CP: Cloning and characterization of cellulose synthaselike gene, PtrCSLD2 from developing xylem of aspen trees. Physiol Plant 2004, 120:631-641. doi:10.1186/1471-2229-10-282 Cite this article as: Wang et al.: Expression profiling and integrative analysis
- Anita Samuga; Rashekhar P. Joshi
Genetic improvement of cell wall polymer synthesis in forest trees is one of the major goals of forest biotechnology that couldpossibly impacttheirendproductutilization.Identification of genes involved in cell wall polymer biogenesis is essential for achieving this goal. Among various candidate cell wall-related genes, cellulose synthase-like D (CSLD) genes are intriguing due to their hitherto unknown functions in cell wall polymer synthesis but strong structural similarity with cellulose synthases (CesAs) involved in cellulose deposition. Little is known about CSLD genes from trees. In the present article PtrCSLD2, a first CSLD gene from an economically important tree, aspen (Populus tremuloides) is reported. PtrCSLD2...
© BSRK & Springer-Verlag 2002 DNA Fingerprinting of Jute Germplasm by RAPD
- Mohammad Belayat Hossain; Samiul Haque; Haseena Khan
The genotype characteristic of cultivars was investigated, along with varieties of both of the jute species, Corchorus olitorius and Corchorus capsularis, in the germplasm collection at the Bangladesh Jute Research Institute (BJRI). DNA fingerprinting was generated for 9 different varieties and 12 accessions of jute cultivars by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). A total of 29 arbitrary oligonucleotide primers were screened. Seven primers gave polymorphism within the varieties, and 6 primers detected polymorphism within the accessions that were tested. A dendrogram was engendered from these data, and this gave a distinct clustering of the cultivated species of jute. Therefore,...
Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes: Clinical Relevance and Therapeutic Implications
- Chi-sin Changchien Md
The incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC) has been increasing in several coun-tries including Taiwan. There are six main genotypes, each of which contains closely related subtypes. Molecular epidemio-logical studies have shown marked differences in the genotype distribution by geographical region and between patient groups. HCV genotype 1 may play a role in the development of HCC, although some studies have argued against this. A sustained virological response secondary to interferon monotherapy or interferon/ribavirin combination therapy may reduce the risk of HCC and improve survival in chronic hepatitis C patients. The HCV genotypes are associated with therapeutic...
Evolution of ontogeny: linking epigenetic remodeling and genetic adaptation in skeletal structures
- Rebecca L. Young; Er V. Badyaev
Synopsis Evolutionary diversifications are commonly attributed to the continued modifications of a conserved genetic toolkit of developmental pathways, such that complexity and convergence in organismal forms are assumed to be due to similarity in genetic mechanisms or environmental conditions. This approach, however, confounds the causes of organismal development with the causes of organismal differences and, as such, has only limited utility for addressing the cause of evolutionary change. Molecular mechanisms that are closely involved in both developmental response to environmental signals and major evolutionary innovations and diversifications are uniquely suited to bridge this gap by connecting explicitly the causes of...
Genomics and Medicine: Distraction, Incremental Progress, or the Dawn of a New Age
- Richard S. Cooper; Bruce M. Psaty
The technology of molecular genetics has profoundly altered the conduct of biomedical research. An entire universe of problems that in the past had been addressed only through conjecture, including whole genome analysis, can now be studied directly. The rapidity and scope of these changes in research capacity have in turn led to speculation that medicine will be radically altered by the application of genomics to everyday practice. To date, gene therapy and several new tests for genetic susceptibility have been successfully implemented, although their impact on medicine as a whole remains very limited and their future contribution is hotly contested....
original article Shared Genetic Causes of Cardiac Hypertrophy in Children and Adults
- Hiroyuki Morita; Heidi L. Rehm; Ph. D; Andres Menesses; Barbara Mcdonough; Amy E. Roberts; Raju Kucherlapati; Ph. D; Jeffrey A. Towbin; J. G. Seidman; Ph. D; Christine E. Seidman; C. E. S. Howard; Hughes Med; For Genetics; Genomics (h. L. R; Drs J. G. Seidman; C. E. Seidman Con; N Engl; J Med
Open Access Developmental Plasticity, Genetic Differentiation, and Hypoxia-induced Trade-offs in an African Cichlid Fish
- Lauren Chapman; James Albert; Frietson Galis
Abstract: In this study we explore the possible role of phenotypic plasticity in the process of adaptation and evolutionary change in the African cichlid Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor victoriae. Parental fish were collected from a hypoxic swamp, a lake ecotone, and a river in Uganda. Broods (F1) were split and grown under hypoxia or normoxia. We measured mor-phological parameters of the gill apparatus, structural elements surrounding the gills, brain mass, and body shape. Most traits showed substantial plasticity in response to the rearing environment. Population effects were evident for the gill ap-paratus, surrounding elements, body shape, and brain size; however, brain size...
Design principles for riboswitch function
- Chase L. Beisel; Christina D. Smolke
Scientific and technological advances that enable the tuning of integrated regulatory components to match network and system requirements are critical to reliably control the function of biological systems. RNA provides a promising building block for the construction of tunable regulatory components based on its rich regulatory capacity and our current understanding of the sequence–function relationship. One prominent example of RNA-based regulatory components is riboswitches, genetic elements that mediate ligand control of gene expression through diverse regulatory mechanisms. While characterization of natural and synthetic riboswitches has revealed that riboswitch function can be modulated through sequence alteration, no quantitative frameworks exist to...
• Types of polymorphisms
- Jim Mullikin Phd; Genome Technology Branch; Elaine Ostrander; Karen Mohlke
– Described patterns of human genetic variation among and within populations, linkage disequilibrium and HapMap and how all this relates to the search for complex disease genes.
An integrated self-organizing map for the traveling salesman problem
- Hui-dong Jin; Kwong-sak Leung; Man-leung Wong
Abstract:- As a representative combinatorial optimization problem, the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) has attracted extensive research. In this paper, we develop a new Self-Organizing Map (SOM) network for the TSP and call it the Integrated SOM (ISOM) network. Its learning rule embodies the effective mechanisms of three typical learning rules. In its single learning activity, the excited neuron first is dragged close to the input city, and then is expanded towards the convex-hull of the TSP, and finally, it is drawn close to the middle point of its two neighbor neurons. The elaborate cooperation among these three learning mechanisms is...
Domains of human U4atac snRNA required for U12-dependent splicing in vivo
- Girish C. Shukla; Andrea J. Cole; Rosemary C. Dietrich; Richard A. Padgett
U4atac snRNA forms a base-paired complex with U6atac snRNA. Both snRNAs are required for the splicing of the minor U12-dependent class of eukaryotic nuclear introns. We have developed a new genetic suppression assay to investigate the in vivo roles of several regions of U4atac snRNA in U12-dependent splicing. We show that both the stem I and stem II regions, which have been pro-posed to pair with U6atac snRNA, are required for in vivo splicing. Splicing activity also requires U4atac sequences in the 5 ¢ stem±loop element that bind a 15.5 kDa protein that also binds to a similar region of...
Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Some Potato Varieties Grown in Bangladesh
- A. Haydar; M. B. Ahmed; M. M. Hannan; M. A. Razvy; M. Salahin; R. Karim; M. Hossain; Plant Breeding; Gene Engineering Laboratory
(TWt./P). The 30 potato genotypes were grouped into six clusters. The maximum diversity was contributed by tuber weight/plant. The cluster III and cluster IV contained the maximum number of genotype and the cluster I contained the minimum. The highest inter-cluster distance between cluster I and cluster VI followed by between cluster I and cluster v showing wide diversity among the groups. The highest intra-cluster distance was observed in cluster VI and lowest in cluster II. The inter cluster distance in most of the cases were higher than the intra-cluster distance indicating wider genetic diversity among the genotypes of different groups....
Endogenous information and Self-Insurance in Insurance Markets: a Welfare Analysis
- Francesca Barigozzi; Dominique Henriet
We analyze a model where decision-makers are initially uninformed of their risk type and can obtain such information by performing a costless test before insurance policy purchase. Information status can be con-cealed or revealed to insurers at the discretion of decision-makers. More-over, information has decision-making value since it allows to optimally choose a self-insurance action (secondary prevention). First insurers pro-pose contracts to decision-makers. Then, decision-makers decide whether to perform the test and, possibly, whether to show it to insurers. Then decision-makers accept a contract and, finally, they choose prevention. We focus, in particular, on the welfare properties of equilibria and...
Pharmacological suppression of premature stop mutations that cause genetic diseases
- K. M. Keeling; D. M. Bedwell
Abstract: Aminoglycoside antibiotics have long been used as antibacterial agents due to their ability to inhibit bacterial translation. However, aminoglycosides also stimulate translation errors in mammalian cells. Aminoglycosides bind to a pocket formed in a domain of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of the small ribosomal subunit that constitutes the decoding site in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Normally, accurate base pairing takes place between each successive codon and its cognate aminoacyl-tRNA within this region of the ribosome. When aminoglycosides bind to the decoding site, a conformational change decreases discrimination between cognate and near-cognate tRNAs, leading to errors in the decoding process....
Conditions for the Trivers±Willard hypothesis to be valid: a minimal population-genetic model
- N. V. Joshi
Centre for Ecological Sciences
DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erg303 REVIEW ARTICLE Transition metal transporters in plants
- J. L. Hall; Lorraine E. Williams
Transition metals such as Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn are essential minerals for normal plant growth and devel-opment, although they can be toxic when present in excess. Thus, for healthy plant growth, a range of transition metals must be acquired from the soil, dis-tributed around the plant, and their concentrations carefully regulated within different cells and orga-nelles. Membrane transport systems are likely to play a central role in these processes. The application of powerful genetic and molecular techniques has now identi®ed a range of gene families that are likely to be involved in transition metal transport. These include the heavy...
Adaptive radiation in microbial microcosms
- R. Craig Maclean
One of the most prominent features in the history of life is adaptive radiation, the simultaneous evolution of genetic and ecological diversity in a single lineage. Celebrated examples of adaptive radiation include the
P.: A Cellular MultiObjective Genetic Algorithm for Optimal Broadcasting Strategy in Metropolitan MANETs. In: IPDPS-NIDISC’05
- E. Alba; B. Dorronsoro; F. Luna; A. J. Nebro; P. Bouvry
Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are composed of a set of communicating devices which are able to spon-taneously interconnect without any pre-existing infrastruc-ture. In such scenario, broadcasting becomes an operation of capital importance for the own existence and operation of the network. Optimizing a broadcast strategy in MANETs is a multi-objective problem accounting for three goals: reaching as many stations as possible, minimizing the net-work utilization, and reducing the makespan. In this pa-per, we study the fine-tuning of broadcast strategies by us-ing a cellular multi-objective genetic algorithm (cMOGA) that computes a Pareto front of the solutions to empower a human designer...
2005 Is the dysbindin gene (DTNBP1) a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia? Schizophr
- Nigel M. Williams; Michael C. O’donovan; Michael J. Owen
has emerged as one of the most promising candidate genes for schizophrenia. In this article, we review the current ge-netic evidence that implicatesDTNBP1 as a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene. While there is now impressive support from genetic association studies, it is important to remain aware that the actualDTNBP1 susceptibility variants have not been identified. While functional analyses have allowed us to speculate their likely function, only when they are identified will we be able to confidently specify the type of altered gene function that is relevant to schizophrenia pathogenesis. This we hope will then open up new vistas for neurobiological research, allowing...
EDITORIAL Déja ̀ Vu for Breast Cancer Two?
- Vered Stearns; Nancy E. Davidson
Women with early-stage breast cancer face three late breast cancer consequences: disease recurrence within the conserved breast, development of a contralateral breast cancer, and mani-festation of distant metastases. Although local therapy with surgery and radiotherapy is used to minimize the first possibility, adjuvant systemic therapy may theoretically reduce the likeli-hood of all three events. In the absence of locoregional or distant metastases, a contralateral breast cancer in a breast cancer sur-vivor is generally regarded as a new cancer rather than a man-ifestation of disease recurrence. Several small studies have sug-gested that a woman’s second breast cancer is likely to resemble...