Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 68.121

  1. SYMPOSIUM Textual Practices in Crafting Bioethics Cases

    Brian Hurwitz
    Abstract Bioethics case reports generally treat aspects of moral fathomability, characterised and addressed in different ways. This paper reads the case as a textual model of scenarios and draws attention to its structure, narrative shape, linguistic register, and the effects of tone and temporality on reader expectation and respon-siveness. Such textual elements of case composition reflect authorial purpose and influence the interpreta-tion, including moral and ethical interpretation, of bio-ethics cases.

  2. When a Text Is Translated Does the Complexity of Its Vocabulary Change? Translations and Target

    Lidia A. Braunstein; Gregorio Dagostino; H. Eugene Stanley; Sasuke Miyazima
    In linguistic studies, the academic level of the vocabulary in a text can be described in terms of statistical physics by using a ‘‘temperature’ ’ concept related to the text’s word-frequency distribution. We propose a ‘‘comparative thermo-linguistic’’ technique to analyze the vocabulary of a text to determine its academic level and its target readership in any given language. We apply this technique to a large number of books by several authors and examine how the vocabulary of a text changes when it is translated from one language to another. Unlike the uniform results produced using the Zipf law, using our...

  3. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00315 The semantic richness of abstract concepts

    Gabriel Recchia; Michael N. Jones; Michael N. Jones; Department Of
    We contrasted the predictive power of three measures of semantic richness—number of features (NFs), contextual dispersion (CD), and a novel measure of number of semantic neighbors (NSN)—for a large set of concrete and abstract concepts on lexical decision and naming tasks. NSN (but not NF) facilitated processing for abstract concepts, while NF (but not NSN) facilitated processing for the most concrete concepts, consistent with claims that linguistic information is more relevant for abstract concepts in early processing. Additionally, converging evidence from two datasets suggests that when NSN and CD are controlled for, the features that most facilitate processing are those...

  4. Open AcceResearch article Haplotype frequencies at the DRD2 locus in populations of the East European Plain

    Ssbiomed Centbmc Genetics; Olga V Flegontova; Andrey V Khrunin; Olga I Lylova; Larisa A Tarskaia; Victor A Spitsyn; Alexey I Mikulich; Svetlana A Limborska
    Background: It was demonstrated previously that the three-locus RFLP haplotype, TaqI B-TaqI D-TaqI A (B-D-A), at the DRD2 locus constitutes a powerful genetic marker and probably reflects the most ancient dispersal of anatomically modern humans. Results: We investigated TaqI B, BclI, MboI, TaqI D, and TaqI A RFLPs in 17 contemporary populations of the East European Plain and Siberia. Most of these populations belong to the Indo-European or Uralic language families. We identified three common haplotypes, which occurred in more than 90 % of chromosomes investigated. The frequencies of the haplotypes differed according to linguistic and geographical affiliation. Conclusion: Populations...

  5. RESEARCH ARTICLE Responses to Vocalizations and Auditory Controls in the Human Newborn Brain

    Rina Cristia; Yasuyo Minagawa; Emmanuel Dupoux
    In the adult brain, speech can recruit a brain network that is overlapping with, but not identical to, that involved in perceiving non-linguistic vocalizations. Using the same stimuli that had been presented to human 4-month-olds and adults, as well as adult macaques, we sought to shed light on the cortical networks engaged when human newborns process diverse vocalization types. Near infrared spectroscopy was used to register the response of 40 newborns ’ perisylvian regions when stimulated with speech, human and macaque emotional vocalizations, as well as auditory controls where the formant structure was destroyed but the long-term spectrum was retained....

  6. Reviewed by:

    Elena C. Cuffari; Eddy J. Davelaar; Eddy J. Davelaar; Joanna Raczaszek-leonardi; Elena C. Cuffari Coordination is a widely employed term across recent quantitative and qualitative approaches to intersubjectivity, particularly approaches that give embodiment and enaction central explanatory roles. With a focus on linguistic and bodily coordination in conversational contexts, I review the operational meaning of coordination in recent empirical research and related theorizing of embodied intersubjectivity. This discussion articulates what must be involved in treating linguistic meaning as dynamic processes of coordination. The coordination approach presents languaging as a set of dynamic self-organizing processes and actions on multiple timescales and across multiple modalities that come about and work in certain domains (those jointly...

  7. Review Article Human Leukocyte Antigen Diversity: A Southern African Perspective

    Mqondisi Tshabalala; Juanita Mellet
    Copyright © 2015 Mqondisi Tshabalala et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Despite the increasingly well-documented evidence of high genetic, ethnic, and linguistic diversity amongst African populations, there is limited data on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) diversity in these populations. HLA is part of the host defense mechanism mediated through antigen presentation to effector cells of the immune system. With the high disease burden in southern Africa, HLA diversity data is increasingly important in the...

  8. Complete Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in Iranians

    Miroslava Derenko; Boris Malyarchuk; Ardeshir Bahmanimehr; Galina Denisova; Maria Perkova; Shirin Farjadian; Levon Yepiskoposyan
    Due to its pivotal geographical location and proximity to transcontinental migratory routes, Iran has played a key role in subsequent migrations, both prehistoric and historic, between Africa, Asia and Europe. To shed light on the genetic structure of the Iranian population as well as on the expansion patterns and population movements which affected this region, the complete mitochondrial genomes of 352 Iranians were obtained. All Iranian populations studied here exhibit similarly high diversity values comparable to the other groups from the Caucasus, Anatolia and Europe. The results of AMOVA and MDS analyses did not associate any regional and/or linguistic group...

  9. Use of Semantic Information to Interpret Thematic Information for Real-Time Sentence Comprehension in an SOV Language

    Satoru Yokoyama; Kei Takahashi; Ryuta Kawashima
    Recently, sentence comprehension in languages other than European languages has been investigated from a cross-linguistic perspective. In this paper, we examine whether and how animacy-related semantic information is used for real-time sentence comprehension in a SOV word order language (i.e., Japanese). Twenty-three Japanese native speakers participated in this study. They read semantically reversible and non-reversible sentences with canonical word order, and those with scrambled word order. In our results, the second argument position in reversible sentences took longer to read than that in non-reversible sentences, indicating that animacy information is used in second argument processing. In contrast, for the predicate...

  10. Reviewed by:

    Max Louwerse; Sterling Hutchinson; Christopher Kurby; Valley State; Max Louwerse
    Neurological evidence linguistic processes precede

  11. Reviewed by:

    Sabine Burfin; Olivier Pascalis; Elisa Ruiz Tada; Albert Costa; Christophe Savariaux; Sonia Kandel; Anahita Basirat; Kauyumari Sanchez; New Zeal We all go through a process of perceptual narrowing for phoneme identification. As we become experts in the languages we hear in our environment we lose the ability to identify phonemes that do not exist in our native phonological inventory. This research examined how linguistic experience—i.e., the exposure to a double phonological code during childhood—affects the visual processes involved in non-native phoneme identification in audiovisual speech perception. We conducted a phoneme identification experiment with bilingual and monolingual adult participants. It was an ABX task involving a Bengali dental-retroflex contrast that does not exist in any of the participants ’...

  12. Modeling statistical properties of written text. PloS one

    M. Ángeles Serrano; Ro Flammini
    Written text is one of the fundamental manifestations of human language, and the study of its universal regularities can give clues about how our brains process information and how we, as a society, organize and share it. Among these regularities, only Zipf’s law has been explored in depth. Other basic properties, such as the existence of bursts of rare words in specific documents, have only been studied independently of each other and mainly by descriptive models. As a consequence, there is a lack of understanding of linguistic processes as complex emergent phenomena. Beyond Zipf’s law for word frequencies, here we...

  13. Impaired Comprehension of Alternating Syntactic Constructions in Autism

    Melissa D. Stockbridge; Sarah J. White
    Individuals on the higher-functioning end of the autism spectrum have significant impairments in communication. Language delay can occur, particularly in syntactic or structural linguistic knowledge. However, classically observed semantic deficits generally overshadow these structural deficits. This research examined the potential effects on com-prehension of dative expressions that exhibited syntactic alternation versus those that were restricted, whether in syntactic construction or through marked semantic differences in construction. Children with autism and matched neurotypical control participants were presented with a sentence battery of dative statements representing these variations in construction and were asked to display basic comprehension of the sentence meaning by...

  14. Diffusion of lexical change in social media

    Jacob Eisenstein; Noah A. Smith; Eric P. Xing
    Computer-mediated communication is driving fundamental changes in the nature of written language. We investigate these changes by statistical analysis of a dataset comprising 107 million Twitter messages (authored by 2.7 million unique user accounts). Using a latent vector autoregressive model to aggregate across thousands of words, we identify high-level patterns in diffusion of linguistic change over the United States. Our model is robust to unpredictable changes in Twitter’s sampling rate, and provides a probabilistic characterization of the relationship of macro-scale linguistic influence to a set of demographic and geographic predictors. The results of this analysis offer support for prior arguments...

  15. Lexical Processing in Deaf Readers: An fMRI Investigation of Reading Proficiency

    David P. Corina
    Individuals with significant hearing loss often fail to attain competency in reading orthographic scripts which encode the sound properties of spoken language. Nevertheless, some profoundly deaf individuals do learn to read at age-appropriate levels. The question of what differentiates proficient deaf readers from less-proficient readers is poorly understood but topical, as efforts to develop appropriate and effective interventions are needed. This study uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain activation in deaf readers (N = 21), comparing proficient (N = 11) and less proficient (N = 10) readers ’ performance in a widely used test of implicit reading....

  16. Channelopathies: a review

    Judit Gervain; Núria Sebastián-gallés; Begoña Díaz; Itziar Laka; Reiko Mazuka; Naoto Yamane Marina; Guillaume Thierry; Debbie L. Mills
    Word frequency cues word order in adults: cross-linguistic

  17. RESEARCH ARTICLE Sound Symbolism Facilitates Word Learning in 14-Month-Olds

    Mutsumi Imai; Michiko Miyazaki; H. Henny Yeung; Shohei Hidaka; Katerina Kantartzis; Hiroyuki Okada; Sotaro Kita
    Sound symbolism, or the nonarbitrary link between linguistic sound and meaning, has often been discussed in connection with language evolution, where the oral imitation of external events links phonetic forms with their referents (e.g., Ramachandran & Hubbard, 2001). In this research, we explore whether sound symbolism may also facilitate synchronic lan-guage learning in human infants. Sound symbolism may be a useful cue particularly at the earliest developmental stages of word learning, because it potentially provides a way of bootstrapping word meaning from perceptual information. Using an associative word learn-ing paradigm, we demonstrated that 14-month-old infants could detect Köhler-type (1947) shape-sound...

  18. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Translation and adaption of the interRAI suite to local requirements in Belgian hospitals

    Nathalie Ih Wellens; Johan Flamaing; Philip Moons; Mieke Deschodt; Steven Boonen; Koen Milisen
    Background: The interRAI Suite contains comprehensive geriatric assessment tools designed for various healthcare settings. Although each instrument is developed for a particular population, together they form an integrated health evaluation system. The interRAI Acute Care Minimum Data Set (interRAI AC) is tailored for hospitalized older persons. Our aim in this study was to translate and adapt the interRAI AC to the Belgian hospital context, where it can be used together with the interRAI Home Care (HC) and the interRAI Long Term Care Facility (LTCF). Methods: A systematic, comprehensive, and rigorous 10-step approach was used to adapt the interRAI AC to...

  19. Protein Languages Differ Depending on Microorganism Lifestyle

    Joseph J. Grzymski; Adam G. Marsh
    Few quantitative measures of genome architecture or organization exist to support assumptions of differences between microorganisms that are broadly defined as being free-living or pathogenic. General principles about complete proteomes exist for codon usage, amino acid biases and essential or core genes. Genome-wide shifts in amino acid usage between free-living and pathogenic microorganisms result in fundamental differences in the complexity of their respective proteomes that are size and gene content independent. These differences are evident across broad phylogenetic groups–a result of environmental factors and population genetic forces rather than phylogenetic distance. A novel comparative analysis of amino acid usage–utilizing linguistic...

  20. Lexical Decision

    Jianfeng Yang; Jie Yang; W. Einar Mencl; Hua Shu; David Zevin
    Differences in how writing systems represent language raise important questions about whether there could be a universal functional architecture for reading across languages. In order to study potential language differences in the neural networks that support reading skill, we collected fMRI data from readers of alphabetic (English) and morpho-syllabic (Chi-nese) writing systems during two reading tasks. In one, participants read short stories under conditions that approximate natural reading, and in the other, participants decided whether individual stimuli were real words or not. Prior work comparing these two writing systems has overwhelmingly used meta-linguistic tasks, generally supporting the conclusion that the...

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