Mostrando recursos 141 - 160 de 179,614

  1. Faunal Communities Are Invariant to Fragmentation in Experimental Seagrass Landscapes

    Lefcheck, Jonathan S.; Marion, Scott R.; Lombana, Alfonso V.; Orth, Robert J.
    Human-driven habitat fragmentation is cited as one of the most pressing threats facing many coastal ecosystems today. Many experiments have explored the consequences of fragmentation on fauna in one foundational habitat, seagrass beds, but have either surveyed along a gradient of existing patchiness, used artificial materials to mimic a natural bed, or sampled over short timescales. Here, we describe faunal responses to constructed fragmented landscapes varying from 4–400 m2 in two transplant garden experiments incorporating live eelgrass (Zostera marina L.). In experiments replicated within two subestuaries of the Chesapeake Bay, USA across multiple seasons and non-consecutive years, we comprehensively censused...

  2. Inflammatory Response in Preterm and Very Preterm Newborns with Sepsis

    Segura-Cervantes, Enrique; Mancilla-Ramírez, Javier; González-Canudas, Jorge; Alba, Erika; Santillán-Ballesteros, René; Morales-Barquet, Deneb; Sandoval-Plata, Gabriela; Galindo-Sevilla, Norma
    The response of the adaptive immune system is usually less intense in premature neonates than term neonates. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether immunological parameters vary between preterm (PT) neonates (≥32 weeks of gestational age) and very preterm (VPT) neonates (<32 weeks of gestational age). A cross-sectional study was designed to prospectively follow PT and VPT neonates at risk of developing sepsis. Plasma concentrations of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-4, and IL-10 were detected using flow cytometry. C-reactive protein (C-RP) and the complex SC5b-9 were detected in the plasma using commercial kits. A total of 83 patients...

  3. The Evidence-Based Practice of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Slocum, Timothy A.; Detrich, Ronnie; Wilczynski, Susan M.; Spencer, Trina D.; Lewis, Teri; Wolfe, Katie
    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a model of professional decision-making in which practitioners integrate the best available evidence with client values/context and clinical expertise in order to provide services for their clients. This framework provides behavior analysts with a structure for pervasive use of the best available evidence in the complex settings in which they work. This structure recognizes the need for clear and explicit understanding of the strength of evidence supporting intervention options, the important contextual factors including client values that contribute to decision making, and the key role of clinical expertise in the conceptualization, intervention, and evaluation of cases....

  4. Genetic Counselors’ Current Use of Personal Health Records-Based Family Histories in Genetic Clinics and Considerations for Their Future Adoption

    Widmer, Chaney; DeShazo, Jonathan P.; Bodurtha, Joann; Quillin, John; Creswick, Heather
    Given the widespread adoption of electronic medical records and recent emergence of electronic family history tools, we examined genetic counselors’ perspectives on the emerging technology of the personal health record (PHR)-based family history tool that links to an electronic medical record (EMR). Two-hundred thirty-three genetic counselors responded to an on-line survey eliciting current use of electronic family history (EFH) tools and familiarity with PHR-based family history tools. Additionally, after being shown a series of screen shots of a newly developed PHR-based family history tool based on the U.S. Surgeon General’s My Family Health Portrait (United States Department of Health and...

  5. Cold‐seeking behaviour mitigates reproductive losses from fungal infection in Drosophila

    Hunt, Vicky L.; Zhong, Weihao; McClure, Colin D.; Mlynski, David T.; Duxbury, Elizabeth M.L.; Keith Charnley, A.; Priest, Nicholas K.
    Animals must tailor their life‐history strategies to suit the prevailing conditions and respond to hazards in the environment. Animals with lethal infections are faced with a difficult choice: to allocate more resources to reproduction and suffer higher mortality or to reduce reproduction with the expectation of enhanced immunity and late‐age reproduction. However, the strategies employed to mediate shifts in life‐history traits are largely unknown.Here, we investigate the temperature preference of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, during infection with the fungal pathogen, Metarhizium robertsii, and the consequence of temperature preference on life‐history traits.We have measured the temperature preference of fruit flies...

  6. The heroines of their own stories: Insights from the use of life history drawings in research with a transnational migrant community

    Hirsch, Jennifer S.; Philbin, Morgan M.
    In this paper, we discuss how Life History Drawings can serve as a valuable method for global health research. The introduction discusses qualitative approaches to concepts such as reliability, validity and triangulation, and situates the use of participatory visual methods within the broader field of participatory research. The paper reports on an experience using life history drawings as part of extended ethnographic research in rural Mexico and among Mexican migrants living in Atlanta. The primary method for that parent project was comparative ethnographic research, which included life histories collected from 13 pairs of women over 15 months of participant observation....

  7. Deepwater Chondrichthyan Bycatch of the Eastern King Prawn Fishery in the Southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Rigby, Cassandra L.; White, William T.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.
    The deepwater chondrichthyan fauna of the Great Barrier Reef is poorly known and life history information is required to enable their effective management as they are inherently vulnerable to exploitation. The chondrichthyan bycatch from the deepwater eastern king prawn fishery at the Swain Reefs in the southern Great Barrier Reef was examined to determine the species present and provide information on their life histories. In all, 1533 individuals were collected from 11 deepwater chondrichthyan species, with the Argus skate Dipturus polyommata, piked spurdog Squalus megalops and pale spotted catshark Asymbolus pallidus the most commonly caught. All but one species is...

  8. Non-traumatic atlanto-axial rotatory subluxation: A rare cause of neck stiffness

    Gencpinar, Pinar; Erkan, Mine
    Atlanto-axial rotatory subluxation is a rare condition in childhood. A sudden onset of pain and limitation in neck movements are the most common presenting features. Usually, a previous trauma history exists. This study presents a case of an 18-month-old male with neck stiffness and pain in neck through palpation without trauma in his history but with rotatory subluxation of 30° in atlanto-axial joint observed in his cervical imaging. With this case, the aim was to emphasize the necessity for considering the atlanto-axial subluxation in patients less than five years old diagnosed with neck stiffness in differential diagnosis even if a...

  9. Ancient Human Migration after Out-of-Africa

    Shriner, Daniel; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Rotimi, Charles N.
    The serial founder model of modern human origins predicts that the phylogeny of ancestries exhibits bifurcating, tree-like behavior. Here, we tested this prediction using three methods designed to investigate gene flow in autosome-wide genotype data from 3,528 unrelated individuals from 163 global samples. Specifically, we investigated whether Cushitic ancestry has an East African or Middle Eastern origin. We found evidence for non-tree-like behavior in the form of four migration events. First, we found that Cushitic ancestry is a mixture of ancestries closely related to Arabian ancestry and Nilo-Saharan or Omotic ancestry. We found evidence for additional migration events in the...

  10. Bovine Teat Microbiome Analysis Revealed Reduced Alpha Diversity and Significant Changes in Taxonomic Profiles in Quarters with a History of Mastitis

    Falentin, Hélène; Rault, Lucie; Nicolas, Aurélie; Bouchard, Damien S.; Lassalas, Jacques; Lamberton, Philippe; Aubry, Jean-Marc; Marnet, Pierre-Guy; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine
    Mastitis is a mammary gland inflammatory disease often due to bacterial infections. Like many other infections, it used to be considered as a host-pathogen interaction driven by host and bacterial determinants. Until now, the involvement of the bovine mammary gland microbiota in the host-pathogen interaction has been poorly investigated, and mainly during the infectious episode. In this study, the bovine teat microbiome was investigated in 31 quarters corresponding to 27 animals, which were all free of inflammation at sampling time but which had different histories regarding mastitis: from no episode of mastitis on all the previous lactations (Healthy quarter, Hq)...

  11. Ontogenetic changes in larval swimming and orientation of pre-competent sea urchin Arbacia punctulata in turbulence

    Wheeler, Jeanette D.; Chan, Kit Yu Karen; Anderson, Erik J.; Mullineaux, Lauren S.
    Many marine organisms have complex life histories, having sessile adults and relying on the planktonic larvae for dispersal. Larvae swim and disperse in a complex fluid environment and the effect of ambient flow on larval behavior could in turn impact their survival and transport. However, to date, most studies on larvae–flow interactions have focused on competent larvae near settlement. We examined the importance of flow on early larval stages by studying how local flow and ontogeny influence swimming behavior in pre-competent larval sea urchins, Arbacia punctulata. We exposed larval urchins to grid-stirred turbulence and recorded their behavior at two stages...

  12. Neighbour Origin and Ploidy Level Drive Impact of an Alien Invasive Plant Species in a Competitive Environment

    Sun, Yan; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Schaffner, Urs
    Our understanding of the potential mechanisms driving the spread and naturalization of alien plant species has increased over the past decades, but specific knowledge on the factors contributing to their increased impact in the introduced range is still urgently needed. The native European plant Centaurea stoebe occurs as two cytotypes with different life histories (monocarpic diploids, allo-polycarpic tetraploids). However, only tetraploids have been found in its introduced range in North America, where C. stoebe has become a most prominent plant invader. Here, we focus on the ploidy level of C. stoebe and origin of neighbouring community in explaining the high...

  13. Case-Only Survival Analysis Reveals Unique Effects of Genotype, Sex, and Coronary Disease Severity on Survivorship

    Dungan, Jennifer R.; Qin, Xuejun; Horne, Benjamin D.; Carlquist, John F.; Singh, Abanish; Hurdle, Melissa; Grass, Elizabeth; Haynes, Carol; Gregory, Simon G.; Shah, Svati H.; Hauser, Elizabeth R.; Kraus, William E.
    Survival bias may unduly impact genetic association with complex diseases; gene-specific survival effects may further complicate such investigations. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a complex phenotype for which little is understood about gene-specific survival effects; yet, such information can offer insight into refining genetic associations, improving replications, and can provide candidate genes for both mortality risk and improved survivorship in CAD. Building on our previous work, the purpose of this current study was to: evaluate LSAMP SNP-specific hazards for all-cause mortality post-catheterization in a larger cohort of our CAD cases; and, perform additional replication in an independent dataset. We examined...

  14. Coupling Developmental Physiology, Photoperiod, and Temperature to Model Phenology and Dynamics of an Invasive Heteropteran, Halyomorpha halys

    Nielsen, Anne L.; Chen, Shi; Fleischer, Shelby J.
    We developed an agent-based stochastic model expressing stage-specific phenology and population dynamics for an insect species across geographic regions. We used the invasive pentatomid, Halyomorpha halys, as the model organism because gaps in knowledge exist regarding its developmental physiology, it is expanding its global distribution, and it is of significant economic importance. Model predictions were compared against field observations over 3 years, and the parameter set that enables the largest population growth was applied to eight locations over 10 years, capturing the variation in temperature and photoperiod profiles of significant horticultural crop production that could be affected by H. halys...

  15. Contemporary evolution and the dynamics of invasion in crop–wild hybrids with heritable variation for two weedy life–histories

    Campbell, Lesley G.; Teitel, Zachary; Miriti, Maria N.
    Gene flow in crop–wild complexes between phenotypically differentiated ancestors may transfer adaptive genetic variation that alters the fecundity and, potentially, the population growth (λ) of weeds. We created biotypes with potentially invasive traits, early flowering or long leaves, in wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) and F5 crop–wild hybrid (R. sativus × R. raphanistrum) backgrounds and compared them to randomly mated populations, to provide the first experimental estimate of long‐term fitness consequences of weedy life‐history variation. Using a life table response experiment design, we modeled λ of experimental, field populations in Pellston, MI, and assessed the relative success of alternative weed strategies and the contributions of...

  16. INFLUENCES OF HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY ON OLFACTORY AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN THE MENOPAUSE

    Doty, Richard L.; Tourbier, Isabelle; Ng, Victoria; Neff, Jessica; Armstrong, Deborah; Battistini, Michelle; Sammel, Mary D.; Gettes, David; Evans, Dwight L.; Mirza, Natasha; Moberg, Paul J.; Connolly, Tim; Sondheimer, Steven J.
    Olfactory dysfunction can be an early sign of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Since hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may protect against developing AD in postmenopausal women, the question arises as to whether it also protects against olfactory dysfunction in such women. Three olfactory and 12 neurocognitive tests were administered to 432 healthy postmenopausal women with varied HRT histories. Serum levels of reproductive hormones were obtained for all subjects; APOE-ε4 haplotype was determined for 77. National Adult Reading Test and Odor Memory/Discrimination Test (OMT) scores were positively influenced by HRT. Odor identification and OMT test scores were lower for women who scored poorly...

  17. When Do States Respond to Low Fertility? Contexts of State Concern in Wealthier Countries, 1976–2011

    Marshall, Emily A.
    Since the 1970s, expressions of state concern over low fertility have greatly increased among wealthier countries. This study asks to what extent this increase is explained by demographic factors, national-level economic and political factors, and processes of international diffusion and changing international norms. Analyses integrate the world polity literature on global policy diffusion with a social problems approach to examine international diffusion of state concern among more powerful members of the world polity, a process that can produce changes in international policy consensus. Comparisons of the characteristics of states that do and do not express concern over low fertility find...

  18. Physiological strategies during animal diapause: lessons from brine shrimp and annual killifish

    Podrabsky, Jason E.; Hand, Steven C.
    Diapause is a programmed state of developmental arrest that typically occurs as part of the natural developmental progression of organisms that inhabit seasonal environments. The brine shrimp Artemia franciscana and annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus share strikingly similar life histories that include embryonic diapause as a means to synchronize the growth and reproduction phases of their life history to favorable environmental conditions. In both species, respiration rate is severely depressed during diapause and thus alterations in mitochondrial physiology are a key component of the suite of characters associated with cessation of development. Here, we use these two species to illustrate the...

  19. Validity of Expert Assigned Retrospective Estimates of Occupational Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure

    DellaValle, Curt T.; Purdue, Mark P.; Ward, Mary H.; Locke, Sarah J.; Stewart, Patricia A.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Hartge, Patricia; Rothman, Nathanial; Friesen, Melissa C.
    Assessment of retrospective exposures based on expert judgment in case-control studies is usually of unknown validity because of the difficulty in finding gold standards for comparison. We investigated the relationship between expert-assigned retrospective occupational polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure estimates and serum PCB concentrations. Analyses were conducted on a subset of cases (n = 94) and controls (n = 96) in the multi-center National Cancer Institute, Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Case-Control Study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Based on the subjects’ lifetime work histories, an industrial hygienist assigned each job a probability of PCB exposure [<5% (unexposed), 5–<50% (possibly exposed), ≥50% (probably...

  20. Prolonged Acetaminophen-Protein Adduct Elimination During Renal Failure, Lack of Adduct Removal by Hemodiafiltration, and Urinary Adduct Concentrations After Acetaminophen Overdose

    Curry, Steven C.; Padilla-Jones, Angela; O’Connor, Ayrn D.; Ruha, Anne-Michelle; Bikin, Dale S.; Wilkins, Diana G.; Rollins, Douglas E.; Slawson, Matthew H.; Gerkin, Richard D.;
    Elevated concentrations of serum acetaminophen-protein adducts, measured as protein-derived acetaminophen-cysteine (APAP-CYS), have been used to support a diagnosis of APAP-induced liver injury when histories and APAP levels are unhelpful. Adducts have been reported to undergo first-order elimination, with a terminal half-life of about 1.6 days. We wondered whether renal failure would affect APAP-CYS elimination half-life and whether continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF), commonly used in liver failure patients, would remove adducts to lower their serum concentrations. Terminal elimination half-lives of serum APAP-CYS were compared between subjects with and without renal failure in a prospective cohort study of 168 adults who had ingested...

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