Ongoing data from the breast cancer prevention trials: opportunity for breast cancer risk reduction - Vogel, Victor G
Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) reduce the risk of recurrence of invasive breast cancer and the incidence of first breast cancers in women who are at increased risk. Multiple, randomized clinical trials have shown both the efficacy and safety of SERMs in reducing the risk of breast cancer. Long-term follow-up as long as 20 years in the randomized trials shows persistent efficacy with acceptable safety. Hormone replacement therapy given concurrently with tamoxifen abrogates its preventive effect, but women with atypical hyperplasia derive particular benefit from SERM therapy. Aromatase inhibitors also reduce the risk of developing invasive breast cancer, but the experience...
Diseases of modern life / - Richardson, Benjamin Ward,
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Applicability of the New American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment, and its Implication on Statins in an Argentine Population - Benozzi, Silvia Fabiana; Buffone, Ignacio; Lombán, Verónica Í.; Pennacchiotti, Graciela Laura
Introducción El nuevo score propuesto por el American College of Cardiologyy la American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) para calcular el riesgo cardiovascular (RCV) ha generado controversias. Algunos estudios sugieren que sobreestima el riesgo, aumentando la indicación de estatinas en la población. Objetivos Evaluar el RCV, en una población argentina, mediante la aplicación de las tablas de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) y de la ACC/AHA, analizar la concordancia entre ellas y su relevancia en la indicación de estatinas. Material y métodos Se obtuvieron datos clínicos y bioquímicos de 183 personas adultas, de ambos sexos, que concurrieron al Servicio de...
Efectos a largo plazo de las vacunaciones a temprana edad - Odent, Michel
The original aim of this study was to correlate breast feeding versus artificial feeding with several pathologies. In the course of the study carried over 446 children (mean age 7,87 years, we found a significative correlation (p = 0,0005) between antidiphteric vaccination and «asthma» or «other infections». There was als o an important relationship between pertussis vaccine anda higher prevalence of ear infections. Actually, we know well about short term complications of massive vaccinatios, but still remain unknown medium and long term effects. We must change the concept of preventive medicine, that today is applied exclusively to specific illnesses, towards...
Gut Microbiota: The Next-Gen Frontier in Preventive and Therapeutic Medicine? - Nagpal, Ravinder; Yadav, Hariom; Marotta, Francesco
Our gut harbors an extremely diverse collection of trillions of microbes that, besides degrading the complex dietary constituents, execute numerous activities vital for our metabolic and immune health. Although the importance of gut microbiota in maintaining digestive health has long been believed, its close correlation with numerous chronic ailments has recently been noticed, thanks to the innovative mechanistic studies on the compositional and functional aspects of gut microbial communities using germ-free or humanized animal models. Since a myriad of mysteries about the precise structures and functions of gut microbial communities in specific health situations still remains to be explicated, the...
Behavior change, health, and health disparities: An introduction - Higgins, Stephen T.
This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) focuses on behavior change, health, and health disparities, topics of fundamental importance to improving population health in the U.S. and other industrialized countries. While the U.S. health care system and those of other industrialized countries were developed to manage infectious disease and acute illnesses, it is chronic health conditions that most need to be understood and managed in the 21st century. The evidence is clear that personal behavior patterns like cigarette smoking and physical inactivity/obesity are critically important proximal causes of chronic disease (cardiovascular disease, site-specific cancers, type-2 diabetes) and as such behavior...
Monocyte-Targeting Supramolecular Micellar Assemblies: A Molecular Diagnostic Tool for Atherosclerosis - Chung, E. J.; Nord, K.; Sugimoto, M. J.; Wonder, E.; Tirrell, M.; Mlinar, L. B.; Alenghat, F. J.; Fang, Y.
Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial inflammatory disease that can progress silently for decades and result in myocardial infarction, stroke, and death. Diagnostic imaging technologies have made great strides to define the degree of atherosclerotic plaque burden through the severity of arterial stenosis. However, current technologies cannot differentiate more lethal “vulnerable plaques,” and are not sensitive enough for preventive medicine. Imaging early molecular markers and quantifying the extent of disease progression continues to be a major challenge in the field. To this end, monocyte-targeting, peptide amphiphile micelles (PAMs) are engineered through the incorporation of the chemokine receptor CCR2-binding motif of monocyte chemoattractant...
Interdisciplinary communication of infectious disease research – translating complex epidemiological findings into understandable messages for village chicken farmers in Myanmar - Henning, Joerg; Hla, Than; Meers, Joanne
Improvement in animal disease control and prevention is dependent on several factors including farmers’ uptake of new technologies and skills, particularly in developing countries. Extension is the means by which information about these technologies and skills is delivered to farmers, in order that they can use this knowledge to improve farming practices and their quality of life. This implies a shift from traditional methods to new science-based methods of production. However, in many developing countries farmers are illiterate and unable to understand written outcomes of scientific research. This paper summarizes approaches to communicate epidemiological findings and reports on experiences obtained...
Capturing the complexity of first opinion small animal consultations using direct observation - Robinson, N. J.; Brennan, M. L.; Cobb, M.; Dean, R. S.
Various different methods are currently being used to capture data from small animal consultations. The aim of this study was to develop a tool to record detailed data from consultations by direct observation. A second aim was to investigate the complexity of the consultation by examining the number of problems discussed per patient. A data collection tool was developed and used during direct observation of small animal consultations in eight practices. Data were recorded on consultation type, patient signalment and number of problems discussed. During 16 weeks of data collection, 1901 patients were presented. Up to eight problems were discussed for...
Quality control and evaluation of vaccines in China - Liang, Zhenglun
I was born in Luoyang in 1963, a city in China with thousands of years’ history. The city is the eastern starting point of the Silk Road (BC 206–260 AD), a famous and long trade route in human history. Living in this ancient city, I grew up under the influence and impact of Chinese traditional culture. When I was a teenager, I once read a book “Yellow Emperor's Inner Canon” (Huang Di Nei Jing, written about 5th century BC), which is the oldest extant classic of traditional Chinese medicine. I was immediately attracted by an idea in it “prevention is...
Translating Personality Psychology to Help Personalize Preventive Medicine for Young-Adult Patients - Israel, Salomon; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Belsky, Daniel W.; Hancox, Robert J.; Poulton, Richie; Roberts, Brent; Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom
The rising number of newly insured young adults brought on by healthcare reform will soon increase demands on primary-care physicians. Physicians will face more young-adult patients which presents an opportunity for more prevention-oriented care. In the current study, we evaluated whether brief observer reports of young adults’ personality traits could predict which individuals would be at greater risk for poor health as they entered midlife. Following the Dunedin Study cohort of 1,000 individuals, we show that very brief measures of young adults’ personalities predicted their midlife physical health across multiple domains (metabolic abnormalities, cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function, periodontal disease, and...
Ricardo Bruno: history, social processes and health practices - Ayres,José Ricardo de Carvalho Mesquita
This essay has the objective of revisiting the intellectual output of Ricardo Bruno Mendes-Gonçalves (1946-1996), Professor of the Department of Preventive Medicine of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of São Paulo and one of the theoreticians who participated in the construction of the field of Brazilian Collective Health during the years 1970-1990. On the basis of brief biographical and bibliographical information, as well as relevant aspects regarding the historical context in which his output is located, I examine the principal works of the author, their effects on the lines of investigation of investigation of his students and his...