Quality evaluation of DInSAR results from the phase statistical analysis
- Centolanza, Giuseppe
The Earth is continuously monitored by sensors capable of providing diversified information about several phenomena. In particular Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is able to observe the Earth in all-day and all-weather conditions. Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) regards a set of techniques able to measure displacement of the terrain. In the last decades these techniques have become very powerful geodetic tools for land deformation monitoring and have gained a prominent role in several fields, ranging from geophysical to engineering, from commercial to civil protection purposes. Measurements of direction and magnitude of landslides phenomena, monitoring of subsidence movements due to natural events...
El discurso de la ciencia y la tecnología en la prensa escrita chilena: aproximación al corpus DICIPE-2004 O Discurso da ciência e da tecnologia da imprensa escrita chilena: aproximação ao corpus DICIPE-2004 The discourse of science and technology in the chilean press: an approximation to the DICIPE-2004 corpus
- Giovanni Parodi; Silvana Ferrari
La comunicación de la ciencia y la tecnología (C&T) ha cobrado gran relevancia en los últimos años, inicialmente a través de artículos científicos y actualmente através de los medios masivos de comunicación. En este contexto, los objetivos de este artículo son: a) determinar y cuantificar, en términos comparativos, el espacio que un grupo de cinco periódicos chilenos destinan a la divulgación de temáticas de C&T; b) determinar los tipos de textos periodísticos a través de los cuales se divulga la C&T en la prensa escrita; c) identificar los macrotemas, subtemas y disciplinas presentes en el corpus. El corpus fue recolectado...
¿Qué buscan en el cielo todos aquellos ciegos?
- PETER VON BALLMOS
Hoy en día vivimos un momento único en la astronomía. Con el auge de las tecnologías espaciales y gracias al desarrollo científico de la segunda mitad del siglo XX, han podido abrirse nuevas ventanas del universo: los dominios de las ondas de radio, radar, del infrarrojo, ultravioleta, los rayos X y gamma, por primera vez son accesibles a la curiosidad de los astrofísicos. Una de las facetas de la nueva Astronomía tiene como intención describir las imágenes del cielo invisible con la ayuda de instrumentos y descubrimientos en las longitudes de onda, a la manera de la nieta de Evgen...
EMIR, the GTC nir multi-object imager-spectrograph
- F. Garzón; D. Abreu; S. Barrera; S. Becerril; L. M. Cairós; J. J. Díaz; A. B. Fragoso; F. Gago; R. Grange; C. González; P. López; J. Patrón; J. Pérez; J. L. Rasilla; P. Redondo; R. Restrepo; P. Saavedra; V. Sánchez; F. Tenegi; M. Vallbé
EMIR, que esta actualmente cubriendo sus fases de fabricación y AIV, será uno de los primeros instrumentos
de uso común en GTC el telescopio de 10m en construcción por GRANTECAN en el Observatorio del Roque
de los Muchachos (Canarias, España). EMIR se construye por un consorcio de instituciones españolas y
francesas, dirigido por el Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) y está concebido para cubrir uno de los
objetivos centrales de los telescopios de la clase de 10-m, el cual es obtener un gran número de espectros de
fuentes débiles simultáneamente. EMIR está diseñado para operar principalmente como MOS en la banda
K, aunque ofrece un...
REVISTA MEXICANA DE ASTRONOMÍA Y ASTROFÍSICA, A REAL OPTION FOR ASTRONOMICAL PUBLICATION
- S. Torres-Peimbert; C. Allen
Presentamos datos estadísticos sobre la Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica. Consideramos que esta publicación está bien posicionada en la literatura astronómica internacional. Igualmente, presentamos información sobre la Serie de Conferencias, que ha tenido muy amplia aceptación en la comunidad astronómica.
Results of the verification of the NIR MOS EMIR
- Garzón, F.; Castro Rodríguez, N.; Insausti, M.; López Martín, L.; Hammersley, Peter; Barreto, M.; Fernández, P.; Joven, E.; López, P.; Mato, A.; Moreno, H.; Nuñez, M.; Patrón, J.; Rasilla, J. L.; Redondo, P.; Rosich, J.; Pascual Ramírez, Sergio; Grange, R.
EMIR is one of the first common user instruments for the GTC, the 10 meter telescope operating at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain). EMIR is being built by a Consortium of Spanish and French institutes led by the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC). EMIR is primarily designed to be operated as a MOS in the K band, but offers a wide range of observing modes, including imaging and spectroscopy, both long slit and multiobject, in the wavelength range 0.9 to 2.5 μm. This contribution reports on the results achieved so far during the...
GIM-TEC adaptive ionospheric weather assessment and forecast system
- Gulyaeva, Tamara L.; Arikan, Feza; Hernández Pajares, Manuel; Stanislawska, Iwona
The Ionospheric Weather Assessment and Forecast (IWAF) system is a computer software package designed to assess and predict the world-wide representation of 3-D electron density profiles from the Global Ionospheric Maps of Total Electron Content (GIM-TEC). The unique system products include daily-hourly numerical global maps of the F2 layer critical frequency (foF2) and the peak height (hmF2) generated with the International Reference Ionosphere extended to the plasmasphere, IRI-Plas, upgraded by importing the daily-hourly GIM-TEC as a new model driving parameter. Since GIM-TEC maps are provided with 1- or 2-days latency, the global maps forecast for 1 day and 2 days...
A Chandrasekhar mass progenitor for the type Ia supernova remnant 3C 397 from the enhanced abundances of nickel and manganese
- Yamaguchi, H; Badenes, Carles; Foster, Adam; Bravo Guil, Eduardo; Williams, Brian; Maeda, Keichi; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Eriksen, Kristoffer; Brickhouse, Nancy; Petre, Robert; Koyama, Katsuyi
Despite decades of intense efforts, many fundamental aspects of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) remain elusive. One of the major open questions is whether the mass of an exploding white dwarf (WD) is close to the Chandrasekhar limit. Here, we report the detection of strong K-shell emission from stable Fe-peak elements in the Suzaku X-ray spectrum of the Type Ia supernova remnant (SNR) 3C 397. The high Ni/Fe and Mn/Fe mass ratios (0.11–0.24 and 0.018–0.033, respectively) in the hot plasma component that dominates the K-shell emission lines indicate a degree of neutronization in the supernova ejecta that can only be...
Spiral instability can drive thermonuclear explosions in binary white dwarf mergers
- kashyap, Rahul; Fisher, Robert T.; García-Berro Montilla, Enrique; Aznar Siguan, Gabriela; Ji, Suoqing; Loren Aguilar, Pablo
Thermonuclear, or Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), originate from the explosion of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, and serve as standardizable cosmological candles. However, despite their importance, the nature of the progenitor systems that give rise to SNe Ia has not been hitherto elucidated. Observational evidence favors the double-degenerate channel in which merging white dwarf binaries lead to SNe Ia. Furthermore, significant discrepancies exist between observations and theory, and to date, there has been no self-consistent merger model that yields a SNe Ia. Here we show that a spiral mode instability in the accretion disk formed during a binary white dwarf merger...
The variation of the fine structure constant: testing the dipole model with thermonuclear supernovae
- Kraiselburd, L; Landau, S. J.; García-Berro Montilla, Enrique; Negrelli, C
The large-number hypothesis conjectures that fundamental constants may vary. Accordingly, the space-time variation of fundamental constants has been an active subject of research for decades. Recently, using data obtained with large telescopes a phenomenological model in which the fine structure constant might vary spatially has been proposed. We test whether this hypothetical spatial variation of alpha, which follows a dipole law, is compatible with the data of distant thermonuclear supernovae. Unlike previous works, in our calculations we consider not only the variation of the luminosity distance when a varying alpha is adopted, but we also take into account the variation...
Constraining the neutrino magnetic dipole moment from white dwarf pulsations
- Corsico, Alejandro H.; Althaus, Leandro G.; Miller Bartolami, Marcelo M.; Kepler, S.O.; García-Berro Montilla, Enrique
Pulsating white dwarf stars can be used as astrophysical laboratories to constrain the properties of weakly interacting particles. Comparing the cooling rates of these stars with the expected values from theoretical models allows us to search for additional sources of cooling due to the emission of axions, neutralinos, or neutrinos with magnetic dipole moment. In this work, we derive an upper bound to the neutrino magnetic dipole moment (mu(nu)) using an estimate of the rate of period change of the pulsating DB white dwarf star PG 1351+489. We employ state-of-the-art evolutionary and pulsational codes which allow us to perform a...
The white dwarf cooling sequence of 47 Tucanae
- García-Berro Montilla, Enrique; Torres Gil, Santiago; Althaus, Leandro G.; Miller Bartolami, Marcelo M.
Context. 47 Tucanae is one of the most interesting, well-observed, and theoretically studied globular clusters. This allows us to determine the reliability of our understanding of white dwarf cooling sequences, to compare different methods of determining its age, and to assess other important characteristics, such as its star formation history. Aims. Here we present a population synthesis study of the cooling sequence of the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. In particular, we study the distribution of effective temperatures, the shape of the color-magnitude diagram, and the corresponding magnitude and color distributions. Methods. To do this, we used an up-to-date population synthesis...
Population Synthesis of Post-Common Envelope White-Dwarf-Main-Sequence Binaries in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey
- Torres Gil, Santiago; Camacho Díaz, Judit; Rebassa Mansergas, Alberto; Zorotovic, Mónica; Schreiber, Mathias R.; García-Berro Montilla, Enrique
We present preliminary results of detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the population of white dwarf-main sequence binary systems in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7). We have used the most up-to-date stellar evolutionary models, a complete treatment of the Roche lobe overflow episode, as well as a full implementation of the orbital evolution of the binary system. Moreover, we included the different selection criteria and observational biases within SDSS and examined the role played by the binding energy parameter and by the common envelope efficiency. Our Monte Carlo simulator correctly reproduces the properties of the observed...
Transitions between symmetric and nonsymmetric regimes in binary-mixture convection
- Meca Alvarez, Esteban; Mercader Calvo, María Isabel; Ramírez de la Piscina Millán, Laureano
We present here a comprehensive picture of the different bifurcations found for small to moderate Rayleigh number in binary-mixture convection with lateral heating and negative separation ratio (S). The present work connects the symmetric regime found for pure fluid (S=0)[Mercader et al 2005] with the fundamentally nonsymmetric regime found for S=-1 [Meca et al 2004a-2004b]. We give a global context as well as an interpretation for the different associations of bifurcations found, and in particular we interpret an association of codimension-two bifurcations in terms of a higher codimension
bifurcation never found, to our knowledge, in the study of an extended system.
Novel ionospheric activity indicator specifically tailored for GNSS users
- Sanz Subirana, Jaume; Juan Zornoza, José Miguel; González Casado, Guillermo; Prieto Cerdeira, Roberto; Schlüter, S.; Orús Pérez, Raul
This work introduces a novel ionospheric activity indicator useful for identifying disturbed periods affecting performance for GNSS users, at regional level. This indicator is based in the “Along Arc TEC Rate (AATR) and can be easily computed from GNSS data. The AATR indicator has been assessed over more than one Solar Cycle (2002-2013) involving 140 receivers distributed world-wide. Results show that it is well correlated with the ionospheric activity and, unlike other global indicators linked to the geomagnetic activity (i.e. DST, Ap), it is sensitive to regional behaviour the ionosphere and identifies specific effects on GNSS users. Moreover from a...
Super- and massive AGB stars - IV. Final fates initial-to-final mass relation
- Doherty, Carolyn L.; Gil Pons, Pilar; Siess, Lionel; Lattanzio, John C.; Lau, Herbert B.
We explore the final fates of massive intermediate-mass stars by computing detailed stellar models from the zero-age main sequence until near the end of the thermally pulsing phase. These super-asymptotic giant branch (super-AGB) and massive AGB star models are in the mass range between 5.0 and 10.0 M circle dot for metallicities spanning the range Z = 0.02-0.0001. We probe the mass limits M-up, M-n and M-mass, the minimum masses for the onset of carbon burning, the formation of a neutron star and the iron core-collapse supernovae, respectively, to constrain the white dwarf/electron-capture supernova (EC-SN) boundary. We provide a theoretical...
White dwarf evolutionary sequences for low-metallicity progenitors: The impact of third dredge-up
- Althaus, Leandro G.; Camisassa, Maria E; Miller Bertolami, Marcelo M; Corsico, Alejandro H.; García-Berro Montilla, Enrique
Context. White dwarfs are nowadays routinely used as reliable cosmochronometers, allowing several stellar populations to be dated.; Aims. We present new white dwarf evolutionary sequences for low-metallicity progenitors. This is motivated by the recent finding that residual H burning in low-mass white dwarfs resulting from Z = 0.0001 progenitors is the main energy source over a significant part of their evolution.; Methods. White dwarf sequences have been derived from full evolutionary calculations that take the entire history of progenitor stars into account, including the thermally pulsing and the post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phases.; Results. We show that for progenitor metallicities...
Constraining the double-degenerate scenario for Type Ia supernovae from merger ejected matter
- Levanon, Naveh; Soker, Noam; García-Berro Montilla, Enrique
We follow the mass expelled during the WD-WD merger process in a particular case of the double-degenerate (DD) scenario for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), and find that the interaction of the SN ejecta with the resulting wind affects the early (first day) light-curve in a way that may be in conflict with some SN Ia observations, if the detonation occurs shortly after the merger, i.e. (10(3) s less than or similar to t(exp) less than or similar to 1 d). The main source of the expelled mass is a disc-wind, or jets that are launched by the accretion disc...
White dwarf dynamical interactions
- Aznar Siguan, Gabriela
Merging white dwarfs is a promising channel to trigger Type Ia supernovae, known as the double degenerate scenario. Supernovae are stellar explosions that radiate as much energy as any ordinary star is expected to emit over its entire life span, outshining briefly the whole hosting galaxy. They enrich the interstellar medium with higher mass elements and trigger the formation of new stars by the produced expanding shock. Additionally, Type Ia supernovae have been used as standard candles and have allowed the discovery that the universe was expanding at an accelerating rate. Despite the important role that Type Ia supernovae play...
Super and massive AGB stars - III. nucleosynthesis in metal-poor and very metal-poor stars - Z = 0.001 and 0.0001
- Doherty, Carolyn L.; Gil Pons, Pilar; Lau, Herbert B.; Lattanzio, John C.; Siess, Lionel; Campbell, Simon W
We present a new grid of stellar models and nucleosynthetic yields for super-AGB stars with metallicities Z = 0.001 and 0.0001, applicable for use within galactic chemical evolution models. Contrary to more metal-rich stars where hot bottom burning is the main driver of the surface composition, in these lower metallicity models the effect of third dredge-up and corrosive second dredge-up also have a strong impact on the yields. These metal-poor and very metal-poor super-AGB stars create large amounts of 4He, 13C, 14N and 27Al as well as the heavy magnesium isotopes 25Mg and 26Mg. There is a transition in yield...