Multi-objective design optimization of morphing UAV aerofoil/wing using hybridised MOGA - Lee, DongSeop; Gonzalez, L F.; Periaux, Jacques; Bugeda Castelltort, Gabriel
The paper investigates two advanced Computational Intelligence Systems (CIS) for a morphing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle(UAV) aerofoil/wing shape design optimisation. The first CIS uses Genetic Algorithm (GA) and the second CIS uses Hybridized GA (HGA) with the concept of Nash-Equilibrium to speed up the optimisation process. During the optimisation, Nash-Game will act as
a pre-conditioner. Both CISs; GA and HGA, are based on Pareto optimality and they are coupled to Euler based Computational Fluid
Dynamic (CFD) analyser and one type of Computer Aided Design(CAD) system during the optimisation.
Microsatélites, distancias genéticas y estructura de poblaciones nativas sudamericanas - Demarchi, Darío Alfredo
In this study the genetic relationships among 17 South American native populations are investigated using 15 autosomal STRs, and 3 genetic distances-DST, DA, and (du)2 -that conform to different theoretical models. Several analytical techniques (multidimensional scaling, correlation and partial correlation matrices analyses) were employed to test whether or not genetic distances reflect the intergroup affi nities expected from geographical or linguistic relationships. Additionally, it was investigated to what extent the different measures of genetic distances were influenced by the diversity (He) of each population. The genetic maps show (principally for the case of DST y DA) that isolated populations with...
La divergencia genética entre poblaciones del Área Andina Centro Meridional evaluada mediante rasgos no métricos del cráneo - Cocilovo, José Alberto; Varela, Héctor Hugo; O'Brien, Tyler G.
For more than 10,000 years, the south central Andean region was an ideal location for the development of different populations and cultural entities, interacting through a wide network of exchange and distribution of products. In spite of this level of interaction, the available metric information (Bolivia, North of Chile, and Northwest of Argentina) showed a strong process of genetic divergence (FST = 0.195) among the sub-regions (Varela et al., 2008). This evidence is contrasted in the present work by means of the analysis of a sample of 1416 individuals of both sexes, covering a span of 4500 years. Twelve non-metric...
Mezcla génica y linajes uniparentales en Comodoro Rivadavia (provinvia de Chubut, Argentina) - Dugoujon, Jean Michel; Carnese, Francisco R.; Avena, Sergio Alejandro; Parolín, María Laura; Dejean, Cristina Beatriz; Ríos Part, María C.; Fabrikant, Gabriela; Goicoechea, Alicia Susana
The aim of this article is to estimate the genetic composition of the population of Comodoro Rivadavia (CR) and to compare the data with those obtained previously in the Area Metropolitana de Buenos Aires (AMBA) and Bahía Blanca (BB). The study was performed on 72 unrelated donors. Five erythrocyte genetic markers, Gm allotypes, mtDNA and Y chromosome DYS199 locus were analysed. An inquiry was performed to obtain information about the place of birth, present residence and genealogical data. The gene frequencies were calculated using a method of maximum likelihood and for mitochondrial haplogroups and DYS199 locus direct count was used....
Genomic and darwinian medicine - Salzano, Francisco M.
Genomic and darwinian medicine deal with the application of hereditary and evolutionary principles for the understanding of health and disease. The progress in molecular and bioinformatic knowledge is making possible through a holistic approach to biological phenomena and one aspect of it, host-pathogen coevolution, is discussed with examples of research performed by our group. The search for the etiology of genetic diseases can focus on simple traits with mendelian inheritance or in more complex multifactorial characteristics, as well as in nuclear or mitochondrial DNA genes. Also important is the investigation of genetically conditioned variation in response to drugs (pharmacogenomics) and...
Mate choice and homogamy in Salta - Albeza, María V.; Acreche, Noemí
Effective migration is estimated in genetic demography from migrants in reproductive age, considering that their descendents are part of the population, in which the coefficient assortative mating is not considered. In the H coefficient, different combinations of mates were considered (both born in the studied locality, one of them migrant, both migrants). H was calculated in 11 populations from Salta, five of them are in the Puna, five in the Calchaqui Valley and three in the Lerma Valley, one from Tucumán and one from Catamarca. H varied from -0,3464 (El Pichao-Valle Calchaquí, Tucumán) to 0,787 (Cobres-Puna, Salta). Negative H values...
Relaciones genéticas en localidades de Salta, Argentina: ¿qué reflejan las medidas de distancia? - Albeza, María V.; Acreche, Noemí; Ramon, María M.; Picornell, Antonia; Castro Ocón, José A.
Different genetic distance coefficients were estimated from eleven autosomic STRs in five populations of Salta (Argentina) and several dendrograms were constructed. Some published data were incorporated, rising the number of populations to sixteen. The number of loci in this case was small (nine). Results do not reflect the expected relationships according to geographic proximities. Mantel test indicates lack of correlation with the geographic distance (0,23 < r < 0,40), with significance levels between 0,22 and 0,98 this is because the genetic distances did not have relation with the geographic proximity. There were no correlations between STR and other genetic markers...
La encrucijada de la teoría sintética: expansionismo o nueva síntesis teórica - Dressino, Vicente
The current debate in evolutionary biology focuses on the contributions of epigenetics, on the conceptual changes of the term "gene" and its impact on the synthetic theory of evolution. In this sense, there are two main streams. On one hand, some authors support the expansion of the theory through the addition of new disciplines such as epigenetics and evo-devo. On the other hand, the supporters of resynthesis propose the need of a new theory without the theoretical assumptions of the previous one. The expansionists are based on the preconception that any concept or discipline added can be assimilated to the...
Genetic architecture and ecological speciation in Heliconius butterflies - Merrill, Richard
It is now widely accepted that adaptation to different ecological niches can result in the evolution of new species. However, when gene flow persists speciation must overcome the antagonism between selection and recombination: Specifically, if gene flow persists, recombination will break down the genetic associations between alleles that characterise emerging species and cause reproductive isolation. Accordingly, genetic architectures that impede recombination can slow the breakdown of linkage disequilibrium and facilitate speciation.
Mimicry in tropical butterflies has long been championed as an example of adaptation driving speciation. In the Neotropical genus Heliconius, distantly related pairs of unpalatable species often converge on the...
Transthoracic echocardiography reference values in juvenile and adult 129/Sv mice - Vinhas, Maurícia; Araújo, Ana Carolina; Ribeiro, Sónia; Rosário, Luís Brás; Belo, José António
Background In the recent years, the use of Doppler-echocardiography has become a standard non-invasive technique in the analysis of cardiac malformations in genetically modified mice. Therefore, normal values have to be established for the most commonly used inbred strains in whose genetic background those mutations are generated. Here we provide reference values for transthoracic echocardiography measurements in juvenile (3 weeks) and adult (8 weeks) 129/Sv mice.
Methods Echocardiographic measurements were performed using B-mode, M-mode and Doppler-mode in 15 juvenile (3 weeks) and 15 adult (8 weeks) mice, during isoflurane anesthesia. M-mode measurements variability of left ventricle (LV) was determined.
Results Several echocardiographic measurements significantly...
Avaliação genética sob heterogeneidade de variância residual dentro de tratamentos - Martinez, Diego Tyszka
O objetivo dos programas de melhoramento é maximizar o ganho genético para características de valor econômico, com o uso de modelos estatísticos específicos, considerando o delineamento utilizado, buscando alta precisão experimental e acurácia seletiva elevada. Atualmente, o uso de modelos mistos tem sido mais indicado em programas de melhoramento genético, através da metodologia da máxima verossimilhança restrita (REML) para estimar os componentes de variância e melhor predição linear não viciada (BLUP), para a predição dos valores genéticos, pois atendem a situações de dados balanceados e desbalanceados. O BLUP considera os componentes de variância para todos os genótipos de forma igual....
Avaliação e recuperação de Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden atingido por geadas em Campo do Tenente, PR - Higa, Rosana Clara Victoria
Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos dos danos causados por geadas, ocorridas em junho de 1994, num teste de progênie de meio-irmãos de Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden, plantado em fevereiro de 1993 em Campo do Tenente, PR. O clima da região é classificado como submontano úmido e muito úmido com ocorrência de até 40 geadas por ano. O experimento foi constituído de 40 progênies originadas de matrizes amostradas em populações naturais na Austrália e duas progênies provenientes de sementes de árvores selecionadas no local e usadas como testemunhas. O delineamento usado foi de blocos casualizados com seis repetições e...
Avaliação da adaptabilidade e da estabilidade fenotipica de progenies de Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell, introduzidas da Australia - Davide, Antonio Claudio, 1953-
O presente trabalho trata do estudo da adaptação e estabilidade de progênies de Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell, procedentes da Austrália e plantadas em 11 locais. As avaliações de altura, DAP e sobrevivência foram realizadas com 1, 2 e 3 anos em7, 11 e 7 locais, respectivamente.
O conjunto das progênies testadas apresentou melhor desempenho em Esplanada - BA, mas também demonstrou potencial para ser plantado em Aracruz - ES, Belo Oriente - MG, Brotas - SP, Mogi Guaçu - SP Inhambupe - BA. Nos demais locais (São Jerônimo-SP, Altinópolis - SP, Boa Esperança do Sul - SP, João Pinheiro - MG...
Aumento da produçao de sementes geneticamente melhoradas de Acacia mearnsii De Wild. (Acácia-Negra) no Rio Grande do Sul - Mora, Admir Lopes
Acacia mearnsii De Wild, é uma espécie florestal australiana, plantada principalmente na África do Sul e Brasil, sendo aqui conhecida como acácia-negra ou mimosa. É uma das espécies florestais de maior importância social e industrial para o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Vem sendo plantada comercialmente desde 1930 e, atualmente, estima-se que participa com um terço do total das plantações florestais existentes no Estado. Somente a partir de 1983 é que se iniciaram os trabalhos de melhoramento genético da espécie no Brasil. Em função do fato de que, atualmente, cerca de mais de dois terços das sementes utilizadas nos...
A hepatitis C virus cis-acting replication element forms a long-range RNA-RNA Interaction with upstream RNA sequences in NS5B - Diviney, S.; Tuplin, A.; Struthers, M.; Armstrong, V.; Elliott, R.M.; Simmonds, P.; Evans, D.J.
The genome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) contains cis-acting replication elements (CREs) comprised of RNA stem-loop structures located in both the 5′ and 3′ noncoding regions (5′ and 3′ NCRs) and in the NS5B coding sequence. Through the application of several algorithmically independent bioinformatic methods to detect phylogenetically conserved, thermodynamically favored RNA secondary structures, we demonstrate a long-range interaction between sequences in the previously described CRE (5BSL3.2, now SL9266) with a previously predicted unpaired sequence located 3′ to SL9033, approximately 200 nucleotides upstream. Extensive reverse genetic analysis both supports this prediction and demonstrates a functional requirement in genome replication. By...
Separate roles of PKA and EPAC in renal function unraveled by the optogenetic control of cAMP levels in vivo - Efetova, M.; Petereit, L.; Rosiewicz, K.; Overend, G.; Haussig, F.; Hovemann, B.T.; Cabrero, P.; Dow, J.A.T.; Schwarzel, M.
Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a ubiquitous second messenger that regulates a variety of essential processes in diverse cell types, functioning via cAMP-dependent effectors such as protein kinase A (PKA) and/or exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (EPAC). In an intact tissue it is difficult to separate the contribution of each cAMP effector in a particular cell type using genetic or pharmacological approaches alone. We, therefore, utilized optogenetics to overcome the difficulties associated with examining a multicellular tissue. The transgenic photoactive adenylyl cyclase bPAC can be activated to rapidly and reversibly generate cAMP pulses in a cell-type-specific manner. This optogenetic approach...