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Nomenclatura Unesco > (11) Lógica > (1103) Lógica general
Nomenclatura Unesco > (11) Lógica > (1103) Lógica general
García Arnaldos, María Dolores
El objeto de esta tesis es analizar la cuestión de la justificación del conocimiento lógico básico. Argumentaremos que la solución inferencialista a dicho problema de Boghossian no resulta del todo satisfactoria, mientras que una teoría alternativa de justificación no-inferencial a partir de la consideración de una noción de justificación más débil o ‘habilitación’ (entitlement), permite hablar de conocimiento básico evitando caer en una regresión al infinito. La noción de garantía racional dentro de un proyecto cognitivo de Wright, ofrece una solución viable tanto para el conocimiento básico en general, como para el caso particular de la lógica. Señalamos que el...
Matthew Iklé A; Ben Goertzel B; Novamente Llc
Michael Fisher; Alexei Lisitsa
In this paper, we pursue the goal of automatic deductive verification for certain classes of ASM. In particular, we base our work on a translation of general ASMs to full first-order temporal logic. While such a logic is, in general, not finitely axiomatisable, recent work has identified a fragment, termed the monodic fragment, that is finitely axiomatisable and many of its subfragments are decidable. Thus, in this paper, we define a class of monodic ASMs whose semantics in terms of temporal logic fits within the monodic fragment. This, together with recent work on clausal resolution methods for monodic fragments, allows...
M. Bugliesi; Viale Aldo Moro; E. Lamma; P. Mello
We discuss the impact of Partial Evaluation within the framework of structured logic programming. We define a general scheme for Partial Evaluation to be applied to a wide class of structuring policies for logic programming, capable of supporting both block- and inheritancebased systems. We show how the properties of soundness and completeness of Partial Evaluation in Logic Programming are preserved in this extended scheme.
Marc Pauly
A new semantics of Propositional Dynamic Logic (PDL) is given in terms of predicate transformers: Instead of associating the standard state transformer with each program, we model programs by operations on sets of states, operations which map postconditions to weakest liberal preconditions. This yields a logic more general than PDL since new program operations such as angelic choice become expressible. Three issues will be discussed: axiomatization, extension of the framework to total correctness reasoning and the relation to the-calculus. 1
Nicholas Asher
Quantification over propositions is a necessary component of any theory of attitudes capable of providing a semantics of attitude ascriptions and a sophisticated system of reasoning about attitudes. There appear to be two general approaches to propositional quantification. One is developed within a first order quantificational language, the other in the language of higher order logic. The first order theory is described in Asher & Kamp (1986), Asher (1988), Asher and Kamp (1989). This paper concentrates on propositional quantification in a higher order framework, the simple theory of types. I propose a method of resolving difficulties noticed by Prior and...
Stefania Costantini
In this paper we analyze the relationship between cyclic definitions and consistency in Gelfond-Lifschitz’s answer sets semantics (initially defined as ‘stable model semantics’). This paper introduces a fundamental result, which is very relevant for Answer Set programming, and planning. For the first time since the definition of the stable model semantics, the class of logic programs for which a stable model exists is given a syntactic characterization. This condition may have a practical importance both for defining new algorithms for checking consistency and computing answer sets, and for improving the existing systems. The approach of this paper is to introduce...
Mark D. Aagaard; Thomas F. Melham; John W. O’Leary
This paper describes a semantic connection between the symbolic trajectory evaluation model-checking algorithm and relational verification in higher-order logic. We prove a theorem that translates correctness results from trajectory evaluation over a four-valued lattice into a shallow embedding of temporal operators over Boolean streams. This translation connects the specialized world of trajectory evaluation to a general-purpose logic and provides the semantic basis for connecting additional decision procedures and model checkers.
Feilong Liu
To date, the computation complexity of general type-2 fuzzy logic systems (T2 FLSs) is very high, which makes them very difficult to be deployed into practical applications; hence, only an interval T2 FLS (a special case of general type-2 FLS) is today the most widely used T2 FLS. General T2 fuzzy sets are characterized by their footprints of uncertainty (FOU) [1, 2].
Bo Hu; An Dasmahapatra; Paul Lewis; Nigel Shadbolt
Abstract In this paper we describe a general logic-enabled Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) approach to manage patient record instances. In particular, the conceptual model of the domain is represented as a breast cancer imaging ontology using a Description Logic (DL)-based web ontology modelling language, DAML+OIL. Patient records are treated as instances with regard to the ontology. We studied a knowledge base (KB) with 1,500 anonymous cases (2,200 abnormality instances), whose routine management functionalities, e.g. instance retrieval, instance introduction, KB visualisation and navigation, are driven by a DL-enabled FCA engine. We demonstrate that our approach is capable of conveying not only...
M. Fitting; E. Orlowska
Abstract Algebraic Logic is a general theory of the algebraization of deductive systems arising as an abstraction of the well-known Lindenbaum-Tarski process. The notions of logical matrix and of Leibniz congruence are among its main building blocks. Its most successful part has been developed mainly by BLOK, PIGOZZI and CZELAKOWSKI, and obtains a deep theory and very nice and powerful results for the so-called protoalgebraic logics. I will show how the idea (already explored by WÓJCKICI and NOWAK) ofdeÞning logics using a scheme of “preservation of degrees of truth ” (as opposed to the more usual one of “preservation of...
Elena Marchiori
This paper introduces a methodology for proving termination of general logic programs, when the Prolog selection rule is considered. This methodology combines the approaches by Apt and Bezem [l] and Apt and Pedreschi [2], and provides a simple and flexible tool for proving termination. 1
A. Naderii; H. Ghasemzadehii; A. Pourazarii; M. Aliasgharyii
In this paper, a new structure possessing the advantages of low-power consumption, less hardware and high-speed is proposed for fuzzy controller. The maximum output delay for general fuzzy logic controllers (FLC) is about 86 ns corresponding to 11.63 MFLIPS (fuzzy logic inference per second) while this amount of the delay in the designed fuzzy controller becomes 52ns that corresponds to 19.23 MFLIPS. This mixed analog/digital realization of the circuit makes the design programmable and extendable. The proposed controller supports Rational-Power Membership Functions with a resolution of 0.03125. Simulation results of the controller using HSPICE simulator level 49 in 0.35um in...
Dan Suciu
Probabilistic databases are motivated by a large and diverse set of applications that need to query and process uncertain data. Uncer-tain and probabilistic data arises in RFID systems [22], information extraction [12], data cleaning [1], scientific data management [17], biomedical data integration [9], business intelligence [14], approx-imate schema mappings [10], data deduplication [13]. All these applications have large collections of data, where some, or most individual data items are uncertain. In the simplest model, a probabilistic database is a database where each record is a random variable: it may either be present in the database, or absent from the database....
Iara Carnevale De Almeida; José Júlio Alferes
Abstract. The paradigm of argumentation has been used in the literature to assign meaning to knowledge bases in general, and logic programs in particular. With this paradigm, rules of logic program are viewed as encoding arguments of an agent, and the meaning of the program is determined by those arguments that somehow (depending on the specific semantics) can defend themselves from the attacks of others arguments, named acceptable arguments. In previous work we presented an argumentation based declarative semantics allowing paraconsistent reasoning and also dealing with sets of logic programs that argue and cooperate among each other. In this paper...
Floris Roelofsen; Luciano Serafini; Anton Nijholt
ii Formal accounts of contextual reasoning are of great importance for the development of sophisticated Artificial Intelligence theory and applications. This thesis ’ contribution to the theory of contextual reasoning is twofold. First, it delineates the computational complexity of contextual reasoning. A first insight is obtained by translating contextual reasoning into a rather simple form of reasoning in bounded modal logic. A more direct and general understanding, as well as more refined complexity results, are established by achieving the so-called bounded model property for contextual satisfiability. Second, the thesis describes two conceptually orthogonal approaches to automatically deciding satisfiability in a...
Jesús Medina; Manuel Ojeda-aciego; Jorge Ruiz-calviño
We investigate the use of multilattices as the set of truth-values underlying a general fuzzy logic programming framework. On the one hand, some theoretical results about ideals of a multilattice are presented in order to provide an ideal-based semantics; on the other hand, a restricted semantics, in which interpretations assign elements of a multilattice to each propositional symbol, is presented and analysed. Key words: Fuzzy logic programming, multilattices, fixed point semantics 1
Jaap Hage
Abstract.This paper argues for a proper position for legal logic in between a general theory of legal reasoning and a general theory of valid reasoning. In discussion with McCarty it argues that legal logic should not be seen as a general theory of legal reasoning, but rather as a theory of what counts as valid reasoning in the legal field. In discussion with earlier work by Verheij and the author himself, and of Prakken and Sartor, the paper argues that legal logic should employ a conceptual framework that is as close to that of the legal domain as possible. A...
José Júlio Alferes; Luís Moniz Pereira
The main goal of this paper is to establish a nonmonotonic epistemic logic with two modalities – provability and belief – capable of expressing and comparing a variety of known semantics for extended logic programs, and clarify their meaning. In particular we present here, for the first time, embeddings into epistemic logic of logic programs extended with a second kind of negation under the well– founded semantics, and contrast them to the recent embeddings into autoepistemic logics of such programs under stable models based semantics. Because of the newly established relationship between our epistemic logic and extended program semantics, the...
Teodor Przymusinski
We introduce a uniform non-monotonic framework for knowledge representation based on epistemic logic which is sufficiently general to encompass several non-monotonic formalisms, including circumscription, autoepistemic logic, various semantics proposed for logic programs and deductive databases (stable semantics, well-founded semantics and stationary semantics) as well as Gelfond’s epistemic specifications. The existence of such a uniform framework allows us not only to provide simpler and perhaps more natural definitions of various formalisms but it also enables us to better understand mutual relationships existing between them.