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Detection of analytes in the context of nano-diagnostics for preventive medicine and global public health.
Increases in human lifespan worldwide have revealed that advancing age is the predominant risk factor for major life-threatening diseases. Recent work has shown that ageing in diverse animals, including humans, is malleable to specific types of genetic mutation, diet, and drugs that can extend lifespan and improve health during ageing. These findings point to the prospect of broad-spectrum preventive medicine for the diseases of ageing based on intervention in relevant aspects of the ageing process itself.
Zodpey, S; Pandey, AA; Murhekar, M; Sharma, A
India, the second most populous country in the world, has 17% of the world’s population but its total share of global disease burden is 21%. With epidemiological transition, the challenge of the public health system is to deal with a high burden of noncommunicable diseases, while still continuing the battle against communicable diseases. To combat this progression, public health capacity-building initiatives for the health workforce are necessary to develop essential skills in epidemiology and competencies in other related fields of public health. This study is an effort to systematically explore the training programmes in epidemiology in India and to understand the demand–supply dynamics of epidemiologists in the country....
Brunton, Deborah Christian
Inoculation has an important place in the history of medicine: not only was it the first form of preventive medicine but its history spans the so-called eighteenth century 'medical revolution'. A study of the myriad of pamphlets, books and articles on the controversial practice casts new light on these fundamental changes in the medical profession and medical practice. Whereas historians have associated the abandonment of old humoural theories and individualised therapy in favour of standardised techniques with the emergence of new institutions in the second half of the century, inoculation suggests that changes began as early as the 1720s. Though...
When an employer decides to hire particular workers, one of her most important decisions is to design a work contract that assures the right incentives for her employees and promotes behavior that maximizes workers' productivity and profits. ^ At the macroeconomic level, different contract design generates different equilibrium patterns and different policy implications. At the microeconomic level, different contract designs generate a structure of incentives for teams of workers in firms. Thus, identifying characteristics of optimal contracts is an indispensable tool to generate economic models with testable implications. This dissertation contains two essays that discuss how dissimilar contract designs can...
Poucke, Sven Van; Zhang, Zhongheng; Schmitz, Martin; Vukicevic, Milan; Laenen, Margot Vander; Deyne, Cathy De; Celi, Leo Anthony G.
With the accumulation of large amounts of health related data, predictive analytics could stimulate the transformation of reactive medicine towards Predictive, Preventive and Personalized (PPPM) Medicine, ultimately affecting both cost and quality of care. However, high-dimensionality and high-complexity of the data involved, prevents data-driven methods from easy translation into clinically relevant models. Additionally, the application of cutting edge predictive methods and data manipulation require substantial programming skills, limiting its direct exploitation by medical domain experts. This leaves a gap between potential and actual data usage. In this study, the authors address this problem by focusing on open, visual environments, suited...
Men with testosterone deficiency and a history of cardiovascular diseases benefit from long-term testosterone therapy: observational, real-life data from a registry study
Haider A; Yassin A; Haider KS; Doros G; Saad F; Rosano GM
Ahmad Haider,1 Aksam Yassin,2-4 Karim Sultan Haider,1 Gheorghe Doros,5 Farid Saad,4,6 Giuseppe MC Rosano7 1Private Urology Practice, Bremerhaven, 2Institute for Urology and Andrology, Segeberger Kliniken, Norderstedt, 3Department of Preventive Medicine, Men’s Health Program, Dresden International University, Dresden, Germany; 4Department of Urology, Gulf Medical University, Ajman, United Arab Emirates; 5Department for Epidemiology and Statistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; 6Global Medical Affairs Andrology, Bayer Pharma AG, Berlin, Germany; 7Department of Cardiology, Centre for Clinical and Basic Science, San Raffaele-Roma, Rome, Italy Background/objectives: Long-term testosterone therapy (TTh) in men with hypogonadism has been shown to improve all components...
Appropriate body mass index and waist circumference cutoff for overweight and central obesity among adults in Cambodia.
Yom An; Siyan Yi; Annette Fitzpatrick; Vinay Gupta; Piseth Raingsey Prak; Sophal Oum; James P Logerfo
BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are used in risk assessment for the development of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide. Within a Cambodian population, this study aimed to identify an appropriate BMI and WC cutoff to capture those individuals that are overweight and have an elevated risk of vascular disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used nationally representative cross-sectional data from the STEP survey conducted by the Department of Preventive Medicine, Ministry of Health, Cambodia in 2010. In total, 5,015 subjects between age 25 and 64 years were included in the analyses. Chi-square, Fisher's Exact test and Student t-test, and...
Prevention of neural tube defects: a cross-sectional study of the uptake of folic acid supplementation in nearly half a million women.
Jonathan P Bestwick; Wayne J Huttly; Joan K Morris; Nicholas J Wald
BACKGROUND: Taking folic acid supplements before pregnancy to reduce the risk of a neural tube defect (NTD) is especially important in countries without universal folic acid fortification. The extent of folic acid supplementation among women who had antenatal screening for Down's syndrome and NTDs at the Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, London between 1999 and 2012 was assessed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 466,860 women screened provided details on folic acid supplementation. The proportion of women who took folic acid supplements before pregnancy was determined according to year and characteristics of the women. The proportion of women taking folic acid supplements before...
Ziad A Memish; Shamsudeen F Fagbo; Ahmed Osman Ali; Rafat AlHakeem; Fathelrhman M Elnagi; Elijah A Bamgboye
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever disease is yet to be fully understood since the virus was isolated in 1994 in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. SETTING: Preventive Medicine department, Ministry of Health, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of all laboratory confirmed cases of Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever disease collected through active and passive surveillance from 1(st)-January 2009 to December, 31, 2011. RESULTS: Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever (AHFV) disease increased from 59 cases in 2009 to 93 cases in 2011. Cases are being discovered outside of the region where it was initially diagnosed in Saudi Arabia. About a third...
Applying data envelopment analysis to preventive medicine: a novel method for constructing a personalized risk model of obesity.
Hiroto Narimatsu; Yoshinori Nakata; Sho Nakamura; Hidenori Sato; Ri Sho; Katsumi Otani; Ryo Kawasaki; Isao Kubota; Yoshiyuki Ueno; Takeo Kato; Hidetoshi Yamashita; Akira Fukao; Takamasa Kayama
Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is a method of operations research that has not yet been applied in the field of obesity research. However, DEA might be used to evaluate individuals' susceptibility to obesity, which could help establish effective risk models for the onset of obesity. Therefore, we conducted this study to evaluate the feasibility of applying DEA to predict obesity, by calculating efficiency scores and evaluating the usefulness of risk models. In this study, we evaluated data from the Takahata study, which was a population-based cohort study (with a follow-up study) of Japanese people who are >40 years old. For...
Elaboración de una herramienta para la vigilancia de indicadores de calidad de la docencia en la formación especializada de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública
Christian Carlo Gil-Borrelli; Pello Latasa; Laura Reques; Guadalupe Alemán
En este trabajo se describe el proceso de creación de una herramienta para evaluar la satisfacción con la calidad de la docencia recibida en las rotaciones de la especialidad de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública. Para ello se adaptó la Encuesta de Satisfacción de la Formación Especializada por parte de un panel de expertos formado por 23 residentes de nueve comunidades autónomas, que valoraron y adaptaron la encuesta a las rotaciones de la especialidad mediante una escala de Likert de 5 puntos y la inclusión de nuevas dimensiones e ítems. Las dimensiones mejor valoradas fueron la planificación y la consecución...
Keeping in view the importance of efficiency in resource utilization in healthcare sector, we focus on efficiency of health care system at sub-state level (i.e., district level) in India using Tamil Nadu state and its district level data for 2012-13. It being an economically advanced state, in terms of Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) the state ranks second lowest among the Indian states. We explore the reasons for relative performance of different districts with Data Envelopment Analysis. We used IMR as output variables. Using Principal component analysis we tried a sub-set of variables which had low correlations. Thus three components with...
Marnie L Brennan; Robert M Christley
BACKGROUND: Few studies have considered in detail the range of biosecurity practices undertaken on cattle farms, particularly within the UK. In this study, 56 cattle farmers in a 100 km² area of north-west England were questioned regarding their on-farm biosecurity practices, including those relating to animal movements, equipment sharing and companies and contractors visiting the farms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: There was great variation between farms in terms of the type of, and extent to which, biosecurity was carried out. For example, the majority of farmers did not isolate stock bought onto the farm, but a small proportion always isolated stock. Many...
Clinical preventive services in Guatemala: a cross-sectional survey of internal medicine physicians.
Juan E Corral; Lauren D Arnold; Erwin E Argueta; Akshay Ganju; Joaquín Barnoya
BACKGROUND: Guatemala is currently undergoing an epidemiologic transition. Preventive services are key to reducing the burden of non-communicable diseases, and smoking counseling and cessation are among the most cost-effective and wide-reaching strategies. Internal medicine physicians are fundamental to providing such services, and their knowledge is a cornerstone of non-communicable disease control. METHODS: A national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011 to evaluate knowledge of clinical preventive services for non-communicable diseases. Interns, residents, and attending physicians of the internal medicine departments of all teaching hospitals in Guatemala completed a self-administered questionnaire. Participants' responses were contrasted with the Guatemalan Ministry of Health...
Birth weight and long-term overweight risk: systematic review and a meta-analysis including 643,902 persons from 66 studies and 26 countries globally.
Karen Schellong; Sandra Schulz; Thomas Harder; Andreas Plagemann
BACKGROUND: Overweight is among the major challenging health risk factors. It has been claimed that birth weight, being a critical indicator of prenatal developmental conditions, is related to long-term overweight risk. In order to check this important assumption of developmental and preventive medicine, we performed a systematic review and comprehensive meta-analysis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Relevant studies published up to January 2011 that investigated the relation between birth weight and later risk of overweight were identified through literature searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE. For meta-analysis, 66 studies from 26 countries and five continents were identified to be eligible, including 643,902 persons...
The identification of pathway markers in intracranial aneurysm using genome-wide association data from two different populations.
Burcu Bakir-Gungor; Osman Ugur Sezerman
The identification of significant individual factors causing complex diseases is challenging in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) since each factor has only a modest effect on the disease development mechanism. In this study, we hypothesize that the biological pathways that are targeted by these individual factors show higher conservation within and across populations. To test this hypothesis, we searched for the disease related pathways on two intracranial aneurysm GWAS in European and Japanese case-control cohorts. Even though there were a few significantly conserved SNPs within and between populations, seven of the top ten affected pathways were found significant in both populations....
© 2010 The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.Introduction The first reports of a link between insulin and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) appeared in the 1980s. First there was the demonstration of a link between hyperinsulinism and hyperandrogenism and then, soon after, the demonstration that non-obese women with PCOS were insulin resistant. These two seminal papers opened up a whole new field of investigation exploring the relationship between what was later to be called the metabolic syndrome and PCOS. Much of the initial work in this area focused on the correlation between insulin and androgens in the circulation, with a...
Robert Makowsky; Nicholas M Pajewski; Yann C Klimentidis; Ana I Vazquez; Christine W Duarte; David B Allison; Gustavo de los Campos
Despite rapid advances in genomic technology, our ability to account for phenotypic variation using genetic information remains limited for many traits. This has unfortunately resulted in limited application of genetic data towards preventive and personalized medicine, one of the primary impetuses of genome-wide association studies. Recently, a large proportion of the "missing heritability" for human height was statistically explained by modeling thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms concurrently. However, it is currently unclear how gains in explained genetic variance will translate to the prediction of yet-to-be observed phenotypes. Using data from the Framingham Heart Study, we explore the genomic prediction of...
Mika Baba; Takuro Shimbo; Masaru Horio; Masahiko Ando; Yoshinari Yasuda; Yasuhiro Komatsu; Katsunori Masuda; Seiichi Matsuo; Shoichi Maruyama
Chronic kidney disease is an important concern in preventive medicine, but the rate of decline in renal function in healthy population is not well defined. The purpose of this study was to determine reference values for the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and rate of decline of eGFR in healthy subjects and to evaluate factors associated with this decline using a large cohort in Japan.Retrospective cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were performed with healthy subjects aged ≥18 years old who received a medical checkup. Reference values for eGFR were obtained using a nonparametric method and those for decline of eGFR were...