vêm reorganizando-o em favor dos interesses do grande capital orientado pelos organismos internacionais, que inserem a educação definitivamente na lógica lucrativa do mercado. Este quadro mais geral traz grandes desafios para o conjunto das forças políticas progressistas preocupadas em garantir a estrutura universitária pautada no ensino, pesquisa e extensão de qualidade, incluído aí o Serviço Social e seu projeto ético-político.
    The following text is about the transformation that has occurred in the Brazilian university education since the...

  20. A Teaching Expression Method based on Systems Science

    Yingchun Li
    The key of teaching is to design some "Teaching Main Line ", and ultimately to impart the knowledge and its structure of teachers and teaching materials to students themselves knowledge and its structure. This research indicates that the knowledge /system inner logic are differ from students comprehension logic, the teaching process in general is a kind of linearization process of teaching knowledge. Discussed the linearization of teaching process, as for transformation and restoration of the knowledge/system structure. Therefore given a Systems-Science Based Knowledge Model (SSBKM) for structure and organization methods of a knowledge; especially focuses on “the teaching mainline method...

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