Is the social gradient of female obesity in lower income settings reversing and why? An investigation into the association between wealth, education and obesity
- Aitsi-Selmi, A
Female levels of obesity in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are rising. Obesity prevalence has been the greatest in high socio-economic status (SES) groups, but recent evidence suggests a changing pattern with the prevalence of obesity rising rapidly among lower SES groups and exceeding the former - a reversal of the social gradient of obesity. However, inconsistencies in the gradient by SES indicator have put the reversal into question. Using nationally representative surveys, the thesis: 1) examines the time variation in the SES-obesity association splitting SES into two components; and 2) tests the hypothesis that education protects against the obesogenic...
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Preventive Veterinary Medicine
- Huneau-salaün Adeline; Chemaly Marianne; Le Bouquin Sophie; E Françoise
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/prevetmed Risk factors for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica contamination in 519
Current Issues Health Professionals ’ Roles in Animal Agriculture, Climate Change, and Human Health
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Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Preventive Veterinary Medicine
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/prevetmed Determination of the within and between flock prevalence and identification of risk factors for Salmonella infections in laying hen
Recommended levels of physical activity to avoid an excess of body fat in European adolescents: the HELENA Study.
- Martínez-Gómez, D.; Marcos, Ascensión; Sjöström, M
Abstract BACKGROUND: It is unclear how much physical activity is necessary to prevent obesity during adolescence. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether the current physical activity guidelines for youth are associated with a lower risk of excess of body fat in European adolescents. METHODS: A sample of 2094 adolescents from the HELENA cross-sectional study was selected. Levels of moderate, vigorous, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were assessed using accelerometers. BMI and percentage of body fat (skinfolds) were calculated and used to categorize the adolescents as normal-weight/normal-fat, overweight/overfat, and obese. Data were collected during 2006-2007....
A Legal Framework for Preventing Cardiovascular Diseases
Cardiovascular diseases are major contributors to death, disability, disparities, and reduced quality of life in the United States. Successful prevention and control of these diseases requires a comprehensive approach applied across multiple public health settings and in all life stages. Individual lifestyle and behavior change, as well as the broader social, environmental, and policy changes that enable healthy lifestyles, are necessary. Legal strategies can be powerful tools in this endeavor. This review presents seven such strategies applicable at the federal, state, and local levels that can be employed by healthcare providers, public health practitioners, legislators, and other policymakers. They include...
on-line at: www.actabp.pl Expression and polymorphism of defensins in farm animals
- Emilia Bagnicka; Nina Strzałkowska; Artur Jóźwik; Józef Krzyżewski; Jarosław Horbańczuk; Lech Zwierzchowski
Due to their activity against bacteria, viruses, and fungi, antimicrobial peptides are important factors in the innate resistance system of humans and animals. They are called “new generation antibiotics ” for their potential use in preventive and therapeutic medicine. The most numerous group of antimicrobial peptides is a family of cationic peptides which include defensins and cathelicidins. Among them the most common are peptides with a beta-sheet structure containing three intra-molecular disulphide bonds, called defensins, comprising three classes: alpha, beta, and theta. The class of beta‑defensins is the largest one. Their transcripts have been found in many tissues of humans...
Active Travel in Germany and the U.S. Contributions of Daily Walking and Cycling to Physical Activity
Background: Travel surveys in Europe and the U.S. show large differences in the proportion of walking and cycling trips without considering implications for physical activity. Purpose: This study estimates differences between Germany and the U.S. over time in population levels of daily walking and cycling at different health-enhancing thresholds across sociodemographic groups. Methods: Uniquely comparable national travel surveys for the U.S. (NHTS 2001 and 2009) and Germany (MiD 2002 and 2008) were used to calculate the number, duration, and distance of active trips per capita. The population-weighted person and trip fıles for each survey were merged to calculate population levels...
PREVENTIVE MEDICINE SERVICES Section I. THE MEDICAL THREAT 11-1. The Preventive Medicine Mission
Preventive medicine is the most effective, least expensive means of providing the combat commander with the maximum number of healthy, combat-effective soldiers. 11-2. The Medical Threat a. Historically more soldiers have been rendered noneffective from DNB1 than from injury received as a direct result of conflict. In most US conflicts, three times as many soldiers have been lost to DNB1 than to enemy action. Although disease is no longer expected to be the major cause of death in combat areas, it still accounts for the vast majority of combat noneffectiveness. b. In past conflicts, preventable diseases have severely tiected combat...
defects, grain; food, fortified. (Am J Prev Med 1999;16(3):264–267) © 1999 American Journal of Preventive Medicine
- Burden Of Suffering
Based on a review of current literature and recommendations, the American College of
Influencia de un patrón de dieta mediterránea en la distribución de la grasa corporal en pacientes canarios con riesgo cardiovascular
- Álvarez Pérez, Jaqueline
Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Departamento Ciencias Clínicas. Programa de doctorado: Salud pública (epidemilogía, planificación y nutrición)
Regulación de la actividad AMPK en músculo esquelético humano por radicales libres e hipoxia
- Morales Álamo, David
[ES] La proteína quinasa activada por adenosin monofosfato (AMPK), es un enzima que activa varios procesos catabólicos e inhibe otra serie de procesos anabólicos. La AMPK es una de las principales enzimas involucradas en las adaptaciones al entrenamiento de resistencia. Recientemente se ha demostrado AMPK es activada por fosforilación en el residuo 172 del aminoácido treonina (pThr172-AMPK? ) tras ejercicio de sprint en cicloergometro, también se sabe que en cultivos celulares la actividad AMPK aumenta en hipoxia (por acción de los radicales libres). Para comprobar si el estrés oxidativo regula la actividad AMPK en ejercicio de sprint, reclutamos a 10...
Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect Preventive Medicine
- Christopher G. Ellison A; Matt Bradshaw B; Cheryl A. Roberts C
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ypmed Spiritual and religious identities predict the use of complementary and alternative
I: Social capital and health. A study of adult twins
- Takeo Fujiwara
Background: A growing number of studies have suggested a link between social capital and health. However, the association may reflect confounding by factors, such as personality or early childhood environment, that are unmeasured prior common causes of both social capital and health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of social capital on physical and mental health among adult twins in the U.S. Methods: A cross-sectional national survey of twins within the National Survey of Midlife Development in the U.S. (MIDUS), 1995–1996 was analyzed in 2007. The study population included 944 twin pairs (37.2 % monozygotic...
Housing prototypes for the wellbeing of elderly in Lincolnshire
- Paranagamage, Primali; Herron, Rebecca; Vilalta-perdomo, Eliseo Luis; Jackson, Jennifer
This project is a scoping study supported by the Research Investment Fund 2013, University of Lincoln. This research aims to develop a holistic approach to decision making that facilitates ‘wellbeing’ of the elderly in future housing prototypes in Lincolnshire. Central to this understanding is how several systems work together, such as changing care models and ways of delivery, demands by changing demographics of family types, emphasis on preventive medicine and delay of morbidity and life expectancy, and wellbeing variables of the elderly related to activities, functional ability, personal beliefs and attitudes, home and personal finances (Jackson 2011, Gallaway 2005), and...
An overview of health forecasting
- Soyiri, Ireneous N.; Reidpath, Daniel D.
Health forecasting is a novel area of forecasting, and a valuable tool for predicting future health events or situations such as demands for health services and healthcare needs. It facilitates preventive medicine and health care intervention strategies, by pre-informing health service providers to take appropriate mitigating actions to minimize risks and manage demand. Health forecasting requires reliable data, information and appropriate analytical tools for the prediction of specific health conditions or situations. There is no single approach to health forecasting, and so various methods have often been adopted to forecast aggregate or specific health conditions. Meanwhile, there are no defined...
POPULATION & No. 470 SOCIETIES
A spectacular decline in influenza mortality: the role of vaccination Every autumn sees the start of the annual flu vaccination campaign, with particular focus on older adults, high-risk individuals or those in regular contact with persons at risk. But do we know how many people die of influenza each year? And does vaccination save lives? France Meslé looks into these questions, examining influenza mortality trends in France and in industrialized countries over recent decades. Over the last five or six years, influenza has once again become the centre of attention. The recurrent fears of an (A)H5N1 avian influenza epidemic since...
The Nation Needs to Do More to Address Food Marketing to Children
- Lori E. Dorfman; Margo G. Wootan
Food marketing has never been more important, as childhood obesity rates remain high, and food and beverage marketing takes on ever new and more sophisticated forms. Yet despite strong recommendations from the IOM, there has been little progress to address it, as Kraak et al. 1 demonstrate in their paper in this issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine. In 2006, the IOM threw down the gauntlet with its
Long term prognosis of patients with pediatric pheochromocytoma.
- Bausch, B; Wellner, U; Bausch, D; Schiavi, F; Barontini, M; Sanso, G; Walz, MK; Peczkowska, M; Weryha, G; Dall'igna, P; Cecchetto, G; Bisogno, G; Moeller, L; Bockenhauer, D; Patocs, A; Racz, K; Zabolotnyi, D; Yaremchuk, S; Dzivite-Krisane, I; Castinetti, F; Taieb, D; Malinoc, A; von Dobschuetz, E; Roessler, J; Schmid, KW; Opocher, G; Eng, C; Neumann, HP
A third of patients with paraganglial tumors, pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma, carry germline mutations in one of the susceptibility genes, RET, VHL, NF1, SDHAF2, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, TMEM127 and MAX. Despite increasing importance, data for long-term prognosis are scarce in pediatric presentations. The European-American-Pheochromocytoma-Paraganglioma-Registry, with a total of 2001 patients with confirmed paraganglial tumors, was the platform for this study. Molecular genetic and phenotypic classification and assessment of gene-specific long-term outcome with second and/or malignant paraganglial tumors and life expectancy was performed in patients diagnosed <18 years. Of 177 eligible registrants, 80% had mutations, 49% VHL, 15% SDHB, 10% SDHD,...
Conductas alimentarias asociadas al exceso de peso, y acuerdo con las principales recomendaciones nutricionales en población española de alto riesgo cardiovascular
- Muñoz Pareja, Maritza
Tesis doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Medicina, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva, Salud Pública y Microbiología. Fecha de lectura: 30 de Octubre de 2013