Mostrando recursos 181 - 200 de 48.185

  1. Gender, Education and Russia's tobacco epidemic: a lifecourse approach

    Quirmbach, D; Gerry, CJ
    While a number of studies, based on cross-sectional data for Russia, have documented strong increases in female smoking during the past two decades, the analysis of longer-term trends in smoking prevalence is hampered by the lack of representative data for the Soviet era. In this paper we create life-course smoking histories based on retrospective data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey of HSE (RLMS-HSE) and the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) which allow us to examine the dynamics of smoking patterns over the past 7 decades. We find that smoking rates differ most strongly by gender within all cohorts, but...

  2. Ambigüidades identitárias na “Feira Hippie”/ Brasil

    Pimentel, Duarte; Carrieri, Alexandre de Pádua; Leite-da-Silva, Alfredo Rodrigues
    Este trabalho tem por objetivo discutir as ambigüidades identitárias vivenciadas pelos atores sociais, representantes de organizações familiares que se agrupam na “Feira Hippie” de Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais/Brasil). O embasamento teórico da discussão está ancorado na abordagem de identidade e nos processos de identificação social, enquanto que o material empírico provém de uma investigação em organizações familiares. O método de pesquisa adotado foi o qualitativo, baseado na Análise do Discurso e na história de vida dos gestores familiares ao longo dos seus 36 anos de atuação na Feira. A análise evidenciou os processos de construção e desconstrução de determinadas identificações por parte dos gestores familiares em relação...

  3. Contributions to cosmic reionization from dark matter annihilation and decay

    Zavala, Jesús; Liu, Hongwan; Slatyer, Tracy Robyn
    Dark matter annihilation or decay could have a significant impact on the ionization and thermal history of the universe. In this paper, we study the potential contribution of dark matter annihilation (s-wave- or p-wave-dominated) or decay to cosmic reionization, via the production of electrons, positrons and photons. We map out the possible perturbations to the ionization and thermal histories of the universe due to dark matter processes, over a broad range of velocity-averaged annihilation cross sections/decay lifetimes and dark matter masses. We have employed recent numerical studies of the efficiency with which annihilation/decay products induce heating and ionization in the...

  4. Farm Safety Net Programs: Background and Issues

    Shields, Dennis A
    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) operates several programs that supplement the income of farmers and ranchers in times of low farm prices and natural disasters. Federal crop insurance, farm programs, and disaster assistance are collectively called the farm safety net. Federal crop insurance is often referred to as the centerpiece of the farm safety net because of its cost and broad scope for addressing natural disasters. The program is permanently authorized and makes available subsidized insurance for more than 130 commodities (ranging from apples to wheat) to help farmers manage risks associated with a loss in yield or revenue. Program...

  5. Temporary Contracts and Work–Family Balance in a Dual Labor Market

    Bonet, Rocio; Cruz, Cristina; Fernández Kranz, Daniel; Justo, Rachida
    A well-established finding in the literature is that self-employment enables mothers to accommodate work and family needs better than when they are engaged in organizational employment. With this result in mind, the authors investigate within a dual system of job protection if women under temporary contracts face greater work–family conflicts than those under permanent contracts. The authors use data on women's work and fertility histories from the Spanish Continuous Sample of Working Histories to analyze whether women under temporary contracts transition to self-employment upon motherhood more than those who are under permanent contracts. Analyses show that being under a temporary...

  6. Is Digital Technology Reshaping Employment Systems in U.S. Telecommunications Network Services?

    Keefe, Jeffrey H.
    The four major telecommunications local networks and network services—fixed wire line, wireless, cable television, and the Internet—are undergoing transformations propelled by network digitalization, service competition, and corporate consolidations. Using data from surveys conducted in 1998 and 2003, together with field interviews, site visits at major telecommunications firms, and discussions with industry experts, regulators, and analysts, the author examines how these forces reshaped technician employment systems across these formerly specialized telecommunications networks and services. The principal finding is that despite rising inter-network competition and common digital technologies, most of these networks’ fundamental employment systems continued with little change. Consistent with predictions...

  7. The Wage Effects of Personal Smoking History

    Grafova, Irina; Stafford, Frank P
    This study explores determinants of the wage penalty borne by smokers. The authors reconstruct individual smoking histories by pooling PSID (Panel Study of Income Dynamics) data for 1986-2001. They find no wage gap between former smokers and those who had never smoked, but statistically significant wage gaps between smokers who would continue smoking and three other groups: those who would later quit smoking, those who had quit smoking already, and those who never smoked. The wage penalty for smoking, observed in the 1986 cross-section, is largely driven by those who would continue smoking over the years 1986-2001. These results suggest...

  8. [Review of the book The System of Professions: An Essay on the Division of Expert Labor]

    Tolbert, Pamela S.
    [Excerpt] In The System of Professions, Abbott directly confronts these important and long-neglected issues in an original and highly thought-provoking approach to the analysis of professions. Focusing on the dynamics through which occupations define their jurisdiction, or the right to control the provision of particular services and activities, this approach draws attention to one of the most critical determinants of jurisdiction, interprofessional competition. Based on an astoundingly wide, cross-cultural knowledge of the histories of a variety of occupations, Abbott provides a rich and complex analysis of the nature of relationships among professional occupations and the forces that shape these relationships...

  9. Social Security: The Government Pension Offset (GPO)

    Sidor, Gary
    Social Security spousal benefits were established in the 1930s to help support wives who are financially dependent on their husbands. It has since become more common for both spouses in a couple to work, with the result that, in more cases, both members of a couple are entitled to Social Security or other government pensions based on their own work records. Social Security does not provide both a full retired-worker and a full spousal benefit to the same individual. Two provisions are designed to reduce the Social Security spousal benefits of individuals who are not financially dependent on their spouses because...

  10. Long-Term Unemployment Over Men's Careers

    Rothstein, Donna S
    [Excerpt] Since the start of the recent recession, which began in December 2007, many unemployed Americans have entered the ranks of the long-term unemployed (those who are unemployed for 27 weeks or more). Long-term unemployment peaked at 46 percent of total unemployment in May 2010, well after the recent recession ended in June 2009. In contrast, after an earlier recession, which lasted from July 1981 to November 1982, the long-term unemployed number peaked at 26 percent of total unemployment in 1983. These point-in-time estimates, however, do not indicate the proportion of people who have a long-term unemployment spell over their labor...

  11. Learning Histories

    Serrat, Olivier
    {Excerpt} How can we gauge the successes and failures of collective learning? How can the rest of the organization benefit from the experience? Learning histories surface the thinking, experiments, and arguments of actors who engaged in organizational change. In the corporate world, the precedence ascribed to individual learning can run counter to organizational learning, the process by which an organization and its people develop their capabilities to create a desired future. Without doubt, developing capabilities is a precondition of a desired future; however, if the essence of a learning organization is that it actively identifies, creates, stores, shares, and uses knowledge...

  12. The Premortem Technique

    Serrat, Olivier
    [Excerpt] An autopsy—aka a postmortem examination—is a specialized surgical procedure conducted by a pathologist to thoroughly assess a corpse to determine or confirm the exact cause and circumstances of death or the character and extent of changes produced by disease. Knowledge is what you harvest from experience—be that your own or someone else’s—through sense-making. In sundry areas of human endeavor, it is common (but not common enough) to conduct the equivalent of a post-mortem by means of formal completion or evaluation reports—after-action reviews, retrospects, and learning histories are rarer still—to try to understand why an initiative did or did not succeed....

  13. Employing and Accommodating Individuals With Histories Of Alcohol Or Drug Abuse

    Moore, Dennis; Weber, Ellen
    This brochure on individuals with histories of alcohol or drug abuse and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is one of a series on human resources practices and workplace accommodations for persons with disabilities edited by Susanne M. Bruyère, Ph.D., CRC, SPHR, Director, Program on Employment and Disability, School of Industrial and Labor Relations – Extension Division, Cornell University.

  14. Coming From Good Stock: Career Histories and New Venture Formation

    Burton, M. Diane; Sørensen, Jesper B; Beckman, Christine M
    We examine how the social structure of existing organizations influences entrepreneurship and suggest that resources accrue to entrepreneurs based on the structural position of their prior employers. We argue that information advantages allow individuals from entrepreneurially prominent prior firms to identify new opportunities. Entrepreneurial prominence also reduces the perceived uncertainty of a new venture. Using a sample of Silicon Valley start-ups, we demonstrate that entrepreneurial prominence is associated with initial strategy and the probability of attracting external financing. New ventures with high prominence are more likely to be innovators; furthermore, innovators with high prominence are more likely to obtain financing.

  15. Social Security: The Government Pension Offset (GPO)

    Scott, Christine
    Social Security spousal benefits were established in the 1930s to help support wives who are financially dependent on their husbands. It has since become more common for both spouses in a couple to work, with the result that, in more cases, both members of a couple are entitled to Social Security or other government pensions based on their own work records. Social Security generally does not provide both a full retired-worker and a full spousal benefit to the same individual. Two provisions are designed to reduce the Social Security spousal benefits of individuals who are not financially dependent on their spouses...

  16. Phone Clones: Authenticity Work in the Transnational Service Economy

    Mirchandani, Kiran
    [Excerpt] What happens when you need to be yourself and like someone else at the same time? This is the central demand placed on transnational service workers, who form a large and growing part of the global economy. In response, workers perform an elaborate set of largely invisible activities, which I term authenticity work. Based on interviews with one hundred transnational call center workers in India this book describes their authenticity work as they refashion themselves into ideal Indian workers who can expertly provide synchronous, voice-to-voice customer service for clients in the West. The experiences of Indian call center workers...

  17. Organizing at the Margins: The Symbolic Politics of Labor in South Korea and the United States

    Chun, Jennifer Jihye
    [Excerpt] What might the striking convergence in the trajectories of the South Korean and U.S. labor movements mean for the dynamics of change taking place for labor on a global scale? To what extent does the embrace of marginalized groups of workers such as immigrants and women by previously exclusionary labor movements signal the development of more inclusive and democratic forms of labor politics? How can workers subject to overlapping forms of social, economic, and political marginality actually transform the unequal relations of power and domination that underpin downgraded forms of employment? The answers to these questions constitute the heart of...

  18. The Changing Face of Medicine: Women Doctors and the Evolution of Health Care in America

    Boulis, Ann K; Jacobs, Jerry A
    [Excerpt] This book is a case study of one profession that plays a key role in the health care sector, which now represents about one seventh of the U.S. economy. It examines the most dramatic demographic change in this sector in the last century. But the issues we raise are likely to be of interest more broadly for what they say about the changing roles of women in contemporary society. Women's entry into medicine is taken as dramatic evidence that the barriers to opportunity for women are rapidly falling in America. Does the experience of female physicians to date bear...

  19. The Road Taken: Origins and Evolution of Employment Systems in Emerging Companies

    Baron, James N; Burton, M. Diane; Hannan, Michael T
    [Excerpt] Drawing on a unique archive of qualitative and quantitative data describing 100 Bay Area high technology firms within their first decade, this paper examines the models of employment relations espoused by company founders and bow those models shaped the evolution of human resource management within their organizations. Information gleaned from interviews suggests that founders and others involved in designing and launching these companies had blueprints for the employment relation that varied along three key dimensions: the primary basis of employee attachment and motivation, the primary means for controlling and coordinating work, and the primary criterion emphasized in selection. Based...

  20. Our Varying Histories and Future Potential: Models and Maps in Science, the Humanities, and in Music Theory

    Narmour, Eugene
    Part 1 briefly recounts the influence of social unrest and the explosion of knowledge in both psychology and the humanities circa 1970-1990. As the sciences rely on explicit top-down theories connected to bottom-up maps and models, and whereas the humanities build on bottom-up differences within malleable top-down “theories” (approaches, themes, theses, programs, methods, etc.), the changes in the sciences during this period contrasted sharply with the changes in the humanities. Part 2 discusses in detail how these two social transformations affected the histories of music theory and cognitive music theory. The former fractiously withdrew from its parent organization (AMS), whereas...

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