Evolution of Adaptive Behavior in Dynamic Environments - Nikolaus Almássy; Erik Vinkhuyzen
We use genetic algorithms to evolve behavioral properties of simulated autonomous vehicles. The traits of the robots that are being evolved include parameters and internal control mechanisms that drive the following-, approach- or avoidance behavior. A parallel steady state genetic algorithm is used to simulate natural evolution. We argue why we need evolutionary techniques to create adaptive behavior in dynamic environments.
Perceptron Redux: Emergence of Structure - Stewart W. Wilson
Perceptrons were evolved that computed a rather difficult nonlinear Boolean function. The results with this early and basic form of emergent computation suggested that when genetic search is applied to its structure, a perceptron can learn more complex tasks than is sometimes supposed. The results also suggested, in the light of related work on classifier systems, that to hasten the emergence of an emergent computation it is desirable to provide evaluative feedback at a level as close as possible to that of the constituent local computations.
Screening of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) for resistance to Fusarium circinatum, the causal agent of Pitch Canker disease - Vivas, María; Zas Arregui, Rafael; Solla Hach, Alejandro
Pitch canker, caused by the fungus Fusarium circinatum, is an introduced non-native disease on pines in natural and planted stands of Europe. Research has not been conducted to test whether a European native pine species shows genetic variation in susceptibility to this disease. Half-sib families from 39 Pinus pinaster clones and seedlings from one unimproved seed source (control) were evaluated for resistance. Pitch canker resistance was not genetically related to tree growth, but seed weight and germination rates were predictive of time-to-death. Heritabilities and associated genetic gains calculated from the greenhouse experiment were consistent, h2i = 0.18 and 0.45 for...
Efeito da suplementação com minerais injetáveis sobre parâmetros reprodutivos de fêmeas suínas - Reolon, Débora
Resumo: Avanços crescentes ocorreram na suinocultura, e se devem principalmente a pesquisas em genética, sanidade e nutrição. Neste último caso, dietas cada vez mais precisas visam estimular a fêmea a manifestar sua melhor produção. Porém, pouca atenção tem sido dada ao requerimento e uso de minerais em fêmeas de alta prolificidade. As indicações não levam em consideração fatores importantes como o peso do animal, a fase de gestação, número de partos e a fonte oferecida, se orgânica ou inorgânica. Desta forma, as fêmeas acabam recebendo doses menores do que sua necessidade, prejudicando o número e o peso dos animais nascidos....
Cancer immunotherapy and next-generation clinical immune assessment - Ma, Chao; Fan, Rong
The interplay between cancerous cells and immune cells has always been an intriguing topic in medicine and biology. Cancer cells emerge from self-cells through a series of genetic mutations. They often retain self-cells’ capacity in being exempt from immune surveillance. Therefore, bringing cancer cells back under the radar of immune system has long been considered as a necessary step toward complete tumor eradication and long-term antitumor protection. Based on this rationale, a series of immunotherapies were designed and many have shown promising results. Some have gone through multiple stages of clinical trials. As a result, a successful immunotherapy is an...
Magnetoestratigrafía de las unidades inferior e intermedia del Mioceno de la Cuenca de Madrid - Montes, M.; Beamud, B.; Garcés, M.; Calvo Sorando, José Pedro
En este trabajo se muestran los primeros datos magnetoestratigráficos de los sedimentos aluviales distales y lacustres del Mioceno de la Cuenca de Madrid. Se han estudiado cuatro secciones que representan la casi totalidad de las unidades secuenciales Inferior e Intermedia, con 185 m de potencia aproximada. La sucesión estratigráfica estudiada se extiende del cron C5Br al cron C5n, lo cual representa casi 6 Ma dentro del Mioceno medio y superior. Se ha estimado la duración en tiempo absoluto de las unidades genéticas de relleno mencionadas(unidades Inferior, Intermedia I, Intermedia II e Intermedia III) a partir de la cronología de sus...
The emergence of proton nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics in the cardiovascular arena as viewed from a clinical perspective - Rankin, Naomi J.; Preiss, David; Welsh, Paul; Burgess, Karl E.V.; Nelson, Scott M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Sattar, Naveed
The ability to phenotype metabolic profiles in serum has increased substantially in recent years with the advent of metabolomics. Metabolomics is the study of the metabolome, defined as those molecules with an atomic mass less than 1.5 kDa. There are two main metabolomics methods: mass spectrometry (MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy, each with its respective benefits and limitations. MS has greater sensitivity and so can detect many more metabolites. However, its cost (especially when heavy labelled internal standards are required for absolute quantitation) and quality control is sub-optimal for large cohorts. 1H NMR is less sensitive...
Correlation of Klebsiella pneumoniae Comparative Genetic Analyses with Virulence Profiles in a Murine Respiratory Disease Model - Fodah, Ramy A.; Scott, Jacob B.; Yan, Pearlly; Pfeffer, Tia L.; Bundschuh, Ralf; Warawa, Jonathan M.; Tam, Hok Hei
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a bacterial pathogen of worldwide importance and a significant contributor to multiple disease presentations associated with both nosocomial and community acquired disease. ATCC 43816 is a well-studied K. pneumoniae strain which is capable of causing an acute respiratory disease in surrogate animal models. In this study, we performed sequencing of the ATCC 43816 genome to support future efforts characterizing genetic elements required for disease. Furthermore, we performed comparative genetic analyses to the previously sequenced genomes from NTUH-K2044 and MGH 78578 to gain an understanding of the conservation of known virulence determinants amongst the three strains. We found...
Function of monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in α1-antitrypsin deficiency. - Van't Wout, EF; van Schadewijk, A; Lomas, DA; Stolk, J; Marciniak, SJ; Hiemstra, PS
α1-antitrypsin deficiency is the most widely recognised genetic disorder causing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Mutant Z α1-antitrypsin expression has previously been linked to intracellular accumulation and polymerisation of this proteinase inhibitor. Subsequently, this has been described to underlie an exaggerated endoplasmic reticulum stress response and enhanced nuclear factor-κB signalling. However, whether monocyte-derived macrophages display the same features remains unknown. Monocytes from homozygous PiZZ α1-antitrypsin deficiency patients and PiMM controls were cultured for 6 days in the presence of granulocyte-macrophage or macrophage colony-stimulating factor to obtain pro- and anti-inflammatory macrophages (mφ-1 and mφ-2, respectively). We first showed that, in contrast...
Genetic Control of Gene Expression at Novel and Established Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Loci. - Castaldi, PJ; Cho, MH; Zhou, X; Qiu, W; McGeachie, M; Celli, B; Bakke, P; Gulsvik, A; Lomas, DA; Crapo, JD; Beaty, TH; Rennard, S; Harshfield, B; Lange, C; Singh, D; Tal-Singer, R; Riley, JH; Quackenbush, J; Raby, BA; Carey, VJ; Silverman, EK; Hersh, CP
Genetic risk loci have been identified for a wide range of diseases through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but the relevant functional mechanisms have been identified for only a small proportion of these GWAS-identified loci. By integrating results from the largest current GWAS of chronic obstructive disease (COPD) with expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis in whole blood and sputum from 121 subjects with COPD from the ECLIPSE Study, this analysis identifies loci that are simultaneously associated with COPD and the expression of nearby genes (COPD eQTLs). After integrative analysis, 19 COPD eQTLs were identified, including all four previously identified genome-wide...
Mutations in SCN4A: A Rare but Treatable Cause of Recurrent Life-Threatening Laryngospasm. - Singh, RR; Tan, SV; Hanna, MG; Robb, SA; Clarke, A; Jungbluth, H
Laryngospasm is a rare but potentially life-threatening occurrence in infants and usually has infective, allergic, metabolic, or anatomic causes. Underlying genetic conditions are rarely considered. Mutations in SCN4A encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.4 have been implicated in a wide spectrum of neuromuscular disorders with variable onset, ranging from a rare form of congenital myasthenic syndrome to both hypokalemic and hyperkalemic forms of periodic paralysis and paramyotonia congenita. Here we report on 3 unrelated patients without family history presenting with recurrent, life-threatening episodes of laryngospasm from the first months of life. Clinical features more typically associated with SCN4A-related disorders such...