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Nomenclatura Unesco > (11) Lógica > (1103) Lógica general

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 1.844

1. Es realmente la lógica tópicamente neutra y completamente general? - Cabrera, Julio
A través de un método de contraejemplos, intento mostrar que la lógica formal moderna no puede sostener simultáneamente dos tesis que le son muy caras: su ultrageneralidad y su aplicación universal a todo tipo de razonamiento, con independencia del tópico: si es ultrageneral, será inadecuada, y si acepta que es adecuada, lo será topicamente, o sea, no será ultra-general.

2. La comunicación institucional en las redes sociales digitales on line - Gandolfo, María Lucrecia
En las últimas décadas Internet ha generado transformaciones en la manera de habitar el mundo que han impactado notablemente en el campo de la comunicación. En este informe se presentarán las indagaciones y la aproximación a las conclusiones realizadas en un trabajo de investigación becado por la Comisión de Investigaciones Científicas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, en el que se aborda cómo dichas modificaciones han generado nuevas lógicas de significación social en la comunicación institucional. El crecimiento de una de las aplicaciones de la web 2.0, las redes sociales digitales on line, en tanto nuevas mediaciones simbólicas, desafía a las...

3. Generación de Casos de Prueba en Programación Orientada a Objetos = Test Case Generation in Object-Oriented Programming - Rojas Siles, Jose Miguel
Las pruebas de software (Testing) son en la actualidad la técnica más utilizada para la validación y la evaluación de la calidad de un programa. El testing está integrado en todas las metodologías prácticas de desarrollo de software y juega un papel crucial en el éxito de cualquier proyecto de software. Desde las unidades de código más pequeñas a los componentes más complejos, su integración en un sistema de software y su despliegue a producción, todas las piezas de un producto de software deben ser probadas a fondo antes de que el producto de software pueda ser liberado a un...

4. Competencias matemáticas en los ingresantes a Carreras de Ingeniería. - Royo, Josefina E.; Agostini, Edna I.; Torres Bugeau, Celia M.; Lasserre, Ana M.
En el año 2005 se realizó, con 60 profesores de Matemática de diferentes localidades de la Provincia de Jujuy, un taller sobre detección de las competencias generales y lógicas desarrolladas en los alumnos del último curso de Nivel Medio. Los resultados de ese taller no coincidían con aquellos detecta- dos por este equipo en alumnos que ya habían ingresado a carreras de Ingeniería en la Universidad. A partir del año 2006, se implementa en la Facultad un requisito previo al cursado de cualquier materia de 1º año, que es la aprobación de un Trayecto de Nivelación en Matemática. A tres años de...

5. Panoramas de intermediación de intereses políticos: movimientos sociales, grupos de interés y partidos a comienzos del siglo XXI - Kischelt, Herbert
En la primera sección de este artículo esbozamos una lógica general de cómo los actores eligen campos de acción colectiva, invierten en movilización colectiva, y enmarcan sus objetivos. Este análisis muestra la posibilidad de que unos modos muy diferenciados de movilizar e intermediar intereses puedan coexistir en un mismo electorado. En la segunda sección sostenemos que se observa empíricamente una transición en las democracias pos-industriales avanzadas de sistemas de movilizar e intermediar intereses de tipo �fusionado� a otros de tipo �diferenciado�. Estas tendencias no se pueden identificar con un �declive� o una �decadencia� de las democracias contemporáneas, como proponen otros...

6. Massively parallel Support for Nonmonotonic Reasoning - B. Boutsinas; Y. C. Stamatiou; G. Pavlides
INTRODUCTION Nonmonotonic reasoning plays an important role in the development of systems that try to mimic commonsense reasoning. Human beings are constantly forced to make decisions and reach conclusions in a fuzzy world. The knowledge that can be acquired by observation is inherently incomplete and may even contain conflicting information as well as exceptions to general rules. Formal logic systems do not seem to provide a satisfactory solution in such an environment (see for example [19,3]) in terms of efficiency. It has been shown, that many of these systems have decision problems that are intractable, or even undecidable, when stated...

7. Assumption-based modeling using ABEL - B. Anrig; R. Haenni; J. Kohlas; N. Lehmann
Abstract. Today, different formalisms exist to solve reasoning problems under uncertainty. For most of the known formalisms, corresponding computer implementations are available. The problem is that each of the existing systems has its own user interface and an individual language to model the knowledge and the queries. This paper proposes ABEL, a new and general language to express uncertain knowledge and corresponding queries. Examples from different domains show that ABEL is powerful and general enough to be used as common modeling language for the existing software systems. A prototype of ABEL is implemented in Evidenzia, a system restricted to models...

8. What is the Normative Role of Logic?
Abstract: The paper tries to spell out a connection between deductive logic and rationality, against Harman’s arguments that there is no such connection, and also against the thought that any such connection would preclude rational change in logic. One might not need to connect logic to rationality if one could view logic as the science of what preserves truth by a certain kind of necessity (or, by necessity plus logical form); but the paper points out a serious obstacle to any such view. What is the connection between (deductive) logic and rationality? Answers to this vary markedly. At one extreme...

9. ABSTRACT - Manuel Carro; José F. Morales; Facultad De Informática; Henk L. Muller; G. Puebla
In this paper we study, through a concrete case, the feasibility of using a high-level, general-purpose logic language in the design and implementation of applications targeting wearable computers. The case study is a “sound spatializer” which, given real-time signals for monaural audio and heading, generates stereo sound which appears to come from a position in space. The use of advanced compile-time transformations and optimizations made it possible to execute code written in a clear style without efficiency or architectural concerns on the target device, while meeting strict existing time and memory constraints. The final executable compares favorably with a similar...

10. A Logic Programming Framework for the Abductive Inference of Intentions in Cooperative Dialogues - Paulo Quaresma; José Gabriel Lopes
In this paper we propose a general logic programming framework allowing the recognition of plans and intentions behind speech acts through abductive reasoning. These inferences enables each agent to have an active participation in dialogues, namely in cooperative informationseeking dialogues. In our framework the possible actions, events, states and world knowledge are represented by extended logic programs (LP with explicit negation) and the abductive inference process is modeled by a framework wich is based on the Well Founded Semantics augmented with explicit negation (WFSX) and contradiction removal semantics (CRSX) ([13]). It will be shown how this framework supports abductive reasoning...

11. Stable Models and an Alternative Logic Programming Paradigm - Victor W. Marek; Mirosaw Truszczynski
Stable model semantics appeared... In this paper we argue that rather than to try to resolve these inconsistencies and force stable model semantics into a standard logic programming mold (this effort most likely is doomed to failure), a change of view is required. Therefore, we propose a perspective on the stable model semantics that departs from several basic tenets of logic programming. At the same time, this perspective leads to a computational system very much in the general spirit of logic programming. The system is declarative...

12. Directional Type Checking for Logic Programs: Beyond Discriminative Types - Witold Charatonik
Directional types form a type system for logic programs which is based on the view of a predicate as a directional procedure which, when applied to a tuple of input terms, generates a tuple of output terms. It is known that directional-type checking wrt. arbitrary types is undecidable; several authors proved decidability of the problem wrt. discriminative regular types. In this paper, using techniques based on tree automata, we show that directional-type checking for logic programs wrt. general regular types is DEXPTIME-complete and fixed-parameter linear. The letter result shows that despite the exponential lower bound, the type system might be...

13. Coding Computations with Stable Models of logic Programs - Jeffrey B. Remmel
We give several examples of how to code computations of both nondeterministic and deterministic Turing machines as the set of stable models of a general logic program. First we answer of question of Marek and Truszczynski [4] concerning what search problems can be represented as the set of stable of model of Datalog programs with negation. That is, a search problem consists of a set of finite instances, D , such that for each instance I 2 D , there is a nite set S (I) of all solutions of for that instance I, see [3]. We show that all...

14. Cautious Models for General Logic Programs - Tomi Janhunen; Fin- Espoo
In this paper, cautious models of general logic programs are investigated. Such models are constructed iteratively using a monotonic operator which performs case analysis on total interpretations generated by enumerations of atoms. Consequently, every general logic program has a unique cautious model. The new class of partial models is compared with well-founded and stable models of general logic programs. Various extensions of these models are are also addressed. The time complexity of constructing cautious models is analyzed. Results indicate that the major reasoning task is co-NP-complete. Finally, the connection to cautious autoepistemic logic is explained. 1 Introduction A deønite logic...

15. Inductive Synthesis of Recursive Logic Programs: Achievements and Prospects - Pierre Flener; Serap Yılmaz
The inductive synthesis of recursive logic programs from incomplete information, such as input/output examples, is a challenging subfield both of ILP (Inductive Logic Programming) and of the synthesis (in general) of logic programs from formal specifications. We first overview past and present achievements, focusing on the techniques that were designed specifically for the inductive synthesis of recursive logic programs, but also discussing a few general ILP techniques that can also induce non-recursive hypotheses. Then we analyse the prospects of these techniques in this task, investigating their applicability to software engineering as well as to knowledge acquisition and discovery.

16. Dynamic Logic Programming with Multiple Dimensions - João Alexandre Leite; José Júlio Alferes; Luís Moniz Pereira
According to the recently introduced notion of Dynamic Logic Programming, knowledge is given by a set of theories (encoded as logic programs) representing different states of the world. Different states may represent different time periods, different hierarchical instances, or even different domains. The mutual relationships extant between different states are used to determine the semantics of the combined theory composed of all individual theories. Although suitable to encode one of the possible representational dimensions (e.g. time, hierarchies, domains,...), Dynamic Logic Programming cannot deal with more than one such dimensions simultaneously because it is only defined for linear sequences of states....

17. Dynamic Logic Programming with Multiple Dimensions - João Alexandre Leite; José Júlio Alferes; Luís Moniz Pereira
According to the recently introduced notion of Dynamic Logic Programming, knowledge is given by a set of theories (encoded as logic programs) representing different states of the world. Different states may represent different time periods, different hierarchical instances, or even different domains. The mutual relationships between different states are used to determine the semantics of the combined theory composed of all individual theories. Although suitable to encode one of the possible representational dimensions (e.g. time, hierarchies, domains,...), Dynamic Logic Programming cannot deal with more than one such dimensions simultaneously because it is only defined for linear sequences of states. In...

18. Evolving logic programs - José Júlio Alferes; Antonio Brogi; João Alexandre Leite; Luís Moniz Pereira
Logic programming has often been considered less than adequate for modelling the dynamics of knowledge changing over time. In this paper we describe a simple though quite powerful approach to modelling the updates of knowledge bases expressed by generalized logic programs, by means of a new language, hereby christened EVOLP (after EVOlving Logic Programs). The approach was first sparked by a critical analysis of previous efforts and results in this direction [1, 2, 7, 11], and aims to provide a simpler, and at once more general, formulation of logic program updating, which runs closer to traditional logic programming (LP) doctrine....

19. Modular Logic Programming - José Júlio Alferes; Antonio Brogi; João Alexandre Leite; Luís Moniz Pereira
Logic programming has often been considered less than adequate for modelling the dynamics of knowledge changing over time. In this paper we describe a simple though quite powerful approach to modelling the updates of knowledge bases expressed by generalized logic programs, by means of a new language, hereby christened EVOLP (after EVOlving Logic Programs). The approach was first sparked by a critical analysis of previous efforts and results in this direction [1,2,7,11], and aims to provide a simpler, and at once more general, formulation of logic program updating, which runs closer to traditional logic programming (LP) doctrine. From the syntactical...

20. Inductive Synthesis Of Recursive Logic Programs - Engineering And Information; Serap Ylmaz; Serap Ylmaz
INDUCTIVE SYNTHESIS OF RECURSIVE LOGIC PROGRAMS Serap Ylmaz M.S. in Computer Engineering and Information Science Supervisor: Ass't Prof. Pierre Flener August 1997 The learning of recursive logic programs (i.e. the class of logic programs where at least one clause is recursive) from incomplete information, such as input/output examples, is a challenging subfield both of ILP (Inductive Logic Programming) and of the synthesis (in general) of logic programs from formal specifications. This is an extremely important class of logic programs, as the recent work on constructive induction shows that necessarily invented predicates have recursive programs, and it even turns out that...

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