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Nomenclatura Unesco > (24) Ciencias de la Vida > (2409) Genética
(2409.01) Embriología (2409.02) Ingeniería genética
(2409.03) Genética de poblaciones (2409.90) Citogenética animal
(2409.91) Genética del desarrollo (2409.92) Genética molecular de plantas
(2409.93) Genética molecular (2409.94) Genética molecular de levaduras
(2409.99) Otras (especificar)

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(3201.02) Genética clínica (2410.07) Genética humana
(2407.02) Citogenética

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 236,431

1. Ecological and genetic determinants of Pepino mosaic virus emergence - Moreno Pérez, Manuel Guillermo; Pagán Muñoz, Jesús Israel; Aragón Caballero, Liliana; Cáceres, Fátima; Fraile Pérez, Aurora; García Arenal, Fernando
Virus emergence is a complex phenomenon, which generally involves spread to a new host from a wild host, followed by adaptation to the new host. Although viruses account for the largest fraction of emerging crop pathogens, knowledge about their emergence is incomplete. We address here the question of whether Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) emergence as a major tomato pathogen worldwide could have involved spread from wild to cultivated plant species and host adaptation. For this, we surveyed natural populations of wild tomatoes in southern Peru for PepMV infection. PepMV incidence, genetic variation, population structure, and accumulation in various hosts were...

2. The TWEAK-Fn14 dyad is involved in age-associated pathological changes in skeletal muscle - Tajrishi, Marjan M.; Sato, Shuichi; Shin, Jonghyun; Zheng, Timothy S.; Burkly, Linda C.; Kumar, Ashok
Progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia) is a major clinical problem in the elderly. Recently, proinflammatory cytokine TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 were identified as key mediators of muscle wasting in various catabolic states. However, the role of the TWEAK-Fn14 pathway in pathological changes in skeletal muscle during aging remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the levels of Fn14 are increased in skeletal muscle of 18-month old (aged) mice compared with adult mice. Genetic ablation of Fn14 significantly increased the levels of specific muscle proteins and blunted the age-associated fiber atrophy in mice. While gene...

3. Genetic Analysis of Riboswitch-mediated Transcriptional Regulation Responding to Mn2+ in Salmonella* - Shi, Yixin; Zhao, Guang; Kong, Wei
Background: Divalent cation binding to riboswitch RNAs regulates expression of their transporter genes in bacteria.

4. A Disease-causing Mutation Illuminates the Protein Membrane Topology of the Kidney-expressed Prohibitin Homology (PHB) Domain Protein Podocin* - Schurek, Eva-Maria; Völker, Linus A.; Tax, Judit; Lamkemeyer, Tobias; Rinschen, Markus M.; Ungrue, Denise; Kratz, John E.; Sirianant, Lalida; Kunzelmann, Karl; Chalfie, Martin; Schermer, Bernhard; Benzing, Thomas; Höhne, Martin
Background: Mutations in the stomatin family protein podocin are the most common genetic cause of proteinuria.

5. Estabelecimento de um protocolo de sincronização da ovulação para transferência de embriões em tempo fixo para o Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Gado Leiteiro no Estado do Acre. - SATRAPA, R.; VIANA, J.; DANTAS, F. L.; MARCELINO, R. R.; VASCONCELOS, N. L.; LUCKENR, M. N.; ESTEVES NETO, J.; CARNEIRO JUNIOR, J. M.; SATRAPA, R. A.; CAVALCANTE, F. A.
O rebanho leiteiro do Acre é composto de animais de baixo padrão genético com índices produtivos diários em torno de 3 kg a 5 kg de leite por vaca, sendo alimentado exclusivamente a pasto. A genética inferior do rebanho e a baixa produtividade impedem que a pecuária leiteira acriana se destaque no cenário nacional. Grande parte do leite produzido no estado é oriunda de pequenas propriedades leiteiras. Para que esse segmento da pecuária tenha um bom desempenho, faz-se necessário adotar biotécnicas reprodutivas, visando introduzir espécies adaptadas aos trópicos, com a finalidade de formar a médio prazo um rebanho de leite...

6. Mecanismos bioquímicos, fisiológicos e moleculares relacionados com a eficiência de uso de nitrogênio em leguminosas e gramíneas. - ALCANTARA, R. M. C. M. de; SOUSA, S. R. de; XAVIER, G. R.; ROCHA, M. de M.; RUMJANEK, N. G.
Absorção do nitrogênio pelas plantas; Assimilação do nitrogênio pelas plantas; Ação das enzimas na eficiência de uso do nitrogênio; Identificação de genes relacionados à eficiência de uso do nitrogênio; Genes envolvidos na absorção do nitrato; Genes envolvidos na absorção do amônio; Estudos genéticos da eficiência de uso do nitrogênio; Variação da eficiência de uso de nitrogênio em gramíneas e leguminosas.

7. Mecanismos bioquímicos, fisiológicos e moleculares relacionados com a eficiência de uso de nitrogênio em leguminosas e gramíneas. - ALCANTARA, R. M. C. M.; SOUSA, S. R. de; XAVIER, G. R.; ROCHA, M. de M.; RUMJANEK, N. G.
Absorção do nitrogênio pelas plantas; Assimilação do nitrogênio pelas plantas; Ação das enzimas na eficiência de uso do nitrogênio; Identificação de genes relacionados à eficiência de uso do nitrogênio; Genes envolvidos na absorção do nitrato; Genes envolvidos na absorção do amônio; Estudos genéticos da eficiência de uso do nitrogênio; Variação da eficiência de uso de nitrogênio em gramíneas e leguminosas.

8. Proliferation of Fibroblasts Cultured From Normal Gingiva and Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis Is Dependent on Fatty Acid Synthase Activity - Almeida, J.P.; Della Coletta, Ricardo; Silva, S.D.; Agostini, M.; Vargas, P.A.; Bozzo, L.; Graner, E.
Background: Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is the enzyme that synthesizes palmitate from malonyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA. Recent studies have shown that FAS is overexpressed in human cancers and that its activity is necessary for cell proliferation. Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) is a genetic disease manifested as a progressive enlargement of the gingiva. The pathogenesis of this condition is not understood; however, a proliferative advantage of HGF fibroblasts in comparison with cells from normal gingiva (NG) has been described. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of FAS in NG and HGF fibroblast proliferation. Methods: NG and HGF fibroblasts had...

9. Association of Interleukin-1 Polymorphisms With Periodontal Disease - López, Néstor J.; Jara, Lilian; Valenzuela, Carlos Y.
Background: Several studies have investigated genetic polymorphisms for cytokines as potential genetic markers for periodontitis. Some studies have found that interleukin (IL)-1A and IL-1B polymorphisms are associated with a higher severity of periodontitis, while others found no association. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of the IL-1A−889 and IL-1B+3954 (previously described as +3953) polymorphisms in Chileans and their association with periodontitis. Methods: Subjects aged 20 to 48 were selected from people requesting dental treatment at a public health center in Santiago, Chile. A case-control study of 330 cases of periodontitis patients and 101 healthy controls was performed....

10. Síndromes Poliendocrinos Autoinmunes - Marín, Marta Elena; Martinez, Jesus Alfonso
Los síndromes poliglandulares se caracterizan por la afección de varios órganos endocrinos asociados a una enfermedad autoinmunitaria. Se clasifican en cuatro grupos: síndrome poliglandular autoinmune tipo I (SPA-I) el cual está asociado a mutaciones en el gen regulador autoinmune (AIRE), más común en niños y comprende la asociación de candidiasis mucocutánea, hipoparatiroidismo e insuficiencia adrenal; el SPA-II asociado a un patrón genético (HLA DR3/DR4) es más común en adultos jóvenes y se caracteriza por insuficiencia adrenal asociada a enfermedad tiroidea autoinmune y/o diabetes mellitus tipo I; y el SPA-III comprende la enfermedad tiroidea autoinmune asociada a otra enfermedad que no...

11. Que hace a un campeón? Explicando la variaciones en el desempeño deportivo en humanos - Gaviria Arias, Duverney; Aguilar Fernández, Enrique
La variación en el desempeño deportivo de los humanos es determinada por un complejo sistema de interacciones de diversos componentes tales como socio-culturales, psicológicos y fisiológicos, los cuales a su vez se ven controlados tanto por elementos ambientales como genéticos. Aunque la clásica dicotomía gene-ambiente es una aproximación demasiado simplista para comprender en total las variaciones de los principales determinantes del rendimiento deportivo. En otras palabras los genes y el ambiente interaccionan no solo a corto plazo sino también en el tiempo de vida de un organismo con efectos permanentes en el fenotipo del adulto. Este artículo se enfoca en...

12. Envejecimiento: teorías y aspectos moleculares - Gaviria Arias, Duverney
El envejecimiento es un proceso deletéreo, progresivo, intrínseco y universal que con el tiempo ocurre en todo ser vivo a consecuencia de la interacción de la genética del individuo y su medio ambiente. Con el fin de explicar de manera aceptable este proceso se ha planteado una gran cantidad de teorías, que no han podido dar una definición y descripción completa de este proceso. La visión que la expectatativa de vida de un organismo se encuentra intrínsecamente limitada y que es en gran medida especie especifica, necesariamente involucra ciertas nociones de los elementos genéticos de regulación. En la especie humana...

13. Juicio y realidad - Gallo, Héctor
Este texto se ocupa de articular la noción de sujeto a conceptos esenciales de la metapsicología freudiana, tales como juicio, pulsión, realidad y represión. Estas nociones, relacionadas con el concepto lacaniano de forclusión, enfatizan el aspecto estructural del sujeto sobre la dimensión genética.  Juicio y pulsión son los dos términos que de principio a fin se ponen en discusión, sin dejar de consignar la nueva dimensión del sujeto que la vertiente freudiana de la denegación pone en juego.

14. Molecular phylogenetics and historical biogeography of the west-palearctic common toads (Bufo bufo species complex) - García Porta, Joan; Litvinchuk, S. N.; Crochet, Pierre-André; Romano, Antonio; Geniez, Philippe; Lo-Valvo, M.; Lymberakis, Petros; Carranza, Salvador
In most pan-Eurasiatic species complexes, two phenomena have been traditionally considered key processes of their cladogenesis and biogeography. First, it is hypothesized that the origin and development of the Central Asian Deserts generated a biogeographic barrier that fragmented past continuous distributions in Eastern and Western domains. Second, Pleistocene glaciations have been proposed as the main process driving the regional diversification within each of these domains. The European common toad and its closest relatives provide an interesting opportunity to examine the relative contributions of these paleogeographic and paleoclimatic events to the phylogeny and biogeography of a widespread Eurasiatic group. We investigate...

15. New metabolomics approaches for transgenic food analysis based on capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry - León, Carlos; García-Cañas, Virginia; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro
At present, one of the principal research lines in Food Science and Technology is the development of new functional foods. A food can be considered „„functional‟‟ if, besides its nutritious effects, it can improve the state of health or well-being or reduce some disease risk. In our laboratory, we have studied for years different natural sources of functional ingredients including plants, spices, algae, etc. Nowadays, the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has seen a great increase in agriculture and food industry. Thus, genetic engineering is mainly used to improve resistance of crops to plagues or pesticides. However, in the...

16. The conserved foot domain of RNA pol II associates with proteins involved in transcriptional initiation and/or early elongation - García-López, M. Carmen; García Martínez, Alicia; Calvo, Olga
RNA polymerase (pol) II establishes many protein-protein interactions with transcriptional regulators to coordinate different steps of transcription. Although some of these interactions have been well described, little is known about the existence of RNA pol II regions involved in contact with transcriptional regulators. We hypothesize that conserved regions on the surface of RNA pol II contact transcriptional regulators. We identified such an RNA pol II conserved region that includes the majority of the >foot> domain and identified interactions of this region with Mvp1, a protein required for sorting proteins to the vacuole, and Spo14, a phospholipase D. Deletion of MVP1...

17. Molecular tools for species discrimination and detection of hybridization between two closely related Clupeid fishes Alosa alosa and A. fallax - Faria, Rui; Pinheiro, Aluisio; Gabaldón, Toni; Weiss, Steven; Alexandrino, Paulo
Revealing the distinction between natural and human-mediated hybridization is critical for implementing adequate conservation strategies. To discriminate between two shad species, Alosa alosa and A. fallax, and to assess levels of hybridization between them, we developed two independent genetic markers (cytochrome b and a nuclear fragment with putative functional relevance) using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). The genotyping of two contiguous discriminative nuclear SNPs was further confirmed using a Taqman RT PCR assay. Both methodologies are shown to be very informative for species discrimination and reveal the occurrence of varying levels of introgression between European shads. In the Lima River,...

18. Molecular population genetics of the OBP83 genomic region in Drosophila subobscura and D. guanche: contrasting the effects of natural selection and gene arrangement expansion in the patterns of nucleotide variation - Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Rozas, Julio
Chromosomal inversion polymorphism play a major role in the evolutionary dynamics of populations and species because of their effects on the patterns of genetic variability in the genomic regions within inversions. Though there is compelling evidence for the adaptive character of chromosomal polymorphisms, the mechanisms responsible for their maintenance in natural populations is not fully understood. For this type of analysis, Drosophila subobscura is a good model species as it has a rich and extensively studied chromosomal inversion polymorphism system. Here, we examine the patterns of DNA variation in two natural populations segregating for chromosomal arrangements that differentially affect the...

19. Zooplancton de ambientes acuáticos de la cuenca del río Salado (Buenos Aires): estudio de las relaciones interespecíficas y principales factores de control mediante experiencias de laboratorio y microcosmos - Ferrando, Noelia Soledad
En el desarrollo de esta tesis se han cultivado y establecido las tasas de crecimiento de dos especies de algas clorofíceas comúnmente utilizadas como cultivos en laboratorio (Chlorella vulgaris y Scenedesmus acutus) y en experimentos con organismos herbívoros por ser. Se ajustó y optimizó la técnica de recuento digitalizado de células algales de manera de hacer más eficiente el procesamiento de datos en la fase de experimentación y se relacionó la densidad del alga con la turbidez mediante un modelo lineal que permitió el monitoreo inmediato de los cultivos, siendo una técnica innovadora y con la posibilidad de ampliar su...

20. Rastreamento genético do carcinoma medular de tireóide: identificação de mutações no protooncogene "ret" - Punãles, Márcia Khaled
O carcinoma medular de tireóide (CMT) é responsável por 5 a 8% dos tumores malignos da tireóide, ocorrendo na forma esporádica (80%) ou hereditária (20%). O CMT hereditário é uma doença autossômica dominante, maligna, de difícil diagnóstico clinico-laboratorial precoce e de alta mortalidade, podendo apresentar-se como componente das síndromes de Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla (NEM 2A e 2B) ou Carcinoma Medular de Tireóide Familiar (CMTF) ou outras formas (famílias não incluídas nas formas anteriores). A síndrome genética NEM 2A se caracteriza por CMT (95%), feocromocitoma (30-50%) e hiperparatireoidismo (10-20%). De acordo a alguns autores e baseando-se na apresentação clínica, a síndrome...

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