Mostrando recursos 81 - 100 de 18.993

  1. Análisis de la participación del componente indígena en una muestra hospitalaria de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires

    Avena, Sergio Alejandro; Goicoechea, Alicia Susana; Rey, Jorge Alberto; Agosti, Juan C.; Carnese, Francisco R.
    The mass migratory flows of European origin that arrived in Argentina between the years 1880-1930 produced substantial changes in the receptor society, particularly in Buenos Aires city, Argentina. In this population, the genic frequencies of ABO and Rh systems in hospital samples of 1930 and 1940 decades were similar to those registered in Spain and Italy. Due to the industrial development initiated in the middle of the forties, population from the provinces and recently from bordering countries, with an elevated indigenous composition, was established in the suburbs as well as in the capital of the country. In order to evaluate...

  2. Influencia de los factores sexo, edad y deformación artificial sobre la variación discontinua en cazadores recolectores del noreste de la Patagonia

    González-José, Rolando; Zavatti, Jorge R.; Dahinten, Silvia Lucrecia
    The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of sex, age and artificial cranial deformation on non-metric traits, in a sample of skulls belonging to hunter-gatherers from the Northeast of Patagonia (Argentina). For each trait, the effects of these factors were tested by calculating chi-squares from contingency tables. Sex differences occurred for one trait (mastoid foramen present), while two traits (infraorbital suture and lambdoid ossicle) showed age-dependence. Artificial cranial deformation evinced a significant effect on the occurrence of accessory infraorbital foramina. A low, though significant, influence is exerted upon non-metric variation by the factors here studied, allowing the...

  3. Posición de los araucanos en un contexto asiático-europeo: II: Metodología howelliana

    Luis, María Antonia; Lustig, Ana L.; Sardi, Marina; Ponce, Paola; Pucciarelli, Héctor Mario
    According to the classical American peopling model, the Amerindians -which include most of the extinct and extant American Indian populations- came to America from the North of Asia, passing through the Bering Strait and the Aleutian Islands. The Amerindians have, then, a basic Asian Mongoloid configuration with secondary differentiations caused by local microevolutionary processes. All comparisons based in distances and/or functional components should support the following hypothesis: "the Amerindian distributions should approach in a higher degree those of the Asian populations and in a lesser degree those of the European ones". Since the Araucanians are a typically Amerindian population, a...

  4. Posición de los araucanos en un contexto asiático-europeo: I: Metodologia craneofuncional

    Pucciarelli, Héctor Mario; Sardi, Marina; Luis, María Antonia; Lustig, Ana L.; Ponce, Paola; Zanini, María Catarina Chitolina; Neves, Walter A.
    It is known that the Amerindians -which include most of the extinct and extant American Indian populations- came to America from the Northeast of Asia, passing through the Bering Strait and the Aleutian Islands. According to this model, the Amerindian populations have a basic Asian Mongoloid configuration, which was secondarily modified by local microevolutionary processes. All comparisons based in distances and/or functional components should then support the hypothesis that "the Amerindian distributions should approach in a higher degree those of the Asian populations and in a lesser degree those of the European ones". Since the Araucanians constitute a typically Amerindian...

  5. Influencia de la desnutrición sobre el tamaño y la forma del cráneo de la rata Wistar

    Orden, Alicia Bibiana; Pucciarelli, Héctor Mario; Muñe, María Cristina; Guimarey, Luis M.; Rodríguez, Raúl R.; Pons, Eduardo Rafael; Villanueva, Miriam
    The ontogenetic differentiation involves size (volumetric) and/or shape (morphometric) changes. The object of this study is to know how cranial changes are evoked in growing rats between the 20th and 80th days from birth. The following null hypothesis was tested: "if craniofacial changes are due to size only, then all variables should be correlated among themselves, since they should vary only in a linear and isotropic way". The rejection of linearity implies that at least part of the observed variation is to be explained by shape changes due to the differential growth between, at least, two variables . Wistar rats...

  6. Influencia del retardo del crecimiento intrauterino sobre la diferenciación craneana postnatal

    Oyhenart, Evelia Edith; Cesani, María Florencia; Pucciarelli, Héctor Mario
    Adaptive processes in human and non human mammals can hardly be studied during gestation, since the main intrauterine sources of stress, together with eventual maternal softening effects, are difficult to detect. Experimentation allows improved studies on homeorrhesis fitting processes. The object of the present study was to evaluate the postnatal cranial growth and sexual dimorphism in both control and intrauterine growth retarded animals (IUGR). Wistar rats from the Centro de Investigaciones en Genética Básica y Aplicada (CIGEBA) were employed. The IUGR effect was achieved by partial obstruction of the uterine blood vessels in pregnant rats in the 15th day of...

  7. Influencia de la nutrición sobre la diferenciación sexual

    Ranieri, José; Oyhenart, Evelia Edith; Rodrigo, María A.
    The processes of sexual differentiation in the populations can be modified by different environmental influences. Low protein or caloric supply in the first 24 months of life can produce substantial modifications in the ontogenetic evolution, and can produce adaptive responses to allow growth. The aim of this study was to analyze the growth and sexual differentiation patterns in a sample of 215 children from 1 to 24 months old, from the outskirts of La Plata City and with a low-income living. Different cephalic and body measurements were taken. Statistical analysis was performed by 1) the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test; 2) mean, standard...

  8. Crecimiento y desarrollo de una población infanto juvenil de la provincia de Chubut

    Torres, María Fernanda; Oyhenart, Evelia Edith; Dahinten, Silvia Lucrecia; Carnese, Francisco R.; Pucciarelli, Héctor Mario
    The processes of ontogenetic adaptation and differentiation are main subjects in Biological Anthropology, since they can affect the dynamics of a population. Many environmental factors act evoking variation in the phenotypic expression of people, and affecting their adaptive responses. In the present study, growth in 473 schoolchildren from 5 to 14 years old belonging to Río Mayo (Province of Chubut, Argentina) was tested against internacional standards; data being, previously transformed into z-scores. Statistical comparisons included the non-parametric Wilcoxon test, the analysis of variance and multiple range post-hoc tests. Although growth was evident in all of the analyzed age groups, the...

  9. Análisis cefalométrico referido a los modelos de facialidad en una muestra infanto-adolescente

    Oliva Ioanidis, Leonardo; Oyhenart, Evelia Edith; Pucciarelli, Héctor Mario; Ioanidis, Margarita; Fucini, María Cecilia; Milat, Edith I.; Finger, Leandro
    One of the aims of Biological Anthropology is to study growth and development under the concept of "intravariation". That of Ricketts et al. is among the cephalometric analyses employed in Argentina for evaluating -and correcting- growth by means of functional maxillary orthodontic and orthopedic techniques. According to these authors, three patterns of craniofacial growth can be isolated: brachyfacial, mesofacial, and dolichofacial. Variability as the product of genetic-environmental interactions, however, can lead to differences among populations and the consequent deviation from their normal patterns of craniofacial structure. In the present study, the facial model belonging to a sample from La Plata...

  10. Estudio comparativo de talla y peso de escolares primarios jujeños

    Bejarano, Ignacio Felipe; Dipierri, José E.; Alfaro Gómez, Emma Laura; Fiorito, Alberto; García, Teresa; García, Natalia; Kinderman, Osvaldo
    The assessment of growth and development is an essential component of health programs, which allows to evaluate both the impact of diseases on a population and other environmental and genetic factors affecting it. The purpose of this study was to analyze height and weight variations in school children of all the kindergartens and seventh grades of elementary schools in San Salvador de Jujuy (Argentina), and to compare these auxologic parameters with national standards. School Children Health Department (Ministry of Social Welfare) provided the data corresponding to 4-6-year-old and 11-16-year-old children (N= 8593). Descriptive statistic data (mean, percentile, standard deviation, minimum...

  11. Análisis demográfico de un semiaislado en la provincia de Córdoba, Argentina

    López, Andrea M.; Colantonio, Sonia Edith
    In order to elucidate the dynamics of the population of Minas Department (Province of Córdoba, Argentina), its demographic evolution from 1960 to 1991 was analyzed by means of the fertility, mortality, growth and migration indicators. In the analyzed period, an increase of people of both sexes in their middle and old age and a decrease of people under 15 years old were observed, which has lead to a progressive ageing of the population. Assuming an equal quality of the birth records in the respective censuses, a decrease in fertility in the last thirty years would have been produced. A decrease...

  12. Mortalidad en Susques (período 1903-1950): distribución sexual y por grupo de edad

    Bejarano, Ignacio Felipe; Dipierri, José E.; Alfaro Gómez, Emma Laura
    The study of mortality constitutes an important demographic indicator of the sanitary conditions of a population. By means of this study the most frequent pathologies affecting a specific human group can be determined and the health conditions characterizing it as group can be inferred. The purpose of the present study was to assess mortality rates in Susques (Province of Jujuy, Argentina) through an analysis of death causes by sex and age groups. Based on the death records between 1903 and 1950, the percentage of deaths and their causes by sex and age group were determined. The characteristics of the morbimortality...

  13. Evolución del comportamiento reproductivo y estructura poblacional en el dpto. Minas (prov. de Córdoba, 1980-1991)

    López, Andrea M.; Colantonio, Sonia Edith
    In the subpopulations of Minas Department (Córdoba, Argentina), the evolution of the reproductive behavior is analyzed, and both the genetic drift and the potential for natural selection are estimated. The patterns of female reproduction are studied through the calculation of the net reproductive rate, the ratio of single women with children, the average progeny size and its percentage distribution for all women with a completed reproductive cycle. Both the opportunity for natural selection and the potential for genetic drift are estimated through various procedures. The results show that, in the department studied, reproduction is assured -at the lowest end of...

  14. Estimación de parámetros demográficos en poblaciones nativas antiguas y contemporáneas

    Cocilovo, José Alberto; Valdano, Silvia G.; Varela, Héctor Hugo
    The present study aims at the reconstruction of the demographic profiles of a set of populations associated with historical, economic, contextual and chronological data. Demographic techniques involving the estimation of parameters of mortality, survival and expectation of life were employed for the characterization of the structure of the local and regional population. The obtained results show that the values of life expectancy (exo) are distributed in the range from 13 to 35 years of age. The gross natimortality rates are included in the interval from 29 0/00 to 76 0/00. Dramatic situations most probably associated with the rapid extinction process...

  15. Estructura y composición de la población antigua de la Quebrada de Humahuaca: Análisis multivariado

    Cocilovo, José Alberto; Varela, Héctor Hugo; Baffi, Elvira Inés; Valdano, Silvia G.
    The aim of the present work is to analyze the structure of the prehistoric population of the Quebrada de Humahuaca (Province of Jujuy, Argentina). The studied sample is constituted by 356 individuals (post-reproductive ages, both sexes, artificially deformed and not deformed) belonging to 11 sites in the mentioned region. Sixteen quantitative characters of the skull were selected, in which the sexual and postreproductive age variation were eliminated; while the effect of the artificial deformation was evaluated later. Different techniques of multivariate statistical analysis (discriminant canonical analysis, discriminant functions, biological distances and cluster analysis) were applied for the comparative study of...

  16. El hombre de maíz y la plasticidad humana

    Bogin, Barry
    Una de las manifestaciones más obvias de la maleabilidad humana es la enorme variabilidad en estatura. A principios de este siglo la estatura media de una población fue considerada como un indicador genético. Por ejemplo los Maya de Guatemala, siendo de baja estatura, tendrían en este sentido una capacidad genética de crecimiento distinta a la de europeos y americanos. Los americanos eran los más altos del mundo, con una estatura media de 168 cm en varones. Actualmente, este "premio" pertenece a los holandeses con una estatura media de 180 cm en varones, mientras que el promedio de los americanos es...

  17. Subdivisión poblacional en la Puna

    Acreche, Noemí
    Population limits definitions are generally arbitrary in the human species. In the case of the environmental unit known as Puna, populations are partially isolated. Relationships among people living in different centers have been measured considering the migration coefficients. This fact requires further considerations. In this work genotypic variability has been studied in five loci of blood groups (ABO, Cc, Ee, MN, Ss) and in one HLA one (DRB1). Wright fixation indices were computed (FIS', FST y FIT>) and hierarchical analyses were performed, including those of the other populations in northwestern Argentina. A high gametic correlations, as well as low differentiation...

  18. Nuevas determinaciones de isótopos estables para Tierra del Fuego

    Guichón, Ricardo Aníbal; Borrero, Luis Alberto; Prieto, Luis A.; Cárdenas, Pedro; Tykot, Robert H.
    Results from the stable-isotope analysis of eight human bone samples from Tierra del Fuego are presented. Together with 15 previous results, they inform on subsistence variation for hunter-gatherer populations. The observed variation is larger than those previously recorded. The South-East portion of the island had the samples with the larger maritime influence. The North portion showed most terrestrial values. The δ15N data allowed us to postulate a prominent contribution of maritime proteins to the diets of individuals representing the different regions considered. The observed variation was larger than expected.

  19. Influencia de la alimentación durante la lactancia sobre la desnutrición intergeneracional: Un estudio experimental

    Cesani, María Florencia; Orden, Alicia Bibiana; Zucchi, Mariel; Oyhenart, Evelia Edith; Muñe, María Cristina; Pucciarelli, Héctor Mario
    Undernutrition is regarded as an intergenerational factor when it acts on successive generations. The aim of the present study is to set the effect of the supplementation through suckling on body weight in two generations of undernourished rats. Control dams were fed on ad-libitum during all the experiment, and their offspring was the parental (P) generation. The F1 and F2 pups came from dams underfed from weaning to pregnancy. After birth, the dams were fed ad libitum up to the end of the experiment. They and their offspring were weighted weekly, the maternal food intake was recorded, and the Relative...

  20. Análisis antropogenético de los aportes indígena y africano en muestras hospitalarias de la ciudad de Buenos Aires

    Avena, Sergio Alejandro; Goicoechea, Alicia Susana; Dugoujon, Jean Michel; Slepoy, Mónica G; Slepoy, A. S.; Carnese, Francisco R.
    Because of the arrival of massive migratory flows from Europa to Buenos Aires city, the ABO and Rh gene frequencies in hospital samples, between 1930 and 1940, were similar to those registered in Spain and Italy. Then, populations from several provinces and neighboring countries, with an elevated indigenous -and probably, African- composition, migrated to the city. To evaluate the impact on the genetical structure of the population we to analyse two hospital samples (MI and MII) belonging to the Blood Bank of the Hospital Italiano (Buenos Aires, Argentina). The MI sample was obtained from ABO and Rh (D) systems (N=13217)...

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