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Nomenclatura Unesco > (55) Historia

Mostrando recursos 108,521 - 108,540 de 150,740

108521. - AN ALTERNATIVE THEORY OF HEALTH CARE DECISION MAKING - Carmen Herrero Blanco
Starting from a finite or countable set of states of health, and assuming the existence of an objective transitive preference relation on that set, we propose a way of performing interpersonal comparisons of states of health among individuals of different type. Then, a way of evaluating health streams for an individual is proposed. Finally, we rationalize a way of ranking alternative situations (life histories in terms of health) for a given group of individuals. Our approach is both Type-sensitive and Time-sensitive.

108522. Coordination failure in repeated games with almost-public monitoring - Mailath, George J.; Morris, Stephen
Some private-monitoring games, that is, games with no public histories, can have histories that are almost public. These games are the natural result of perturbing public monitoring games towards private monitoring. We explore the extent to which it is possible to coordinate continuation play in such games. It is always possible to coordinate continuation play by requiring behavior to have bounded recall (i.e., there is a bound L such that in any period, the last L signals are sufficient to determine behavior). We show that, in games with general almost-public private monitoring, this is essentially the only behavior that can...

108523. Pareto on the History of Economic Thought as an Aspect of Experimental Economics - Michael McLure
The reasons for studying the history of economic thought are diverse. The extreme range of reasons include suggestions that research in this field is: a way of passing time on an intellectual curiosity; an investment in human capital which contributes to a more profound understanding of modern economic theory; an activity of historical interest only, totally devoid of concern with the purely scientific merits of theories; or a subject for sociologists intent on understanding the culture of science and how this has influenced the evolution of scientific knowledge. Interestingly, Pareto had a well developed idea of the scientific reasons for...

108524. The Role of Domestic Abuse in Labor and Marriage Markets: Observing the Unobservables - Audra J. Bowlus; Shannon N. Seitz
In this paper we study the effects of abusive behavior on the labor force and marital status decisions of women. Using a unique Canadian data set on domestic violence, we estimate the effects of abuse on the marital history as well as current employment using a sequential, multi-state model. In our model, spousal abuse affects labor supply through decreases in utility from leisure as well as through reductions in productivity at work and hence the market wage. In addition, abuse is treated as an initially unobserved spousal characteristic that plays a role in the divorce decision, which in turn influences...

108525. State Intervention in English Education, 1833-1891: A Public Goods and Agency Approach - Martin West
By anachronistically attributing the origin and growth of popular education entirely to state intervention, standard histories of state education have failed to delimit sufficiently the state’s role in educational development. This paper offers a theoretically based examination of the British state’s intervention in the emerging market for popular education in England during the nineteenth century. It complements conventional neoclassical analysis with recent developments from the fields of methodological individualism and “new institutional” economics to identify the specific reasons the state first became involved in mass education. The eventual national system of state-provided, free elementary schools, managed by local representative bodies...

108526. La Predicción de la Insolvencia de Empresas Chilenas - Felipe Zurita
Este trabajo compara modelos de inestabilidad financiera de naturaleza estadística y basados en la teoría de opciones, para el conjunto de sociedades anónimas abiertas chilenas. Los modelos estadísticos tienen un ajuste adecuado, aunque la peculiar historia de las quiebras en el período considerado, a saber, su aglomeración al inicio, pone en duda su utilidad como herramienta predictiva. En el segundo caso, en cambio, el promedio de probabilidades de quiebra muestra una alta correlación con indicadores de riesgo bancarios, y los precede hasta en tres trimestres. En suma, este primer esfuerzo de medición es de un éxito moderado, pero señala una...

108527. ¿Por qué Latino América es Subdesarrollada? - Dominique Hachette.
Este artículo analizará diferentes explicaciones para el subdesarrollo del Continente a la luz de su historia económica de ese siglo. Estamos descontentos con nuestro estado económico actual. ¿En qué y por qué? ¿Por qué somos diferentes de los países industrializados? ¿Por qué somos más pobres a pesar de la abundancia de recursos naturales? ¿Podemos alcanzar el nivel de ingresos de los países industrializados? ¿Podemos salir del estado de pobreza solo con nuestros recursos? ¿Cómo? Si tenemos motivos para creer que es posible mejorar el status quo ¿cuáles son los medios más adecuados para hacerlo? ¿En qué plazo puede hacerse efectiva...

108528. Centenario de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile y Breve Historia de la Escuela de Economía - Mario Albornoz
The purpose of the article is to preserve an informal story of the School of Economics and Business Administration of the Catholic University of Chile. Since 1953 the author has been in direct relation with the School. The emphasis centers around the rela

108529. Veinticinco Años de Ingeniería Social en Chile: Un Breve Ensayo sobre la Historia Económica del Período 1960-1988 - Rolf Lüders
This is a brief essay about the Chilean economic history since 1960. The essay describes the economic models implemented by the different governments of this period (Alessandri=pragmatic; Frei=reformist; Allende=centralized planning; and Pinochet=liberal)

108530. La Economía Chilena: Historia y Proyecciones para 1980 - CIEUC

108531. Una Historia Monetaria de Chile - Rolf Lüders

108532. Una Evaluación Comparada de Tres Programas Anti-Inflacionarios en Chile: Una Década de Historia Monetaria, 1956-1966 - Beatriz Arbildua; Rolf Lüders

108533. Algunas Lecciones de la Historia para los Países en Vías de Desarrollo - Rondo Cameron

108534. Social Security and democracy - Casey B. Mulligan; Ricard Gil; Xavier Sala-i-Martin
Many political economic theories use and emphasize the process of voting in their explanation of the growth of Social Security, government spending, and other public policies. But is there an empirical connection between democracy and Social Security program size or design? Using some new international data sets to produce both country-panel econometric estimates as well as case studies of South American and southern European countries, we find that Social Security policy varies according to economic and demographic factors, but that very different political histories can result in the same Social Security policy. We find little partial effect of democracy on...

108535. The New Homelessness in North America; Histories of Four Cities. - O'Flaherty, B.
poverty ; urban areas

108536. The role of tobacco taxes in starting and quitting smoking: duration analysis of British data - Martin Forster; Andrew Jones
This paper presents new evidence on the determinants of starting and quitting smoking using duration data from the British Health and Lifestyle Survey (HALS). Self-reported data in individual smoking histories coupled with availability of a long time series for the tax rate on cigarettes are used to construct a longitudinal data set in which the tax rate is treated as a time varying covariate. This overcomes the problem of the lack of cross section variation in process that has plagued previous studies of smoking in Britain. The study is the first to identify tax-price elasticities for starting and quitting in...

108537. The role of tobacco taxes in starting and quitting smoking: duration analysis of British data - Martin Forster; Andrew Jones
This paper presents new evidence on the determinants of starting and quitting smoking using duration data from the British Health and Lifestyle Survey (HALS). Self-reported data in individual smoking histories coupled with availability of a long time series for the tax rate on cigarettes are used to construct a longitudinal data set in which the tax rate is treated as a time varying covariate. This overcomes the problem of the lack of cross section variation in process that has plagued previous studies of smoking in Britain. The study is the first to identify tax-price elasticities for starting and quitting in...

108538. A Multinomial Model of Fertility Choice and Offspring Sex-Ratios in India - Rubiana Chamarbagwala; Martin Ranger
Fertility decline in developing countries may have unexpected demographic consequences. Although lower fertility improves nutrition, health, and human capital investments for surviving children, little is known about the relationship between fertility outcomes and female-male offspring sex-ratios. Particularly in countries with a cultural preference for sons, like India and China, fertility decline may deteriorate the already imbalanced sex-ratios. We use the fertility histories of over 90,000 Indian women in the Second National Family and Health Survey to investigate the relationship between fertility choices and offspring sex-ratios in India. Both within- and between-family-size differences in offspring sex-ratios are examined. Our analysis reveals...

108539. Persistent Gaps and Default Traps - Luis A. V. Catao; Ana Fostel; Sandeep Kapur
We show how vicious circles in countries’ credit histories arise in a model where output persistence is coupled with asymmetric information between borrowers and lenders about the nature of output shocks. In such an environment, default creates a pessimistic outlook about the borrower’s output path. This translates into higher debt to- expected-output ratios, pushing up interest rates and hence debt servicing costs. By raising the cost of future repayments, this creates “default traps”. We provide empirical support for the model by building a long and broad cross-country dataset spanning over a century. This data is used to provide evidence on...

108540. Wages, experience and seniority - Christian Dustmann; Costas Meghir
In this paper we study the sources of wage growth. We identify the contribution to such growth of general, sector specific and firm specific human capital. Our results are interpretable within the context of a model where the returns to human capital may be heterogeneous and where firms may offer different combinations of entry level wages and firm specific human capital development. We allow for the the possibility that wages are match specific and that workers move jobs as a result of identifying a better match. To estimate the average returns to experience, sector tenure and firm specific tenure within...

 

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