PITCH ANGLE DIFFUSION OF LOW-ENERGY ELECTRONS BY WHISTLER MODE WAVES - JOHNSTONE, AD; WALTON, DM; LIU, R; HARDY, DA
It has often been argued that electrons with energy below approximately 10 keV cannot be pitch-angle diffused by whistler mode waves because they have less than a critical minimum parallel energy. We show that there is no theoretical justification for an energy threshold based on the grounds of either resonance or instability and present energy/pitch angle plots from the low energy plasma analyzer (LEPA) on the CRRES spacecraft which support this analysis because they have features to be expected from a whistler mode interaction. This shows that whistler mode diffusion is responsible for a substantial amount of low-energy electron precipitation...
DNA methylation map of mouse and human brain identifies target genes in Alzheimer’s disease - Sanchez-Mut, Jose V.; Aso, Ester; Panayotis, Nicolas; Lott, Ira; Dierssen, Mara; Rabano, Alberto; Urdinguio, Rocio G.; Fernandez, Agustin F.; Astudillo, Aurora; Martin-Subero, Jose I.; Balint, Balazs; Fraga, Mario F.; Gomez, Antonio; Gurnot, Cecile; Roux, Jean-Christophe; Avila, Jesus; Hensch, Takao K.; Ferrer, Isidre; Esteller, Manel
The central nervous system has a pattern of gene expression that is closely regulated with respect to functional and anatomical regions. DNA methylation is a major regulator of transcriptional activity, and aberrations in the distribution of this epigenetic mark may be involved in many neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Herein, we have analysed 12 distinct mouse brain regions according to their CpG 5’-end gene methylation patterns and observed their unique epigenetic landscapes. The DNA methylomes obtained from the cerebral cortex were used to identify aberrant DNA methylation changes that occurred in two mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease. We were...
Capital humano, falências empresariais e produtividades. uma análise empírica das regiões portuguesas - Teixeira, Aurora A. C.; Costa Vieira, Pedro Cosme da
Some micro evidence demonstrated that plants which
tended to hire workers with higher levels of human
capital were those that, on average, presented a
lower probability of survival. However, at the macro
level the bulk of studies found a positive relation
between human capital accumulation and productivity
dynamics. In the present paper we try to match the
micro and macro evidence resorting to a theoretical
argument, which translates the schumpeterian issue
of creative destruction. Empirical results based
on data relative to 28 NUTs and 275 Portuguese
municipalities between 1990-1999 demonstrate that
regions that present higher levels of human capital
are those that, on average, have higher levels of
per capita income and higher firms...
"Green" amino acid-based surfactants - Morán, María del Carmen; Pinazo Gassol, Aurora; Pérez, Lourdes; Clapés Saborit, Pere; Angelet, Marta; García Ramón, María Teresa; Vinardell, M. Pilar; Infante, María Rosa
The value of amino acids and vegetable oil derivatives as raw materials for the preparation of surfactants was recognized as soon as they were discovered early in the last century. Amino acid-based surfactants, which have an amino acid residue as a hydrophilic moiety, are reviewed with respect to their synthesis, properties and some applications. The review covers three main categories of amino acid-based surfactants: N-acyl, N-alkyl amide and O-alkyl ester derivatives among the linear or single chain amino acid-based surfactants; N, N-bis(N-acylarginine),-alkylendiamides, which are gemini amino acid-based surfactants; and 1-monoacyl-rac-glycero-3-O-(N-acetyl-L-amino acid) and 1,2-diacyl-rac-glycero-3-O-(N-acetyl-L-amino acid), both amino acid-based surfactants with glycerolipid-like...
Effect of zolpidem in chronic disorders of consciousness: a prospective open-label study. - Thonnard, Marie; Gosseries, Olivia; Demertzi, Athina; Lugo, Z; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Chatelle, Camille; Thibaut, Aurore; Charland-Verville, Vanessa; Habbal, D; Schnakers, Caroline; Laureys, Steven
Zolpidem has been reported as an "awakening drug" in some patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). We here present the results of a prospective openlabel study in chronic DOC patients. Sixty patients (35±15 years; 18 females; mean time since insult ± SD: 4±5.5 years; 31 with traumatic etiology) with a diagnosis of vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (n=28) or minimally conscious state (n=32) were behaviorally assessed using the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) before and one hour after administration of 10 mg of zolpidem. At the group level, the diagnosis did not change after intake of zolpidem (p=0.10) and CRS-R total scores...
Assessing consciousness in coma and related states using transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography. - Gosseries, Olivia; Thibaut, Aurore; Boly, Mélanie; Rosanova, M; Massimini, M; Laureys, Steven
Thanks to advances in medical care, an increased number of patients recover from coma. However, some remain in vegetative/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome or in a minimally conscious state. Detection of awareness in severely brain-injured patients is challenging because it relies on behavioral assessments, which can be affected by motor, sensory and cognitive impairments of the patients. Other means of evaluation are needed to improve the accuracy of the diagnosis in this challenging population. We will here review the different altered states of consciousness occurring after severe brain damage, and explain the difficulties associated with behavioral assessment of consciousness. We will then...
The histone deacetylase SIRT2 stabilizes Myc oncoproteins - Liu, P Y; Xu, N; Malyukova, A; Scarlett, C J; Sun, Y T; Zhang, X D; Ling, D; Su, S-P; Nelson, C; Chang, D K; Koach, J; Tee, A E; Haber, M; Norris, M D; Toon, C; Rooman, I; Xue, C; Cheung, B B; Kumar, S; Marshall, G M; Biankin, A V; Liu, T
Myc oncoproteins are commonly upregulated in human cancers of different organ origins, stabilized by Aurora A, degraded through ubiquitin–proteasome pathway-mediated proteolysis, and exert oncogenic effects by modulating gene and protein expression. Histone deacetylases are emerging as targets for cancer therapy. Here we demonstrated that the class III histone deacetylase SIRT2 was upregulated by N-Myc in neuroblastoma cells and by c-Myc in pancreatic cancer cells, and that SIRT2 enhanced N-Myc and c-Myc protein stability and promoted cancer cell proliferation. Affymetrix gene array studies revealed that the gene most significantly repressed by SIRT2 was the ubiquitin–protein ligase NEDD4. Consistent with this finding,...