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Nomenclatura Unesco > (32) Ciencias Médicas > (3210) Medicina preventiva

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 3,687

1. Anticholinergic burden in older women: not seeing the wood for the trees - Parkinson, Lynne; Magin, Parker J; Thomson, Allison; Byles, Julie E; Caughey, Gillian E; Etherton-Beer, Christopher; Gnjidic, Danijela; Hilmer, Sarah N; Lo, Thomas King Tong; McCowan, Colin; Moorin, Rachael; Pond, C Dimity
OBJECTIVES To identify medicines contributing to and describe predictors of anticholinergic burden among community-dwelling older Australian women. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective longitudinal analysis of data from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health linked to Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme medicines data from 1 January 2008 to 30 December 2010; for 3694 women born in 1921-1926. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Anticholinergic burden calculated from Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) scores derived from ADS levels (0 to 3) for all medicines used by each woman, summed over each 6-month period (semester), medicines commonly used by women with high semester ADS scores (defined as 75th percentile of scores). RESULTS 1126 women (59.9%)...

2. El Centro de Salud de Catamarca - Bomczuk, Basilio; Molina Franco, Emiliano; Sosa Medina, Rocío
El Dr. Ramón Carrillo, ministro de salud del presidente Perón, idea un plan de medicina del tipo preventiva para la construcción de los centros sanitarios en Tucumán, Santiago del Estero, Salta, Jujuy, Corrientes y Catamarca. El arquitecto Mario Roberto Álvarez (MRA) es autor del Centro Sanitario de la ciudad de San Fernando del Valle de Catamarca. Éste se ubica en una de las manzanas del área central y se construye entre 1948 y 1950. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivos, en primer lugar, explicar los alcances de los Centros Sanitarios del Plan Carrillo y hacer una descripción de uno de éstos edificios,...

3. Lactancia materna y sus determinantes - Tizón Bouza, Eva
Introducción: La Organización Mundial de la Salud recomienda que todos los bebés sean alimentados con lactancia materna exclusiva (LME) hasta los 6 meses de edad y mantener la lactancia materna (LM) hasta cumplir los 2 años. Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de lactancia materna al alta hospitalaria, a los 4, 6 y 12 meses, así como las variables asociadas a su presencia. Determinar la validez y seguridad de diferentes antecedentes para predecir dicha prevalencia. Métodos: Estudio observacional, de seguimiento prospectivo (n=420; a=0,05; d= ±4,4%), entre junio/2013 y septiembre/2015, con mujeres ingresadas en el área sanitaria de Ferrol, por un proceso de...

4. Randomized, Open Label, Active Controlled comparative study to assess Safety, Efficacy of Mometasone & Formoterol versus Fluticasone & Formoterol dry powder inhaler in treatment of Mild to Moderate Persistent Asthma - Parasuramalu B G, Sathish Chandra M R, Huliraj N, Giriyanna Gowda, Gangaboraiah
"Background: Asthma is a problem worldwide, with an estimated 300 million affected individuals. Mometasone being newer drug has low systemic bioavailability, high glucocorticoid receptor affinity and modifies inflammatory mediators involved in the pathogenesis of asthma compared to other inhaled corticosteroids. There are very few studies conducted to assess and compare the safety and efficacy of Mometasone & Formoterol versus Fluticasone & Formoterol. Hence the present study was undertaken to assess the safety and efficacy of these dry powder inhaler in patients with mild to moderate persistent asthma on symptom control and rescue medication usage. Method: The present study was conducted in...

5. Bienvenida la Medicina Molecular - Orlando R. Serrano-Barrera
No ha cambiado la medicina, sino que ha avanzado. Los métodos clínico-epidemiológicos  incluyen hoy y se benefician del conocimiento de las bases moleculares del proceso salud-enfermedad, tanto las variaciones individuales, como los caracteres compartidos por comunidades y poblaciones, que las hacen resistentes o vulnerables a una enfermedad. La estimación presintomática e, incluso, prenatal del riesgo de enfermar, el diagnóstico, el pronóstico, la elección del tratamiento más ajustado al paciente, las posibilidades de rehabilitación y reinserción social, la educación y promoción sanitarias son todos momentos del proceso de toma de decisiones, que el médico debe asumir en el nuevo escenario de...

6. An Epidemiological Study Regarding Obesity Prevalence In A Rural Area Of Bihor County - Popa Amorin Remus; Bodea Alina
Background and aims: A high prevalence of obesity is found at global and national level, representing an important problem for the public health. The purpose of this work was to develop preventive medicine by performing an epidemiological study in order to identify people with obesity. We also aimed to analyze obesity prevalence and the influence of the family medical history of obesity in the analyzed population segment.

7. Newborn screening of inherited metabolic disorders by tandem mass spectrometry: past, present and future - G. Scaturro; C. Sanfilippo; M. Piccione; E. Piro; M. Giuffrè; G. Corsello
Inborn errors of metabolism are inherited biochemical disorders caused by lack of a functional enzyme, transmembrane transporter, or similar protein, which then results in blockage of the corresponding metabolic pathway. Taken individually, inborn errors of metabolism are rare. However, as a group these diseases are relatively frequent and they may account for most of neonatal mortality and need of health resources. The detection of genetic metabolic disorders should occur in a pre-symptomatic phase. Recently, the introduction of the tandem mass spectrometric methods for metabolite analysis has changed our ability to detect intermediates of metabolism in smaller samples and provides the...

8. Implantación de un sistema de gestión de calidad en una unidad de nutrición según la norma UNE-EN-ISO 9001:2008 - Velasco Gimeno, Cristina; Cuerda Compés, Cristina de la; Alonso Puerta, Alba; Frías, L.; Camblor Alvarez, Miguel; Bretón Lesmes, Irene; Plá Mestre, R.; Izquierdo Membrilla, I.; García-Peris, Pilar
Introduction: the implementation of quality management systems (QMS) in the health sector has made great progress in recent years, remains a key tool for the management and improvement of services provides to patients. Aim: to describe the process of implementing a quality management system (QMS) according to the standard ISO 9001:2008 in a Nutrition Unit. Methods: the implementation began in October 2012. Nutrition Unit was supported by Hospital Preventive Medicine and Quality Management Service (PMQM). Initially training sessions on QMS and ISO standards for staff were held. Quality Committee (QC) was established with representation of the medical and nursing staff. Every week,...

9. EL INDICE RELEVANTE DE JUSTEZA EN LA DESIGUALDAD DE UNA DISTRIBUCIÓN CUALQUIERA . SU APLICACIÓN EN LAS CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD. - Álvarez Rivero, Pedro Félix
El conocimiento de las principales enfermedades que son causa de la mayoría de las defunciones en un estado y su distribución por municipio, son datos de interés y de suma importancia tanto para las autoridades relacionadas con la salud, como para el resto de las Instituciones del Estado y en general por la población, no solo para que sean objeto de tratamiento adecuado sino con vistas a la medicina preventiva en su objetivo de prevenir e indicar las causas principales que la ocasionan.

10. Clima organizacional en los departamentos del decanato de ciencias de la salud de la universidad centro occidental "Lisandro Alvarado" - Mújica, María Alida
This article has been written aiming to analyze the organizational environment at the Health Science Dean’s Office Departments at “Lisandro Alvarado” University through a transversal descriptive study. 241 professors built the population and 106 the sample, obtained by stratum-based sampling with proportional allocation; a structured questionnaire was used divided in four components and eight subcomponents. The organizational environment at the Health Science Dean’s Office varied from fairly favorable to unfavorable; being fairly favorable in the Nursery, Medical Education and Morphological Sciences Departments; nonetheless, in the Social Preventive Medicine and Functional Sciences Departments it was perceived as fairly unfavorable. The result...

11. A Systems Approach to Neurodegenerative Disease, Emerging Technologies and Proactive Medicine - Lee Hood
The challenge for biology and medicine in the 21st century is the need to deal with its incredible complexity. One powerful way to think of biology is to view it as an informational science requiring systems approaches. This view leads to the conclusion that biological information is captured, mined, integrated by biological networks and finally passed off to molecular machines for execution. Systems approaches are holistic rather than atomistic—and employ both hypothesis-driven as well as discovery-driven approaches. Hence the challenge in understanding biological complexity is that of using systems approaches to deciphering the operation of dynamic biological networks across three...

12. Evaluation of beneficial Lactic Acid Bacteria strains as a potential probiotic for the prevention of bovine mastitis - José Ángel Giraudo; María Elena Fátima Nader-Macias; Cristina Inés Bogni
The conventional methods for the control of mastitis are basically supported by the adoption of preventive strategies including diagnosis, segregation of the animals, use of improved hygiene and therapeutic protocols, with antibiotics frequently applied. Antibiotics used routinely in dry cow therapies are questioned by the adverse effects in the human health (Barkema et al. 2006; McDougall et al. 2009). Probiotics, live microorganisms administered in adequate amounts conferring a health benefit on the host, constitute an alternative tool to bovine mastitis treatment (FAO & WHO, 2008). Probiotics may exert their beneficial effects on the host health by several mechanisms: adhesion to epithelial...

13. Correlation between the genotoxicity endpoints measured by two different genotoxicity assays: comet assay and CBMN assay - Carina Ladeira; Carina Ladeira; Susana Viegas; Manuel C. Gomes
The cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN) assay is a comprehensive system for measuring DNA damage; cytostasis and cytotoxicity-DNA damage events are scored specifically in once-divided binucleated cells. The endpoints possible to be measured are micronuclei (MN), a biomarker of chromosome breakage and/or whole chromosome loss, nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB), a biomarker of DNA misrepair and/or telomere end-fusions, and nuclear buds (NBUD), a biomarker of elimination of amplified DNA and/or DNA repair complexes. Cytostatic effects are measured via the proportion of mono-, bi- and multinucleated cells and cytotoxicity via necrotic and/or apoptotic cell ratios (Fenech, 2006, 2007). The CBMN assay has become one...

14. Vaccination and immune response of cattle against the bovine viral diarrhoea - Lidia Mariana Gogorza; Pedro Edgardo Morán
Bovine Virus Diarrhoea (BVD) is a serious cattle disease and readily establishes endemic infections in cattle populations. After maternal infection, some non-cytopathic BVD viruses can cross the bovine placenta and infects the conceptus. This leads to transient reproductive problems, abortion, generating persistent infected animals, and stillbirths. In contrast, most postnatal infections run only a very mild course. Therefore the primary aim of vaccination is to prevent congenital infections .Vaccination to prevent severe postnatal infections may be indicated only when virulent BVDV strains are prevalent. BVD vaccines are most effective in preventing the acute disease, but their benefit is doubtful as...

15. Protective effect of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. ethanolic extracts in oxidant-induced DNA damage evaluated through comet assay with human peripheral lymphocytes - Joao C. M. Barreira; Joao C. M. Barreira; Carla Costa; Carla Costa
Much attention of preventive medicine research is focused on natural antioxidants. This interest refers not only to isolation and identification of new biologically active molecules for the pharmaceutical industry, but also because of the emergent public interest in using crude plant extracts, such as infusions for self-medication (Krishnaiah et al., 2011). The use of antioxidants, such as the well-known polyphenolic compounds, to prevent genetic damage induced by physical or chemical agents is of considerable interest. This bioactivity might be related to their anticlastogenic effect, due to the presence of specific functional groups. Other antioxidant compounds, such as vitamins C and...

16. FIRST RESULTS OF CHD PROGNOSIS STUDY - E. A. Gofman; S. Yu. Martsevich; A. D. Deev; A. M. Malysheva; Yu. N. Polyanskaya; S. N. Tolpygina; V. P. Mazaev

Aim — to investigate the prognostic value of different risk factors associated with stable angina in a contemporary population of patients,
to identify the key prognostic features, to evaluate the risk distribution and to construct a reliable tool for the risk prediction.


Materials and methods. Prospective observational cohort study, conducted between January, 2004 and December, 2007 in Moscow, Russia. 641 patients were included on the basis of planned hospitalization to National Research Center for Preventive Medicine (Moscow) with a clinical diagnosis of coronary heart disease and performance of coronary angiography. 5 years follow‑up period (median time 3.9 years, min. 0.76 years, max. 6.52...

17. Nutritional condition of school age children. Clinic, anthropo-medical and alimentary assessment - Alina Esther González Hermida; Jesús Vila Díaz; Carmen Emilia Guerra Cabrera; Odalys Quintero Rodríguez; Mariela Dorta Figueredo; José Danilo Pacheco
Background: the study of children´s growth in an appropriate indicator of children health condition and should be used as one of the basis in the practice of preventive medicine.
Objective: to determine the nutritional al condition of children of third and sixth grade of elementary schools of Health Area V of Cienfuegos Municipality.
Methods:
descriptive, observational, cross-sectional and relational study of 445 school age children from 4 elementary schools. A clinic assessment was carried out along with an anthropo-medical evaluation. A qualitative survey was developed to assess the frequency of consumption of different alimentary groups.
Results:
the...

18. Probiotics in the prevention of dental caries - Johany Duque de Estrada Riverón; Ileana Hidalgo-Gato Fuentes; Yensi Díaz Martell
Probiotics have the potential to provide significant benefits to human health, so we decided to investigate the probiotics species that may have preventive action against dental caries mainly in children in order to determine if there can be created a preventive medicine, made from probiotics found in the oral cavity. Oral probiotics that have shown promising activities in the prevention of dental caries are: Streptococcus salivarius (strain K12), BGH01 Lactobacillus salivarius, BGH089 gasseri Lactobacillus, Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus oligofermentans. In vitro studies on the use of probiotics for the prevention of dental caries have shown interesting results, but in vivo...

19. Extensão Universitária: Intervenção Social - Angela Cristina Cilense Zuanon; Maria Candida Soares Del-Masso; Eduardo Galhardo; José Arnaldo Frutuoso Roveda

A Revista Ciência em Extensão (RCE), publicação que abre espaço para a divulgação do conhecimento produzido na Universidade, neste ano de 2015 recebeu a submissão de 79 artigos contando com 414 novos usuários cadastrados entre leitores, autores e novos avaliadores ad hoc. Atualmente temos 10 artigos aceitos e em edição, 77 artigos em avaliação e 22 trabalhos entre recém-submetidos e ainda não designados devido alguma pendência dos autores. Desde a implantação da versão eletrônica da RCE com o uso da plataforma SEER – Serviço Eletrônico de Editoração de Revistas, customizada pelo IBICT a partir do Open Journal System (OJS), o...

20. Natal do Educaprev: educação em saúde em um abrigo do município de Jaboticabal/SP - Ana Carolina Siqueira Gonçalves; Ana Paula Rodomilli Grisólio; Carla Resende Bastos; Carolina Alvarenga Cruz; David Attuy Vey da Silva; Fernanda Cassioli de Moraes; Gabriel Augusto Marques Rossi; Henrique Meiroz de Souza Almeida; Higor Oliveira Silva; Igor Renan Honorato Gatto; Laryssa Freitas Ribeiro; Mirelle Andréa de Carvalho Picinato; Rafael Akira Sato; Karina Paes Bürger

Tendo em vista que o princípio de Educação em Saúde é o repasse de informações à comunidade, e levando-se em conta a importante colaboração que as crianças oferecem como multiplicadores de conhecimento à sociedade, o projeto “Natal do EducaPrev” teve como objetivo a integração dos alunos de pós-graduação do Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva e Reprodução Animal da FCAV/Unesp/Jaboticabal/SP, com os crianças de um abrigo do município, para a realização de atividades educativas que possibilitaram a conscientização  das crianças sobre temas importantes como guarda responsável de animais, leptospirose e raiva. O projeto foi um sucesso, tendo resultado em uma ótima...

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