Fuzzy inductive reasoning: a consolidated approach to data-driven construction of complex dynamical systems - Nebot Castells, M. Àngela; Múgica Álvarez, Francisco
Fuzzy inductive reasoning (FIR) is a modelling and simulation methodology derived from the General Systems Problem Solver. It compares favourably with other soft computing methodologies, such as neural networks, genetic or neuro-fuzzy systems, and with hard computing methodologies, such as AR, ARIMA, or NARMAX, when it is used to predict future behaviour of different kinds of systems. This paper contains an overview of the FIR methodology, its historical background, and its evolution.
Heterogeneous pathological outcomes after experimental pH1N1 influenza infection in ferrets correlate with viral replication and host immune responses in the lung - Vidaña, Beatriz; Martínez, Jorge; Martínez-Orellana, Pamela; García Migura, Lourdes; Montoya, María; Martorell, Jaime; Majó, Natàlia
The swine-origin pandemic (p) H1N1 influenza A virus causes mild upper-respiratory tract disease in most human patients. However, some patients developed severe lower-respiratory tract infections with fatal consequences, and the cause of these infections remain unknown. Recently, it has been suggested that different populations have different degrees of susceptibility to pH1N1 strains due to host genetic variations that are associated with inappropriate immune responses against viral genetic characteristics. Here, we tested whether the pathologic patterns of influenza strains that produce different disease outcomes in humans could be reproduced in a ferret model. Our results revealed that the severities of infection...
C9orf72 Nucleotide Repeat Structures Initiate Molecular Cascades of Disease - Haeusler, Aaron R.; Donnelly, Christopher J.; Periz, Goran; Simko, Eric A.J.; Shaw, Patrick G.; Kim, Min-Sik; Maragakis, Nicholas J.; Troncoso, Juan C.; Pandey, Akhilesh; Sattler, Rita; Rothstein, Jeffrey D.; Wang, Jiou
A hexanucleotide repeat expansion (HRE), (GGGGCC)n, in C9orf72 is the most common genetic cause of the neurodegenerative diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Here we identify a molecular mechanism by which structural polymorphism of the HRE leads to ALS/FTD pathology and defects. The HRE forms DNA and RNA G-quadruplexes with distinct structures and promotes RNA•DNA hybrids (R-loops). The structural polymorphism causes a repeat length-dependent accumulation of transcripts aborted in the HRE region. These transcribed repeats bind to ribonucleoproteins in a conformationdependent manner. Specifically, nucleolin (NCL), an essential nucleolar protein, preferentially binds the HRE G-quadruplex, and patient cells...
A Novel Excitatory Paraventricular Nucleus to AgRP Neuron Circuit that Drives Hunger - Krashes, Michael J.; Shah, Bhavik P.; Madara, Joseph C.; Olson, David P.; Strochlic, David E.; Garfield, Alastair S.; Vong, Linh; Pei, Hongjuan; Watabe-Uchida, Mitsuko; Uchida, Naoshige; Liberles, Stephen D.; Lowel, Bradford B.
Hunger is a hard-wired motivational state essential for survival. Agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) at the base of the hypothalamus are crucial to its control. They are activated by caloric deficiency and, when naturally or artificially stimulated, they potently induce intense hunger and subsequent food intake1-5. Consistent with their obligatory role in regulating appetite, genetic ablation or pharmacogenetic inhibition of AgRP neurons decreases feeding3,6,7. Excitatory input to AgRP neurons is key in caloric-deficiency-induced activation, and is notable for its remarkable degree of caloric state-dependent synaptic plasticity8-10. Despite the important role of excitatory input, its source(s) has...
Herbal medicines in Brazil: pharmacokinetic profile and potential herb-drug interactions. - Mazzari, AL; Prieto, JM
A plethora of active compounds found in herbal medicines can serve as substrate for enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. When a medicinal plant is co-administered with a conventional drug and little or no information is known about the pharmacokinetics of the plant metabolites, there is an increased risk of potential herb-drug interactions. Moreover, genetic polymorphisms in a population may act to predispose individuals to adverse reactions. The use of herbal medicines is rapidly increasing in many countries, particularly Brazil where the vast biodiversity is a potential source of new and more affordable treatments for numerous conditions. Accordingly, the...
Food and feed potential breeding value of green, dry and vegetable pea germplasm - Santalla Ferradás, Marta; Amurrio, J.M.; Ron Pedreira, Antonio Miguel de
[EN] Pea is an important grain legume and vegetable in the South of Europe where it is
grown on small farms and gardens using traditional varieties and methods during the winter. Variability in old, unimproved varieties needs to be determined in order to create useful genetic variation for broadening the narrow genetic base of commercial cultivars and for making efficient use of available resources. One hundred and four unimproved pea varieties and ten elite cultivars were evaluated in 1991 and 1992 at two locations for seed and vegetable quality, canopy and agronomic traits. Significant genotype by environment (G ´ E) interactions...
Evolution of the European bean from their American ancestors - Fuente Martínez, María de la; Ron Pedreira, Antonio Miguel de; Rodiño Míguez, Ana Paula; Santalla Ferradás, Marta
Microsatellite markers have been enough proved to be ideal markers to distinguish the fine-scale relationships within bean gene pools and between lines or populations in many species (Kwan and Gepts 2009, Diaz and Blair et al. 2006, 2007). They may help to reveal the history of bean introduction in the Iberian Peninsula and its widespread to other countries of the Mediterranean area.
This research could help to give support, with experimental data derived from microsatellite polymorphisms to the existence of a new European genetic pool in common bean. Increasing the knowledge about the variability of the Mediterranean bean genotypes is essential...
Brown bear connectivity assessed through habitat models and landscape genetics - Mateo Sanchez, Maria Cruz
La mejora de la conectividad del paisaje se ha convertido en un objetivo fundamental de numerosas iniciativas para la conservación de la vida salvaje en todo el mundo. Este es en particular el caso del oso pardo (Ursus arctos) en la Cordillera Cantábrica, donde vive la única población de osos autóctonos aún existente en la Península Ibérica. Esta población, amenazada con la extinción, cuanta con aproximadamente 200 individuos divididos en dos subpoblaciones separadas por una franja de territorio de unos 40 km con baja permeabilidad a los movimientos de la especie. La conservación a largo plazo del oso pardo pasa...
Production of recombinant a-amylase from Bacillus subtilis by Kluyveromyces lactis - Nascimento, Bruno Motta
Abstract: Amylolytic enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis or the modification of starch structure. Many organisms are able to produce these enzymes, but only a few of them exhibit satisfactory characteristics for industrial application. The most common commercial a-amylases with desirable industrial characteristics are produced by bacteria from the genus Bacillus. Although the yield of a-amylase produced by these bacterial strains can be increased with culture optimization, the recombinant production of the enzyme could offer some advantages such as easier genetic manipulation/mutation, inducible expression, faster production, higher yields and easier purification steps. The present work proposes the production of a recombinant a-amylase...