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Nomenclatura Unesco > (55) Historia

Mostrando recursos 61 - 80 de 154,830

61. Abstract - D. Douglas Boyd; Aeroacoustics Branch; Aeroacoustics Branch; David A. Conner; Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (amrdec
The NASA Aeroacoustic Prediction System (NAPS) is used to establish a link between model-scale and full-scale rotor predictions and is partially validated against measured wind tunnel and flight aeroacoustic data. The prediction approach of NAPS couples a comprehensive rotorcraft analysis with acoustic source noise and propagation codes. The comprehensive analysis selected for this study is CAMRAD-II, which provides the performance/trim/wake solution for a given rotor or flight condition. The post-trim capabilities of CAMRAD-II are used to compute high-resolution sectional airloads for the acoustic tone noise analysis, WOPMOD. The tone noise is propagated to observers on the ground with the propagation...

62. Belief systems for conflict resolution - Massimiliano Garagnani; Maria Fox; Derek P. Long
Abstract. In a multiagent system, conflicts may arise because of two basic reasons: 1) different agents have contrasting goals; 2) different agents have inconsistent knowledge. This situation can originate when agents are autonomous and strongly motivated by their own interests, and when heterogeneous agents, with different skills, ‘histories ’ and beliefs, coexist in a dynamic environment. This paper is focused on the representation of two agents’ epistemic conflicts, originated by the presence of contrasting beliefs. In such a situation, for an agent ‘S ’ to agree on a cooperative plan with another agent ‘H ’ it is necessary to communicate...

63. On the Modeling of Honest Players in Reputation Systems - Qing Zhang 张 晴; Wei Wei 卫 伟; Ting Yu 于 挺
Abstract Reputation mechanisms are a key technique to trust assessment in large-scale decentralized systems. The effectiveness of reputation-based trust management fundamentally relies on the assumption that an entity’s future behavior may be predicted based on its past behavior. Though many reputation-based trust schemes have been proposed, they can often be easily manipulated and exploited, since an attacker may adapt its behavior, and make the above assumption invalid. In other words, existing trust schemes are in general only effective when applied to honest players who usually act with certain consistency instead of adversaries who can behave arbitrarily. In this paper, we...

64. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Marital histories, marital support, and bone density: findings from the Midlife in the United States Study - D. Miller-martinez; T. Seeman; A. S. Karlamangla; G. A. Greendale; N. Binkley; C. J. Cr
Summary We examined the association between marital life history and bone mineral density (BMD) in a national sample from the US. In men, being stably married was independently associated with better lumbar spine BMD, and in women, more spousal support was associated with better lumbar spine BMD. Introduction Adult bone mass may be influenced by stressors over the life course. We examined the association between marital life history and bone mineral density (BMD) net socioeconomic and behavioral factors known to influence bone mass. We sought evidence for a gender difference in

65. h u t t
Be n e f it from examining other professions with lon-ger histories that arose from demands for new expertise. It requires more than technical excel-lence to translate demand into suc-cessful professional control over exper-tise. Professionalism is more than the promotion and certification of com-petence. But what is it? What are the strategies professionals have used to achieve high social respect and remu-neration? What strategies should they be pursuing in the 21st century? As a starting point, professionalism embodies expertise, a body of knowl-edge, and a service ethic. Fiduciary obligations of professionals extend beyond pursuit of self-interest, and involve advancing the...

66. Unifying Access and Resource Usage Control over Standard Client-Server Interactions - Tuan Phan; Thu D. Nguyen
Abstract. We propose a novel framework for integrated access and resource usage control over standard client-server interactions. Historically, access control has been developed without considering resource usage. Resource control has thus developed as an ad hoc server-centric set of mechanisms (e.g., file system quota, network bandwidth quote, etc.). We believe that resource usage control is strongly related to access control and so should be implemented using a unified, global enforcement framework. We introduce such a framework, where services have resource usage constraints and principals have resource usage histories. To access and use a service, a principal must have the appropriate...

67. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Marital histories, marital support, and bone density: findings from the Midlife in the United States Study - D. Miller-martinez; T. Seeman; A. S. Karlamangla; G. A. Greendale; N. Binkley; C. J. Cr
Summary We examined the association between marital life history and bone mineral density (BMD) in a national sample from the US. In men, being stably married was independently associated with better lumbar spine BMD, and in women, more spousal support was associated with better lumbar spine BMD. Introduction Adult bone mass may be influenced by stressors over the life course. We examined the association between marital life history and bone mineral density (BMD) net socioeconomic and behavioral factors known to influence bone mass. We sought evidence for a gender difference in

68. Error Detection and Correction of Gene Trees - Manuel Lafond; Krister M. Swenson; Nadia El-mabrouk
Reconstructing the phylogeny of a gene family and reconciling the obtained gene tree with the species tree reveals the history of duplications, losses and other events that have shaped the gene family, with important implications towards the functional specificity of genes. However, evolu-tionary histories inferred by reconciliation are strongly dependent upon the accuracy of the trees, and few misplaced leaves will lead to a completely different history. Furthermore, sequence data alone often lack the information to confidently support a gene tree topology. We outline a number of criteria that can be used to detect erroneous gene trees. Analysing Ensembl gene...

69. The Duration of Homeless Careers - Irving Piliavin; Michael Sosin; Herb Westerfelt; Longterm Homelessness An; Irving Piliavin; Alex H. Westerfelt; Michael Sosin; Ross L. Matsueda; An Exploratory Study
In this paper we examine the duration of homeless careers. We build a model of career length based on four conceptual frameworks: institutional disaffiliation, psychological dysfunction, human capital deficit, and cultural identification. Using survey data from a sample of 331 individuals in Minneapolis, we estimate a structural equation model of homeless career onset and duration. We find that conditioned on age, people who have less consistent work histories, experienced childhood foster care, and currently express less discomfort with life on the streets have longer homeless careers. Contrary to our hypothesis we find that people who experienced pre-homeless psychiatric hospitalization had...

70. Leibniz (from the Historia et Origo Calculi Differentialis, translated by J. M. Child) The L-group - Bill Casselman
It is an extremely useful thing to have knowledge of the true origins of memorable discoveries... It is not so much that thereby history may attribute to each man his own discoveries and that others should be encouraged to earn like commendation, as that the art of making discoveries should be extended by considering noteworthy examples of it.

71. THE COMMONWEALTH EMBLEM - C. Ducker
HIS PAPER CELEBRATES THE 40Th ANNIVERSARY of the Baillieu Library and at the same time shows how books in libraries are essential for the elucidation of botanical problems. It is the older generation of librarians and botanists that we have to thank, however, that we can use today their priceless heritage invested in the older books so necessary for stories of exploration and the science of botanical determination. To show how exploration and botanical history are integrated I have chosen the plants used as floral emblems of the States of the Commonwealth. All the floral emblems of Australia were chosen...

72. Original Article A cluster of deaths following influenza - Emilia Anisa; Alex Leventhala; Paul E. Slatera; Yael Arbelia; Yoram Sivana; Yitzhak Berlovitza; Boaz Leva
*Corresponding author. Abstract When four deaths occurred in one week among influenza vaccine recipients, the Israeli Health Ministry suspended its 2006 influenza vaccination campaign pending investigation of the causes of death. Medical histories of the deceased vaccinees, quality control reports, and laboratory test results were examined. Prior vaccine use that season and a risk assessment of the vaccinated population were also considered. All four decedents had been treated for cardiac and other chronic diseases, and none had experienced post-injection symptoms suggesting adverse reaction to influenza vaccine. Quality control and laboratory reports confirmed vaccine batch safety, and no adverse effects had...

73. Optimally solving dec-pomdps as continuous-state mdps - Jilles S. Dibangoye; Christopher Amato; Olivier Buffet
Optimally solving decentralized partially observ-able Markov decision processes (Dec-POMDPs) is a hard combinatorial problem. Current algorithms search through the space of full histories for each agent. Because of the doubly exponential growth in the number of policies in this space as the plan-ning horizon increases, these methods quickly be-come intractable. However, in real world problems, computing policies over the full history space is of-ten unnecessary. True histories experienced by the agents often lie near a structured, low-dimensional manifold embedded into the history space. We show that by transforming a Dec-POMDP into a continuous-state MDP, we are able to find and...

74. The E¤ects of Enforcement on Illegal Markets: Evidence from Migrant Smuggling along the Southwestern Border - Christina Gathmann; Jel Codes J K
Little is known about how enforcement a¤ects prices for illegal commodities. In this paper, we analyze how enforcement along the U.S.-Mexican border has a¤ected the prices and demand for illegal migrant smugglers. Using a unique dataset that links border crossing histories from illegal Mexican migrants to aggregate enforcement and punishment statistics, we …nd that the e¤ect of enforcement on smuggling prices is small. Though enforcement has more than tripled over the past fteen years, smuggling prices have increased by at most 30 percent. Unlike estimates from illegal drugs, the demand for border smugglers is however price elastic. We also show...

75. m m
We announce the release of an advanced version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software, which currently contains facilities for building sequence alignments, inferring phylogenetic histories, and conducting molecular evolutionary analysis. In version 6.0, MEGA now enables the inference of timetrees, as it implements the RelTime method for estimating divergence times for all branching points in a phylogeny. A new Timetree Wizard in MEGA6 facilitates this timetree inference by providing a graphical user interface (GUI) to specify the phylogeny and calibration constraints step-by-step. This version also contains enhanced algorithms to search for the optimal trees under evolutionary criteria and...

76. Terms of Reference
1. To facilitate the exchange of data and views between all parties on assessment methodologies and to promote the use of best practice and consistent methodologies through dissemination of NDAWG guidance. 2. To advance the understanding between groups who are likely to have differing objectives and views on dose assessment methods. 3. To meet on a regular basis to discuss matters of mutual concern, and developments arising out of research, case histories (eg, recent consultations) or changes in government policy. 4. To initiate debate beyond the group on key issues, as necessary 5. To keep abreast of national and international...

77. Contents - Wolfgang Schreiner; Temur Kutsia
We describe a static analysis that we have devised to determine whether a specification expressed in the LogicGuard language gives rise to a monitor that can operate with a fi-nite amount of resources, notably with finite histories of the streams that are monitored. This information can be passed to the runtime system of the monitor such that after every execution step the histories of the monitored streams can be appropriately pruned and the monitor can operate for an indefinite amount of time with a limited amount of memory. First, the analysis is presented for an abstract core language that monitors...

78. The E¤ects of Extended Unemployment Insurance Over the Business Cycle: Evidence from Regression Discontinuity Estimates over Twenty Years.Working Paper - Johannes F. Schmieder; Till Wachter; Stefan Bender; Steve Davis; Christian Dustmann; Johannes Görgen; Jennifer Hunt; Larry Katz; Kevin Lang; David Lee; Uliana Loginova; Patrycja Scioch; Stefan Seth Provided Sterling
Abstract: A goal of extending the duration of unemployment insurance (UI) in recessions is to reduce the rate of benefit exhaustion and hence increase coverage. However, such extensions potentially come at the cost of increased nonemployment durations. If UI benefit durations vary with the business cycle, it is very difficult to estimate the effects of this policy because of reverse causality. In this paper, we exploit the fact that the duration of UI benefits in Germany is a function of exact age that is invariant over the cycle. Using the universe of unemployment spells and career histories we implement a...

79. Dissertation: Heterogeneity and Dynamics in Individual Wages and Labour Market Histories - Bank Of Spain

80. On Forced Temperature Changes, Internal Variability and the AMO - Michael E. Mann; Byron A. Steinman; Sonya K. Miller
This article has been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but has not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process which may lead to differences between this version and the Version of Record. Please cite this article as doi: 10.1002/2014GL059233 ©2014 American Geophysical Union. All rights reserved. We estimate the low-frequency internal variability of Northern Hemisphere (NH) mean temperature using observed temperature variations, which include both forced and internal variability components, and several alternative model simulations of the (natural + anthropogenic) forced component alone. We then generate an ensemble of alternative historical temperature histories based on...

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