MIXED CATEGORIES IN JAPANESE Committee:
- Hitoshi Horiuchi; Stephen Wechsler Supervisor; Carlota S. Smith; Jonas Kuhn; Megan Crowhurst
Thanks to the many people, who enable me to complete this dissertation. Above all, I wish to thank Professor Stephen Wechsler whose help was most instrumental. My interest in the dissertation topic (mixed categories) and framework (LFG), was inspired by a series of his courses, including his introduction to LFG, his seminar on complex predicates, his introduction to HPSG, and his joint seminar (with Professor Carlota Smith) on event structure and aspect. I could not have developed the formal implementation in this dissertation without his great help. Through the experience of working with him, I learned the importance of crystal...
Individuals with aphasia (IAs) with differing classification categories may have linguistic processing profiles which can be described, at least to some extent, by differential performance for different information types (phonological, semantic, and structural/syntactic). For example, individuals with Wernicke’s aphasia or damage to posterior regions have been described as
Individual differences in adult second language learning:
- A Cognitive Perspective
Abstract: What makes some people more successful language learners than others? Scholars and practitioners of adult second language learning traditionally have cast the issue of individual differences in terms of such constructs as aptitude, motivation, learning strategies, learning styles, meta-linguistic awareness, and personality traits (e.g., extraversion), as well as a range of other social and affective variables (Ehrman, Leaver & Oxford, 2003). These are complex constructs that often lack a clear description of the underlying mechanisms. In this short overview we will take a cognitive perspective and link individual differences in adult L2 learning to individual differences in cognitive abilities....
Among the elicited and observed procedures used to describe, classify, diagnose, measure change, quantify severity, and plan intervention for persons with aphasia, the measurement of connected spoken language has become a stable and valued procedure for many of these purposes. Though recognized, the most valid, reliable, and efficient methods for sampling connected language has received relatively little experimental attention from clinical and experimental aphasiologists. The recently developed Story Retell Procedure (SRP) (Doyle, et al, 2000) has the unique measurement advantage of predetermined targets for the retold stories thus increasing the validity of measuring the accuracy of the connected sample. However,...
Aphasia classification: the relationship between objective acoustic measurement of spontaneous speaking samples and naïve listener judgments of similarity and fluency. For an objective measure to be useful in a clinical setting it must correlate with perceptions of the speaker and what is considered “normal ” (Kreiman, Gerratt, Kempster, Erman, & Berke, 1993). Perceptions of the functional communicative abilities of people with aphasia do not correlate well with changes on decontextualised linguistic measures (Wertz, 1999). In addition, the current practice of reliance on specific perceptual ratings of fluency of speech has been shown to be unreliable (Gordon, 1998; Kent, 1996,). Using...
In clinical practice, pictures are often used in multiple-choice arrays to assess linguistic comprehension of individuals with aphasia. From an array of images, the participant chooses the one that corresponds best to a verbal stimulus. Lack of linguistic comprehension is assumed when a participant fails by choosing an incorrect foil. However, an increasing body of research
MANUFACTURING LITERACIES by
- Cassandra Parente; Maria Romanelli
for writing to me in Italian, even when I wrote back in English, for doing the work of the hand, so I could pursue the work of the mind, and for surviving wars that were physical, cultural, economic, and linguistic, so I would have the opportunity to tell this story. ii iii Preface “This city, however, does not tell its past, but contains it like the lines of a hand, written in the corners of the streets, the gratings of the windows, the banisters of the steps, the antennae of the lightening rods, the poles of the flags, every segment...
Investigation of the linguistic construction of Identity in Individuals with Traumatic
- Brain Injury
What people are, to themselves and others, is a product of a lifetime of interpersonal interactions superimposed over a very general ethological endowment (Harré, & van Langenhove, 1999). According to Eckert (2000) an individual is a linguistic agent building social meaning in their mutually-engaged community. Individual identity is constructed with group identities, and engagement in the world is a constant process of identity construction (Eckert, 2000). Harré and van Langenhove (1999), also support this social constructivist view of social phenomena generated in and through conversation and conversation like activities. Selfhood, therefore is manifested in various discursive practices such as telling...
de Doutora em Estudos
- Fátima De Gênova Daniel; Estadual Paulista; Campus De São; Linguística Aplicada; Orientador Maria; Helena Vieira Abrahão; Estadual Paulista; Letras E Ciências Exatas; Campus De; Profa Dra; Walkyria Monte Mor
teoria e prática em questão
While many speech errors can be generated at either a linguistic or motoric level of production, serial order errors are generally assumed to result from disruption of phonologic
Non-linguistic cognitive deficits are commonly associated with linguistic deficits in
1 PWAs AND PBJs: LANGUAGE FOR DESCRIBING A SIMPLE PROCEDURE
The purpose of this study was to analyze responses to a simple procedural discourse task in persons with aphasia (PWAs n=141) and non-aphasic participants (n=145). Participants described how to make a peanut butter and jelly sandwich. Results showed significant differences between groups on mean length of utterance, total number of words, total number of utterances, and task duration. However, the top 10 verbs and nouns used by both groups were nearly identical and the proportion of nouns, verbs, pronouns, and determiners used by each group was similar. Aphasia severity correlated moderately with total number of words only. Background Within the...
A corpus-based investigation of junk emails
- Constantin Orasan; Ramesh Krishnamurthy
Almost everyone who has an email account receives from time to time unwanted emails. These emails can be jokes from friends or commercial product offers from unknown people. In this paper we focus on these unwanted messages which try to promote a product or service, or to offer some “hot ” business opportunities. These messages are called junk emails. Several methods to filter junk emails were proposed, but none considers the linguistic characteristics of junk emails. In this paper, we investigate the linguistic features of a corpus of junk emails, and try to decide if they constitute a distinct genre....
the University of Liverpool
- Iman Rasti
The research explores an aspect of writer-reader interaction in native and non-native speaker student argumentative essays. Based on the assumption that writing is inherently a dialogue between writers and readers, this study looks in detail at key aspects of the ways in which Iranian and British students interact with their readers, bring them into the text, and involve them in the construction of the discourse and the arguments in order to contribute to the interactiveness and persuasiveness of the text. Three linguistic resources – interactant pronouns, questions, and directives – are looked at in a corpus totalling 334 short argumentative...
Therapy outcome in two individuals with jargon aphasia and neologisms Two individuals with jargon aphasia with similar clinical profiles received identical phonological therapy but responded differently to the therapy-P9 did not show any positive gains but FF showed improved naming. Analysis showed that FF and P9 had comparable performance in the semantic domain but P9 had poorer phonological skills. FF also showed a decrease in the number of neologisms and an increase in similarity with the target following therapy. Discussion will focus on the importance of exploring underlying linguistic processes before initiating therapy and the importance of analyzing both quality...
A grammar of creative workplaces
- Alison Williams
This study proposes a grammar of creative workplaces which identifies and codifies those elements of the physical environment that are reported to actively stimulate and sustain creativity in the workplace. The grammar is explicit rather than metaphorical or taxonomic. It emerges from and is applied into workplaces, predominantly office environments. Three elements, meaning, lexis, and syntax, central to the structure of linguistic and non-linguistic grammars, are proposed as the grammar’s method and as its content. Respondents in the research study identified the creative behaviours that stimulate and sustain their creativity, and the discrete physical elements that influence and support (and...
Varieties of linguistic complexity in a standardized assessment of language performance
Impact of distraction and memory on grammaticality judgment in a patient with aphasia. Background Aphasia has recently been described as a cognitive processing deficit attributed to resource allocation or restriction, rather than a deficit in linguistic structure itself
Categorization in Context for Young and Older Adults
This investigation explored effects of linguistic context on category structure in young and typical older adults. In a timed computer-based contextual categorization task, participants were provided with 150 stimulus sentences containing a superordinate category label. Participants were required to make a semantic decision relative to determining if a specific exemplar was the best example of the target category concept in the sentence using context. Response accuracy and reaction time results revealed that use of linguistic context for categorization was vulnerable to the aging process, as older adults were slower and less accurate for all response types except out-of-set examplars. Individuals...
The Ski Resorts Industry in the Twenty-First Century’s First Decade – a World-Wide Competition between Continents, Countries, and Regions
As it entered its third century, the ski industry faced numerous challenges and opportunities. Worldwide the industry confronted the significant warming trend that was affecting many countries, as well as their aging populations. In other places economic development either provided a robust industry or presented opportunities for domestic corporations as well as governments to develop their facilities and country industry. Each continent, country, region, and individual ski resort competed for its share of the skier’s pocket. Overview of the World-Wide Ski Industry Skiing, the winter form of recreation as we know it today is a relatively modern invention. It actually...