Printed in Great Britain The Medical Officer of Health in England and
- John Welshman
The recent revival of interest in the potential of preventive medicine, reflected in its re-emergence as a medical specialism and in monitoring and campaigning activity at the local level, has been accompanied by growing interest in the history of public health. In particular, the work of the Medical Officers of Health (MOsH), the doctors appointed by many local authorities after 1850, has come under closer scrutiny. However, whereas historians have acknowledged that the MOsH played a key role in tackling environmental health and infectious disease in the second half of the nineteenth century, judgements have been less favourable for the...
- Susan E. Aromaa; Introductionanara Guard; C Marc Belanger; David L. Rosenbloom; Ph. D. C
Results. Visitors completed online alcohol screening questionnaires at a rate of 50,711/year of 115,925 visitors/year. In a 14-month period, Preventive Medicine 39 (2039,842 adults completed the questionnaire about their own drinking habits; 66 % were men, 90 % reported drinking hazardous amounts (per occasion or typical weekly amounts), 88 % reported binge (per occasion) drinking, and 55 % reported typically exceeding weekly risky drinking limits. Most (65%) had alcohol screening test results (AUDIT z 8) consistent with alcohol abuse or dependence; similar proportions of women and men were hazardous drinkers. One-fifth of visitors visited portions of the Web site that...
Serum Mitochondrial Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity: Not Useful as a Marker of Excessive Alcohol Consumption in an Unselected Population
- Yves Artur; Abdoireza Varasteh; Maria Weliman; Gerard Sleet
Using an immunochemical method, we measured the activity of the mitochondrial isoenzyme (mAST) of aspartate amino-transferase (EC 220.127.116.11, AST) in the serum of 687 subjects attending the Centre for Preventive Medicine for a health examination. The distributions of the activities were asym-metrical, with mean values of 1.8 U/L (SD 2.0) for men and 1.4 U/L (SD 1.6) for women. The average ratio of mitochon-dnal to total AST activity was 0.051 (range 0-0.42). In this unselected population we found no change in the mitochon-drial activity or in the mitochondrial-to-total ratio attributable to alcohol consumption, even in subjects who consumed more than...
- Mark Lemstra Phd; Cory Neudorf; Md Frcpc Mhsc; Johnmark Opondo; Md Mph; Jennifer Toye; Bsc Md; Ayisha Kurji; Bsc Md; Anton Kunst Phd; Ceal Tournier; M Lemstra; C Neudorf; J Opondo; Immunizations Paediatr Child Health
Few measures in preventive medicine are of such provenvalue and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious disease (1). Unfortunately, infectious dis-ease outbreaks were observed in Canada for measles from
With the technical assistance of Sergcnnt C. G. Heilmann, and Privates First
- Tions In; A. Neomaculipalpus; A. Apicimacula; A. Eisenil; James Stevens Sixmons
The experience of the United States Army with malaria in the Panama Canal Zone presents an apparently paradoxical situation. The spectacular reduction in this disease which was brought about by General Gorgas, his associates and successors, is prop-erly recognized as one of the great achievementi in Preventive Medicine. However, the fact remains that a large proportion of the malaria which has occurred in our Army since 1912 has been contracted by troops on duty in the Canal Zone. During 1933, for example, the annual admission rates per- 1000 strength for malaria among United States troops were as follows: total Army...
5 Azienda Mediterranea Gas e Acqua S.p.A., Genoa JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE AND HYGIENE 2003; 44: 95-104
- Key Words
Drinking water contaminants and adverse pregnancy outcomes: results obtained in Genoa in the frame of a multicentre case-control study carried out in Italy
5 day enrofloxacin treatment on Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium DT104 in the pig. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
- K. Et Al. Longitudinal; David A. Green
serological responses to Salmonella enterica of growing pigs in a subclinically infected herd. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 60, 207–26. 4. Katouli, M., Melin, L., Jensen-Waern, M. et al. (1999). The effect of zinc oxide supplementation on the stability of the intestinal flora with special reference to composition of coliforms in weaned pigs. Journal
Commentary Physical activity in the elderly—it is never too late!
- S. H. Song
The number of elderly people is growing rapidly. By 2050, Europe will have twice as many older people (aged above 60 years) as children.1 With more people living longer, the major causes of death have changed from infectious to non-communicable diseases and from younger to older individuals. In industrialized nations, 75 % of deaths in individ-uals aged above 65 years are attributable to cardio-vascular disease and malignancy.2 Unsurprisingly, ageing is the most important contributor to the increase in health care costs. Improvements in preventive medicine and health care have increased the life expectancy in adult and elderly populations. This demographic...
- Micobacterias Dilab; C. C. Moro N; Fundacio N Mundo Marino; Direccio N De Laboratorios; Pu Blica Y Medicina; Preventiva Facultad De
Tuberculosis de la
Antioxidant activity and anti-tumor immunity by Agaricus, Propolis
- Yeun-hwa Gu
Various previously intractable diseases have been overcome by the development of many new medicines. However, cancer is still a major cause of death. In the process of carcinogenesis, a multistep accumulation of gene mutations causes malignant transformation, and the probability of gene mutations is different depending on genetic and environmental factors. Individual differences are found in the susceptibility to cancer, and prevention of carcinogenesis is possible. In South America, natural products with unknown drug effects are used as folk remedies and for preventive medicine. Among South American natural products, we directed our attention to Agaricus, Propolis and Paffia, which have...
Basic elements of an infection control program.
- United States.
General Accounting Office.
Editorials 84 Bulletin of the World Health Organization | February 2008, 86 (2)
doi:10.2471/BLT.07.046680 For a disease to be suitable for screening as a tool of preventive medicine, it must satisfy the following criteria: (1) the evidence of an obvious burden of the disease, (2) an initial latent stage of the condition, (3) which can be detected by appropriate tests, (4) and treated by adequate therapy, and finally (5) to prove that intervention at an early stage can improve prognosis.1 Rheumatic fever is a delayed sequel to throat infection by a group A strepto-coccus. More than one third of affected children develop carditis, followed
May CTC technologies promote better cancer management?
- Pesta, Martin; Kulda, Vlastimil; Narsanska, Andrea; Fichtl, Jakub; Topolcan, Ondrej
In the case of cancer, death is usually not due to the primary tumor itself but due to dissemination. Analysis of the circulating tumor cells (CTCs), i.e., cells responsible for a formation of metastases, should provide information useful for the management of cancer patients, fulfilling the objectives of predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine (PPPM). Despite promising results, the decisions on stage of disease and how to guide the adjuvant treatment still do not include results of CTC assessment. We want to describe two major reasons why the recent diagnostic value of CTC analysis is not sufficient for clinical use. The...
nita ol of ance edicin Preventive Medicine 40 (20Background. Overall incidence of breast cancer is slightly lower, but mortality rates are higher, for Black women compared to White women. Higher body mass index (BMI), sedentary lifestyles, and lower compliance with recommended breast health behaviors may contribute to higher risk and mortality. Methods. A randomized pilot intervention trial was conducted to assess feasibility and efficacy of a combined breast health/weight loss intervention for 64 overweight or obese Black women, ages 35–65. The primary objectives were to determine whether a 20-week (twice weekly) intervention could decrease weight and dietary fat intake and...
rom fo all, forma erfor f Illin Approximately 40 % of adults in the United States report Exercise intensity is a crucial component of exercise prescription that may be related to exercise adherence in at Preventive Medicine 38 (20current physical activity recommendations of 30 min of daily moderate activity , only 15 % participate in activities of sufficient intensity, duration, and frequency to improve or maintain cardiorespiratory fitness , and 50 % of those who start an exercise program drop out during the first 6–12 months . According to the 1998–1999 Progress Review of the Healthy People 2000 program, over...
Prevención. La educación, clave para reducir el riesgo en el hogar
«Lo mejor es no subirse a los sitios». Medio en broma medio en serio responde Fernando Rodríguez Artalejo, catedrático de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, cuando se le pregunta por las políticas de prevención de accidentes domésticos.
Predictors of Transitions in Vitality: The Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging
- Nadia Minicuci; Chiara Marzari; Stefania Maggi; Marianna Noale; Antonella Senesi; Gaetano Crepaldi
It is widely acknowledged that there is a strong need to identify which modifiable risk factors predict healthy aging to use this information as the scientific basis for systematic interventions. Data from a 4-year longitudinal study on aging among 5632 older Italians were used. The definition of vitality was based on both cognitive and physical status, and the envisaged transitions were: positive or nonpositive stable, positive or negative transition, lost, and deceased. Predictors associated with different vitality trajectories were investigated by multinomial logistic analysis with a six-level outcome. Age and educational level were predictors of being ‘‘positive stable,’ ’ whereas...
High Injury Rates Among Female Army Trainees A Function of Gender?
- Bruce H. Jones
Background: Studies suggest that women are at greater risk than men for sports and training injuries. This study investigated the association between gender and risk of exercise-related injuries among Army basic trainees while controlling for physical fitness and demographics. Methods: Eight hundred and sixty-one trainees were followed during their 8-week basic training course. Demographic characteristics, body composition, and physical fitness were mea-sured at the beginning of training. Physical fitness measures were taken again at the end of training. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between gender and risk of injury while controlling for potential confounders. Results:...
1 CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY: WHAT, WHO AND WHITHER
- David L. Sackett
Clinical epidemiology, the what, was introduced by John Paul in 1938 as a new basic science for preventive medicine. Its definition subsequently took on a more bedside tone, but continues to be adapted to the needs of its practitioners. Clinical epidemiology, the who, centers on Alvan Feinstein and the way that he led the field and nurtured so many of its practitioners. Clinical epidemiology, the whither, describes its more recent development and its impact on five evolutions and revolutions: in evidence generation, its rapid critical appraisal, its efficient storage and retrieval, evidence-based medicine, and evidence synthesis. For someone who loved...
Popay J: The role and theoretical evolution of knowledge translation and exchange in public health
- Rebecca Armstrong
Background There is an increased emphasis in public health research on effective models and strategies to support knowledge translation (KT), the exchange, synthesis and ethically sound application of research findings within a complex set of interactions among researchers and knowl-edge users. In other words, KT can be seen as an acceleration of the knowledge cycle—an acceleration of the natural transformation of knowledge into use (Canadian Institutes of Health Services Research. Knowledge Translation Strategy, 2004). The most recent conceptualizations consider the complexities of public health decision-making. The role of practitioners and communities is increasingly considered. Methods We identify, describe and discuss...