Inheritance of antibiosis to Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in maize - Cartea González, María Elena; Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana; Butrón Gómez, Ana María; Vales, M.I.; Ordás Pérez, Amando
The stem borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre) is the main pest of maize, Zea mays L., in northwestern Spain. The inheritance of the stalk resistance to this maize borer is unknow. The objective of this work was to study the inheritance of antibiosis to Sesamia in maize stalks. Three maize inbreds with different stalk resistance levels to S. nonagrioides were used and 2 crosses were made: CM109 × EP31 (resistant × medium resistant) and CM109 × EP42 (resistant × susceptible). For each cross, 6 generations, consisting of the P1, P2, F1, F2, and backcrosses (BC1 and BC2), were evaluated for 2...
The prediction of carcass composition and tissue distribution in beef cattle using ultrasound scanning at the start and/or end of the finishing period - Lambe, N. R.; Ross, D. W.; Navajas, E. A.; Hyslop, J. J.; Prieto, Nuria; Craigie, C.; Bunger, L.; Simm, G.; Roehe, R.
Ultrasound tissue depths, similar to those measured commercially as part of UK beef genetic evaluation schemes, were measured on 52 crossbred steers and 10 heifers at the start and end of the finishing period (average age 476 and 568 days, respectively). Animals were slaughtered at commercial target weights and carcass grades, and one carcass side fully dissected. Combining live weights and ultrasound tissue depths measured both before and after finishing provided the best predictions of carcass composition. Dissected fat weights and proportions in the carcass side, the forequarter and the hindquarter were predicted with high accuracy (R-2 similar to 0.8),...
Mitochondrial genomes of Trichinella species and genotypes – a basis for diagnosis, and systematic and epidemiological explorations - Mohandas, Namitha; Pozio, Edoardo; La Rosa, Giuseppe; Korhonen, Pasi K.; Young, Neil D.; Koehler, Anson V.; Hall, Ross S.; Sternberg, Paul W.; Boag, Peter R.; Jex, Aaron R.; Chang, Bill; Gasser, Robin B.
In the present study we sequenced or re-sequenced, assembled and annotated 15 mitochondrial genomes representing the 12 currently recognised taxa of Trichinella using a deep sequencing-coupled approach. We then defined and compared the gene order in individual mitochondrial genomes (∼14 to 17.7 kb), evaluated genetic differences among species/genotypes and re-assessed the relationships among these taxa using the mitochondrial nucleic acid or amino acid sequence data sets. In addition, a rich source of mitochondrial genetic markers was defined that could be used in future systematic, epidemiological and population genetic studies of Trichinella. The sequencing-bioinformatic approach employed herein should be applicable to...
R3 receptor tyrosine phosphatases: Conserved regulators of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and tubular organ development - Jeon, Mili; Zinn, Kai
R3 receptor tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) are characterized by extracellular domains composed solely of long chains of fibronectin type III repeats, and by the presence of a single phosphatase domain. There are five proteins in mammals with this structure, two in Drosophila and one in Caenorhabditis elegans. R3 RPTPs are selective regulators of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling, and a number of different RTKs have been shown to be direct targets for their phosphatase activities. Genetic studies in both invertebrate model systems and in mammals have shown that R3 RPTPs are essential for tubular organ development. They also have important functions...
Grupos de diabéticos : Uma hipótese de estudo - Ventura, António G.
O autor, depois de definir e caracterizar a diabetes
insulinodependente, menciona a necessidade de análise
factorial das variáveis «genética» e ((traumatismo
». Seguidamente, focaliza-se no vivido emocional
do sujeito no momento do diagnóstico e apresenta uma
hipótese de intervenção psicológica, ainda experimental,
no diabético insulinodependente.
Targeting mTOR dependency in pancreatic cancer - Morran, Douglas C.; Wu, Jianmin; Jamieson, Nigel B.; Mrowinska, Agata; Kalna, Gabriela; Karim, Saadia A.; Au, Amy Y.M.; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Chang, David K.; Pajak, Malgorzata Z.; Oien, Karin A.; McKay, Colin J.; Carter, C Ross; Gillen, Gerry; Champion, Sue; Pimlott, Sally L.; Anderson, Kurt I.; Evans, T.R. Jeffrey; Grimmond, Sean M.; Biankin, Andrew V.; Sansom, Owen J.; Morton, Jennifer P.
Objective: Pancreatic cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in the Western world. Current chemotherapy regimens have modest survival benefit. Thus, novel, effective therapies are required for treatment of this disease.
Design: Activating KRAS mutation almost always drives pancreatic tumour initiation, however, deregulation of other potentially druggable pathways promotes tumour progression. PTEN loss leads to acceleration of KrasG12D-driven pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in mice and these tumours have high levels of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling. To test whether these KRAS PTEN pancreatic tumours show mTOR dependence, we compared response to mTOR inhibition in this model, to the response...
Advantages and disadvantages of conditional systems for characterization of essential genes in Toxoplasma gondii - Jimenez-Ruiz, Elena; Wong, Eleanor H.; Pall, Gurman S.; Meissner, Markus
The dissection of apicomplexan biology has been highly influenced by the genetic tools available for manipulation of parasite DNA. Here, we describe different techniques available for the generation of conditional mutants. Comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of the three most commonly used regulation systems: the tetracycline inducible system, the regulation of protein stability and site-specific recombination are discussed. Using some previously described examples we explore some of the pitfalls involved in gene-function analysis using these systems that can lead to wrong or over-interpretation of phenotypes. We will also mention different options to standardize the application of these techniques for...
Economic valuation of farm animal genetic resources: methods and applications to indigenous cattle in Kenya - Ruto, Eric
There is increasing global concern about the potential long term consequences of loss of domestic animal diversity. International agreements such as the Convention on Biological Diversity encourage the design of policies that convey economic incentives for conservation of genetic resources employed in agriculture. Of particular interest is the situation in developing countries where on one hand, livestock make the greatest contribution to human livelihoods and food security while on the other, genetic erosion has placed many adapted breeds that survive well in low input agriculture and extreme environments, typical of these countries, at risk of loss. An important goal is...
Economic valuation of animal genetic resources: a case study of indigenous cattle in Kenya - Ruto, Eric; Garrod, Guy; Scarpa, Riccardo
There is increasing global concern about the potential long term consequences of the loss of domestic animal biodiversity. Of particular interest is the situation in Africa where on one hand, livestock make the greatest contribution to human livelihoods while on the other, genetic erosion has placed important indigenous breeds at risk of extinction. Economic valuation of these animal genetic resources (AnGR) would improve decision making regarding their conservation and sustainable utilisation. This paper investigates the valuation of indigenous cattle in Kenya, an example of a genetic resource at risk. Using data from a stated choice experiment survey conducted in Kenya’s...
Familial Aggregation of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL). A Case Report - Loves, Sandra SCM; de Haan, Lieuwe; Daenen, Simon MGJ
A family is reported in which three male siblings of Asian descent developed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Case 1 was diagnosed with indolent follicular lymphoma stage IIIA at age 45. Case 2 presented with large B-cell lymphoma stage IIB at age 56. Chromosomal investigation of the peripheral blood did not show abnormalities. Chemotherapy induced a complete remission. However, after a period of nearly ten years he developed acute myeloid leukaemia. Case 3 developed large B-cell lymphoma stage IVA at age 52. Cytogenetic analysis in peripheral blood was normal. Shared genetic and environmental risk factors remain to be identified in this family....
Establishing a Cancer Genetics Programme in Asia - the Singapore Experience - Chieng, Wei-Shieng; Lee, Soo-Chin
Cancer genetics is now an established oncology subspecialty with the primary prevention role of identifying high-risk individuals through genetic information for enrolment into screening and preventive programmes. Integrated into major Western centres since the late 1990s, such a programme has been established in Singapore since 2001. Our programme has evaluated 367 index patients comprising mainly breast and colorectal cancer cases. Cancer patients were receptive to genetic counselling, but cost posed a major barrier to genetic testing. However, when the cost barrier was removed through government subsidy plans, more than half of high-risk patients still declined testing. The major barriers were...
Structural and Functional Impact of Cancer Related Missense Somatic Mutations - Shi, Zhen; Moult, John
A number of large scale cancer somatic genome sequencing projects are now identifying genetic alterations in cancers. Evaluation of the effects of these mutations is essential for understanding their contribution to tumorigenesis. We have used SNPs3D, a software suite originally developed for analyzing non-synonymous germ line variants, to identify single base mutations with a high impact on protein structure and function. Two machine learning methods are used, one identifying mutations that destabilize protein three dimensional structure, and the other utilizing sequence conservation, and detecting all types of effects on in vivo protein function. Incorporation of detailed structure information into the...
Polymorphisms of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 2 gene are associated with obesity phenotypes among 405 Caucasian nuclear families - Zhao, Lan-Juan; Xiong, Dong-Hai; Pan, Feng; Liu, Xiao-Gang; Recker, Robert R.; Deng, Hong-Wen
The plasma level of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 2 (TNFR2) is associated with obesity phenotypes. However, the genetic polymorphisms for such an association have rarely been explored and are generally unknown. In this study, by employing a large sample of 1,873 subjects from 405 Caucasian nuclear families, we explored the association of 12 SNPs of the TNFR2 gene and obesity-related phenotypes, including body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and percentage fat mass (PFM). The within-family quantitative transmission disequilibrium test, which is robust to sample stratification, was implemented to evaluate the association of TNFR2 gene with obesity phenotypes. Evidence of...
Antisaccade performance in schizophrenia patients, their first-degree biological relatives, and community comparison subjects: Data from the COGS study - Radant, Allen D.; Dobie, Dorcas J.; Calkins, Monica E.; Olincy, Ann; Braff, David L.; Cadenhead, Kristin S.; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F.; Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.; Light, Gregory A.; Meichle, Sean P.; Millard, Steve P.; Mintz, Jim; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Seidman, Larry J.; Siever, Larry J.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Stone, William S.; Swerdlow, Neal R.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Tsuang, Debby W.
The antisaccade task is a widely used technique to measure failure of inhibition, an important cause of cognitive and clinical abnormalities found in schizophrenia. Although antisaccade performance, which reflects the ability to inhibit prepotent responses, is a putative schizophrenia endophenotype, researchers have not consistently reported the expected differences between first-degree relatives and comparison groups. Schizophrenia participants(n=219) from the large Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) sample (n=1078) demonstrated significant deficits on an overlap version of the antisaccade task compared to their first-degree relatives (n=443) and community comparison subjects (CCS; n=416). Although mean antisaccade performance of first-degree relatives was intermediate...