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Nomenclatura Unesco > (11) Lógica > (1103) Lógica general

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 1,920

1. Globalización y construcción de conocimientos. El estado de la investigación social en América Latina. - Massardo, Jaime
La lectura de diferentes trabajos de investigación social efectuados en América Latina a partir de la década de los 80 sugiere la existencia de una considerable mutación con respecto a los diversos paradigmas en los que se venían desarrollando en nuestro continente. Así, los marcos teóricos -explícitos o implícitos-, los sistemas de referencia conceptuales, la lógica de la aprehensión de los problemas propuestos y, en general, la metodología -en el sentido de la relación que establece el investigador con su objeto de estudio-, parecen, durante estos últimos quince años, venir cambiando considerablemente en términos de su concepción y de su...

2. The origin and significance of Hegel's logic; a general introduction to Hegel's system. - Baillie, J. B. (James Black), Sir, 1872-1940.
Mode of access: Internet.

3. LOGICAL DYNAMICS MEETS LOGICAL PLURALISM? - Johan van Benthem
First introduction Where is logic heading today? There is a general feeling that the discipline is broadening its scope and agenda beyond classical foundational issues, and maybe even a concern that, like Stephen Leacock’s famous horseman, it is ‘riding off madly in all directions’. So, what is the resultant vector? There seem to be two broad answers in circulation today. One is logical pluralism, locating the new scope of logic in charting a wide variety of reasoning styles, often marked by non-classical structural rules of inference. This is the new program that I subscribed to in my work on sub-structural...

4. The information in intuitionistic logic - Johan Van Benthem
Issues about information spring up wherever one scratches the surface of logic. Here is a case that raises delicate issues of ‘factual’ versus ‘procedural’ information, or ‘statics’ versus ‘dynamics’. What does intuitionistic logic, perhaps the earliest source of informational and procedural thinking in contemporary logic, really tell us about information? How does its view relate to its ‘cousin ’ epistemic logic? We discuss connections between intuitionistic models and recent protocol models for dynamic-epistemic logic, as well as more general issues that emerge.

5. Specialization of Recursive Predicates from Positive Examples Only - Moussa Demba
... semantics φ (the programmer’s intentions) where P does not satisfy φ, find out a new version P’ of P such that P’ satisfies φ. Approach: We proposed an approach for correcting overly general programs from positive examples by exploiting program synthesis techniques. The synthesized program, P’, is a specialization of the original one, P. In contrast to the previous approaches for logic program specialization, no negative examples were given as input but they will be discovered by the algorithm itself. The specialization process is performed according to the positive examples only. A method for refining logic programs into specialized...

6. Specialization of Recursive Predicates from Positive Examples Only - Moussa Demba
... semantics φ (the programmer’s intentions) where P does not satisfy φ, find out a new version P ’ of P such that P ’ satisfies φ. Approach: We proposed an approach for correcting overly general programs from positive examples by exploiting program synthesis techniques. The synthesized program, P’, is a specialization of the original one, P. In contrast to the previous approaches for logic program specialization, no negative examples were given as input but they will be discovered by the algorithm itself. The specialization process is performed according to the positive examples only. A method for refining logic programs...

7. Specialization of Recursive Predicates from Positive Examples Only - Moussa Demba
...semantics φ (the programmer’s intentions) where P does not satisfy φ, find out a new version P’ of P such that P’ satisfies φ. Approach: We proposed an approach for correcting overly general programs from positive examples by exploiting program synthesis techniques. The synthesized program, P’, is a specialization of the original one, P. In contrast to the previous approaches for logic program specialization, no negative examples were given as input but they will be discovered by the algorithm itself. The specialization process is performed according to the positive examples only. A method for refining logic programs into specialized version...

8. Specialization of Recursive Predicates from Positive Examples Only - Moussa Demba
... semantics φ (the programmer’s intentions) where P does not satisfy φ, find out a new version P ’ of P such that P ’ satisfies φ. Approach: We proposed an approach for correcting overly general programs from positive examples by exploiting program synthesis techniques. The synthesized program, P’, is a specialization of the original one, P. In contrast to the previous approaches for logic program specialization, no negative examples were given as input but they will be discovered by the algorithm itself. The specialization process is performed according to the positive examples only. A method for refining logic programs...

9. Terminal Area Simulation System User's Guide - Version 10.0 - Switzer, George F.; Proctor, Fred H.
The Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) is a three-dimensional, time-dependent, large eddy simulation model that has been developed for studies of wake vortex and weather hazards to aviation, along with other atmospheric turbulence, and cloud-scale weather phenomenology. This document describes the source code for TASS version 10.0 and provides users with needed documentation to run the model. The source code is programed in Fortran language and is formulated to take advantage of vector and efficient multi-processor scaling for execution on massively-parallel supercomputer clusters. The code contains different initialization modules allowing the study of aircraft wake vortex interaction with the atmosphere...

10. A Proof Theory for Constructive Default Logic - Yao-hua Tan
. We present what we call Constructive Default Logic (CDL) - a default logic in which the fixedpoint definition of extensions is replaced by a constructive definition which yield so-called constructive extensions. Selection functions are used to represent explicitly the control of the reasoning process in this default logic. It is well-known that Reiter's original default logic lacks, in general, a default proof theory. We will show that CDL does have a default proof theory, and we will also show that this is related to the fact that CDL has the existence property for constructive extensions and that it also...

11. Using First-Order Probability Logic for the Construction of Bayesian Networks - Fahiem Bacchus
We present a mechanism for constructing graphical models, specifically Bayesian networks, from a knowledge base of general probabilistic information. The unique feature of our approach is that it uses a powerful first-order probabilistic logic for expressing the general knowledge base. This logic allows for the representation of a wide range of logical and probabilistic information. The model construction procedure we propose uses notions from direct inference to identify pieces of local statistical information from the knowledge base that are most appropriate to the particular event we want to reason about. These pieces are composed to generate a joint probability distribution...

12. Structural Operational Semantics for AKL - Seif Haridi; Sverker Janson; Catuscia Palamidessi
The Andorra Kernel Language (AKL) is a concurrent constraint programming language. It can be seen as a general combination of logic programming languages such as Prolog, GHC, and Parlog, the first of which provides don't know nondeterminism, and the last two of which are concurrent logic programming languages. The constraint system is an independent parameter of the language description. In this paper, we revisit the description of Janson and Haridi [10], adding the formal machinery which is necessary in order to completely formalize the control of the computation model. To this we add a formal description of the transformational semantics...

13. Ports for Objects in Concurrent Logic Programs - Sverker Janson; Johan Montelius; Seif Haridi
We introduce ports, an alternative to streams, as communication support for object-oriented programming in concurrent constraint logic programming languages. From a pragmatic point of view ports provide efficient many-toone communication, object identity, means for garbage collection of objects, and opportunities for optimised compilation techniques for concurrent objects. From a semantic point of view, ports preserve the monotonicity of the constraint store which is a crucial property of all concurrent constraint languages. We also show that the Exclusive-read, Exclusive-write PRAM model of parallel computation can be realised quite faithfully using ports in terms of space and time complexity, thus allowing arbitrary...

14. Encoding Dependent Types in an Intuitionistic Logic - Amy Felty
Various languages have been proposed as specification languages for representing a wide variety of logics. The development of typed -calculi has been one approach toward this goal. The logical framework (LF), a -calculus with dependent types is one example of such a language. A small subset of intuitionistic logic with quantification over the simply typed -calculus has also been proposed as a framework for specifying general logics. The logic of hereditary Harrop formulas with quantification at all non-predicate types, denoted here as hh ! , is such a meta-logic. In this paper, we show how to translate specifications in LF...

15. Programming Paradigms of the Andorra Kernel Language - Sverker Janson; Seif Haridi
The Andorra Kernel Language (AKL) is introduced. It is shown how AKL provides the programming paradigms of both Prolog and GHC. This is the original goal of the design. However, it has also been possible to provide capabilities beyond that of Prolog and GHC. There are means to structure search, more powerful than plain backtracking. It is possible to encapsulate search in concurrent reactive processes. It is also possible to write a multi-way merger with constant delay. In these respects AKL is quite original. Although AKL is an instance of our previously introduced Kernel Andorra Prolog framework, this exposition contains...

16. Why Machines Cannot be Conscious - Subhash C. Kak
Mental processes are abstracted from a subset of the physical universe; these, in turn, lead to the world of ideas. Although these ideas include quantum logic, no credible way has yet been found that constructs machines which use superimposed possibilities in the style of quantum logic, more general in computing power to machines based on classical logic. Machine theories are based exclusively on classical logic and socalled "quantum computers" are equivalent, computationally, to classical computers. A machine cannot be conscious because it can only respond according to a pre-determined program. Viewed as a machine, there is no explanation for the...

17. Retractions in Comparing Prolog Semantics - De Bruin Faculty; A. De Bruin; Y
We present an operational model O and a continuation based denotational model D for a uniform variant of Prolog, including the cut operator. The two semantical definitions make use of higher order transformations F and Y, respectively. We prove O and D equivalent in a novel way by comparing yet another pair of higher order transformations F and Y , that yield F and Y, respectively, by application of a suitable abstraction operator. Section 1 Introduction In [BV] we presented both an operational and a denotational continuation based semantics for the core of Prolog, and we proved these two semantics...

18. Proving Compiler Correctness with Evolving Algebra Specifications - Bernhard Beckert; Reiner Hähnle
Introduction The purpose of this note is to define a framework for proving compiler correctness with evolving algebra (EA) specifications [2]. Although our specific domain is the verification of a Prolog-toWAM compiler [1, 3], we think that our considerations are fairly general and they should be useful in other areas as well. The starting point for us was the observation that the notions of correctness and completeness as used in [1] become quite counterintuitive when seen from the point of view of compiler construction. First we will define our general view of the semantics of a programming language, of how...

19. Overview of F-logic from Database Transformation Perspective - György Kovács; Patrick Van Bommel
This paper is the result of a preparatory work for our approach to the transformation of conceptual data models into object-oriented database systems. In our approach this transformation is captured within the framework of a two level architecture. Conceptual models are first mapped to intermediate specifications, which are then transformed to database schemas in a given object-oriented target database environment (e.g. SQL3, ODMG). To express intermediate representations of conceptual models we use F-logic, a logic-based abstract specification language for object-oriented systems. The goal of this paper is giving a summary of F-logic in general, and from the perspective of the...

20. Knowledge Modeling and Reusability in E x Claim - Liviu Badea
This paper presents E x Claim, a hybrid language for knowledge representation and reasoning. Originally developed as an operationalization language for the KADS knowledge based systems (KBS) development methodology, E x Claim has a meta-level architecture: it structures the knowledge on three levels, namely the domain, inference and task level. An extension of a description logic is used for implementing the domain level. The inference and task levels are general logic programs integrated with the domain level by means of upward and downward reection rules which describe the automatic domain operations performed whenever arguments of inferences or tasks are accessed....

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