Duration of unemployment among men in Northern Ireland: regional inequality or denominational discrimination?
- R Crouchley; A R Pickles; P N O'Farrell
Male unemployment in Northern Ireland from 1926 to 1973 is examined by using aggregate time series and individual life-history data. County-specific and sector-specific unemployment rates are derived from various published statistics by using an entropy maximising procedure. These aggregate data show a systematic relative improvement in male unemployment in the predominantly Protestant eastern counties and a corresponding deterioration in the more Catholic western counties. A model for investigating the factors affecting the duration of unemployment of individuals is presented. It is applied to the lifetime unemployment histories of a sample of men in Northern Ireland who were aged between eighteen...
Deconstructing regions: notes on the scales of spatial life
- A Paasi
The author examines the fundamental categories of geographical thought: region, locality, and place, the keywords in geographical discourse during the 1980s. The relation of these categories to the sociocultural context and the everyday practices of individuals is discussed, and a reinterpretation of the concept of region as a sociocultural and historical category is put forward. The region is comprehended as a historically contingent process whose institutionalisation consists of four stages: the development of territorial, symbolic, and institutional shape and its establishment as an entity in the regional system and social consciousness of the society. During the institutionalisation process a region...
The importance of place of birth in migration and population redistribution analysis
- A Rogers; A Belanger
Researchers on migration during the past two decades have increasingly interpreted geographical mobility as more than a one-time event in the lives of most people. This perspective has elevated the relative importance of the previous migration 'event histories' of individuals as variables in explanations of observed migration patterns. The role of migration away from and toward the place of birth has in particular received considerable attention. In this paper, US Census data is used to examine further the importance of place of birth on migration streams and to trace the impacts of such 'native dependence' on age patterns of migration,...
Labour turnover characteristics at the Eurocan Pulp and Paper Mill, Kitimat: a log-linear analysis
- B Ofori-Amoah; R Hayter
In this paper log-linear and related methods are applied to reanalyze the quit - stay characteristics of employees at a pulp and paper mill located in Kitimat, British Columbia, between 1970 and 1974. These characteristics had been examined solely on the basis of chi-square and Cramer's V
. Our reanalysis, which is based on Aitkin's simultaneous test procedure, residual analysis, and logit models, gives greater precision to previously suggested relationships and reveals new findings. In particular, in this paper the nature of the association among various employee characteristics and quit rates are defined, and the original study is corrected by revealing...
Entrepreneurial behaviour within male work histories: a sector-specific analysis
- P N O'Farrell; A R Pickles
In this paper, aspects of entrepreneurship in Ireland -- North and South -- based upon a sample of 4300 male work histories are analysed. Complementary log - log models are employed to investigate the factors underlying the first business startup by an individual. A between-sector analysis of entrepreneurial behaviour is presented; the preceding employment experience of entrepreneurs is analysed; and their subsequent employment spell is examined. Results show that religious denomination is not associated with self-employment in any sectors, but that Anglicans are more likely to set up employer businesses outwith the construction industry. There are also spatial differences in...
Technical changes and the rate of profit in the Canadian textile, knitting, and clothing industries
- M Webber; S Tonkin
In this paper the histories of profitability and accumulation in the textile, knitting, and clothing industries of Canada are examined, over the period 1952 - 81. These histories are quite different from those of other industries and of Canadian manufacturing as a whole. In the clothing industry, capitalists have relied upon increasing rates of exploitation to maintain their high rates of profit, and there has been only limited technical change; in the textile industry, the technical composition of capital has risen, and its negative effects on profitability have been offset by changes in the turnover time and the rate of...
Spatial mobility, tenure mobility, and emerging social division in the UK housing market
- R Forrest
The aim in this paper is to contribute to current debates on emerging social division in the British housing market. Debates on the residualisation of council housing, differentiation within homeownership, and housing tenure polarisation are discussed. A particular concern is the development of a more processual account of the shaping of housing histories of different groups at different points in the income and social structure and the linking of debates within housing to broader accounts of the changing structure of British society.
Folk theorems with Bounded Recall under(Almost) Perfect Monitoring
- George Mailath; Wojciech Olszewski
A strategy profile in a repeated game has bounded recall L if play under the profile after two distinct histories that agree in the last L periods is equal. Mailath and Morris (2002, 2006) proved that any strict equilibrium in bounded-recall strategies of a game with full support public monitoring is robust to all perturbations of the monitoring structure towards private monitoring (the case of almost-public monitoring), while strict equilibria in unbounded-recall strategies are typically not robust. We prove that the perfect-monitoring folk theorem continues to hold when attention is restricted to strategies with bounded recall and the equilibrium is...
Towards an improved information utilization in design decisionmaking: a case study of the Hurricane Andrew recovery efforts
- R Langendorf
This paper is a review of the experiences at the computer laboratory of the School of Architecture at the University of Miami in contributing to recovery efforts in the aftermath of Hurricane Andrew and a reflection upon these experiences with regard to the ways computer- based information can contribute to improved design decisionmaking. It begins with background on the hurricane and the active role in recovery that the school and, in particular, the computer laboratory assumed. Case histories are presented on the laboratory's participation in the South Dade Charrette, preparation of an Historic Preservation and Recovery Plan, and the development...
Urban/regional models and planning cultures: lessons from cross-national modelling projects
- M Wegener
MEPLAN and DORTMUND, two urban/regional models which originated in two countries with significantly different planning cultures—the United Kingdom and Germany— are compared. In the first part of the paper it is demonstrated that the political and intellec tual contexts in which the two models were developed had a significant influence on the selection of processes to be modelled, the theories applied, the definition of submodels, the solution algorithms, and the kinds of results the models were designed to produce—as well as their application histories. In the second part a unique exercise is reported in which three urban/regional models, MEPLAN, DORTMUND,...
The Rise of A District Lead Firm: The Case of Wam (1968-2003)
- Alberto Rinaldi
In recent years a major evolution in several industrial districts in Italy has been the emergence of new hierarchical structures that led to the rise of lead firms. These are firms that - contrary to canonical district firms which tend to remain small - pursue size growth, invest in marketing, distribution and R&D, reorganize their subcontracting networks, and become international by establishing commercial subsidiaries and prodcution facilities abroad. However, despite their increasing importance, lead firms' histories remain largely unexplored. This paper contributes to fill this gap by examining the case of one of such lead firms: Wam, a company set...
A Composite-Conditional-Likelihood Approach for Gene Mapping Based on Linkage Disequilibrium in Windows of Marker Loci
- Fabrice Larribe; Sabin Lessard
A composite-conditional-likelihood (CCL) approach is proposed to map the position of a trait-influencing mutation (TIM) using the ancestral recombination graph (ARG) and importance sampling to reconstruct the genealogy of DNA sequences with respect to windows of marker loci and predict the linkage disequilibrium pattern observed in a sample of cases and controls. The method is designed to fine-map the location of a disease mutation, not as an association study. The CCL function proposed for the position of the TIM is a weighted product of conditional likelihood functions for windows of a given number of marker loci that encompass the TIM...
The employment effects of innovation
- Alex Coad; Rekha Rao
The issue of technological unemployment receives perennial popular attention. Although there are previous empirical investigations that have focused on the relationship between innovation and employment, the originality of our approach lies in our choice of method. We focus on four 2-digit manufacturing industries that are known for their high patenting activity. We then use Principal Components Analysis to generate a firm-and year-specific "innovativeness" index by extracting the common variance in a firm's patenting and R&D expenditure histories. To begin with, we explore the heterogeneity of firms by using semi-parametric quantile regression. Whilst some firms may reduce employment levels after innovating,...
Exit from short-term contract. A french empirical analysis, 1990-2002
- Mohamed Ben Halima
This paper tests the determinants of the transition out of short-term contracts by means of competing risk form of the semi-parametric Cox proportional hazard model. We use three labour market states distinguishing between exit into long-term contract, another short-term contract, and unemployment. For each type of exit, we define a separate hazard function that we'll call a type-specific hazard. The estimates are carried out from a dataset recording individual labour market histories, the French Labour Force Survey (LFS) collected by theFrench National Statistical Institute (INSEE). The competing risk model is estimated for all the individual as well as separately for...
CIENTÍFICOS POR LA GUERRA, CIENTÍFICOS POR LA PAZ
- Antonio Becerra Hernández
La Ciencia no es algo estanco y aislado de la Sociedad. Quienes la ejercen tienen que tomar partido en cuestiones que al resto de los seres humanos nos son de capital importancia. En función de sus convicciones éticas, morales, religiosas, de carácter social y económico, políticas, etc, los científicos han tomado posición a favor de la guerra en unos casos, a favor de la paz en otros. La Historia está llena de ejemplos de científicos por la paz y de científicos por la guerra.
EL PROBLEMA DEL ENVEJECIMIENTO EN CUBA
- Juan Francisco Tejera Concepción
El mundo se hace viejo. Es la primera vez en la historia de la humanidad en que un gran número de personas llegan a la ancianidad. Es evidente que todo este proceso ha provocado un determinado impacto en ciertos sectores estratégicos de la estructura social, entre los que se encuentran el sistema educacional y de salud. Cuba no ha sido una excepción en ese sentido. Hasta hace unos pocos años no existía ninguna tradición geriátrica ni de profesionales que se dedicaran específicamente al anciano, los cuales se atendían en los diferentes servicios conjuntamente con los adultos jóvenes a pesar de...
LA ÉTICA Y LA MEDICINA ACTUAL
- Juan Francisco Tejera Concepción
La ética del ejercicio de la medicina en aspectos como el médico y la sociedad, la relación del médico con otros médicos, terapias médicas innovadoras, el consentimiento informado, el acceso a la atención médica, la ingeniería genética, la renuncia al tratamiento para mantener la vida, el suicido asistido por médicos y la cada vez mayor computarización de las historias clínicas obligan a reconsiderar periódicamente los dilemas éticos en el entorno de la medicina actual. 1
RECUENTO HISTÓRICO DE LA ENSEÑANZA DE LA MEDICINA EN CUBA
- Juan Francisco Tejera Concepción
Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica relacionada con la historia de la enseñanza de la medicina en Cuba desde la época colonial hasta los momentos actuales, donde se detallan sus características en cada fase y se concluye que dicha enseñanza estuvo encaminada en las etapas colonial y neocolonial a la prestación de servicios curativos, además de ser biologicista y enciclopedista, mientras que luego del triunfo revolucionario ha tenido como principio insoslayable la vinculación del estudio con el trabajo y la ideología de la salud pública basada en la medicina social, que hoy en día exige el perfeccionamiento del plan de estudios...
IMPORTANCIA DE LA PRÁCTICA DE DEPORTES EN PERSONAS DISCAPACITADAS PARA LOGRAR UNA MEJOR CALIDAD DE VIDA
- Herminio Victor González Cabrera; Berkis Esther Sosa Sosa
Recorrer la historia y conocer como ha sido enfrentado el problema de la discapacidad en cada época es algo realmente interesante: la historia, nos permite aprender a valorar mejor la realidad actual, para comprender el presente, el desarrollo del conocimiento científico, resulta imprescindible conocer la historia, analizarla desde el punto de vista crítico, evaluar la evolución de los conocimientos médicos y su correspondencia con el entorno socioeconómico de cada etapa de la historia de sus aciertos y fracasos, aprendemos; de ella surgen las enseñanzas para obtener mejores resultados en el presente y en el futuro.
EL CONCEPTO HISTÓRICO-JURÍDICO DE LIBERTAD Y DE IGUALDAD POLÍTICO-SOCIAL EN LA OBRA DEL JURISTA, POLÍTICO Y ECONOMISTA REPUBLICANO MANUEL REVENTÓS I BORDOY (1888-1942)
- María Encarnación Gómez Rojo
Manuel Reventós i Bordoy nació en Barcelona en 1888 y falleció en 1942. Fue profesor en la Escuela de Comercio y en la Escuela de Estudios Sociales, de Historia de las doctrinas económicas y de Historia de las ideas y de los movimientos sociales y en la Universidad de Barcelona de Economía Política y de Teoría Económica y miembro activo del partido Acció Catalana Republicana . En 1931, fue Director general de Comercio exterior y política arancelaria de dos gobiernos de la IIª República española Pero, por encima de sus actividades jurídicas y políticas, es ante todo un pensador político...