Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 74.920

  1. Testing the Adequacy of Query Languages Against Annotated Spoken Dialog

    Steve Cassidy; Pauline Welby; Julie Mcgory; Mary Beckman
    ABSTRACT: Large annotated collections of speech data are now common in spoken language research and a recent focus has been on the development of annotation standards and query languages for these annotations As part of this process it is important to evaluate the emerging proposals against a range of Linguistic annotation practices and in many different domains. This paper presents an example of a richly annotated discourse segment which includes both DAMSL style discourse level annotation and ToBI intonational analysis. We describe how this annotation could be realised in either the Emu, MATE or Annotation Graph formalisms. In order to...

  2. Tables: 10

    Sean S. Downey; Brian Hallmark; Murray P. Cox; Peter Norquest; J. Stephen Lansing
    1 Historical relationships among languages are used as a proxy for social history in many non-linguistic settings, including the fields of cultural and molecular anthropology. Linguists have traditionally assembled this information using the standard comparative method. While providing extremely nuanced linguistic information, this approach is time consuming and labor intensive. Conversely, computational approaches are appreciably quicker, but can potentially introduce significant error. Furthermore, current methods often use cognate sets that were themselves coded by historical linguists, thus reducing the benefit of computational approaches. Here we develop a method, based on the ALINE distance, to extract feature-sensitive relationships from paired glosses,...

  3. $rec.titulo


    are very complex in that respect. Sumo addresses this multilingual issue by providing an open document structure that allows to manage several level of segmentation at once. 3. There is a large variety of processes in the domain of presyntax, so Sumo also provides highlevel control structures to program any application using the Sumo data structures. These three points are detailed in the first three sections. They are then illustrated by the real-life example of the romanizer described above. 1. FINITE-STATE CALCULUS Regular expressions are a well-defined formalism, implemented very efficiently by finite-state automata. Many linguistic phenomena can be acurately...

  4. Plausible deniability using automated linguistic stegonagraphy

    Mark Chapman; George Davida
    Abstract. Information hiding has several applications, one of which is to hide the use of cryptography. The Nicetext [5, 6] system introduced a method for hiding cryptographic information by converting cryptographic strings (random-looking) into “nice text ” (namely innocuous looking). The system retains the ability to recover the original ciphertext from the generated text. Nicetext can hide both plaintext and cryptographic text. The purpose of such transformations are to mask ciphertext from anyone who wants to detect or censor encrypted communication, such as a corporation that may monitor, or censor, its employee private mail. Even if the message is identified...

  5. Generating Linguistic Spatial Descriptions from Sonar Readings Using the Histogram of Forces

    Marjorie Skubic; George Chronis; Pascal Matsakis; James Keller
    In this paper, we show how linguistic expressions can be generated to describe the spatial relations between a mobile robot and its environment, using readings from a ring of sonar sensors. Our work is motivated by the study of human-robot communication for non-expert users. The eventual goal is to use these linguistic expressions for navigation of the mobile robot in an unknown environment, where the expressions represent the qualitative state of the robot with respect to its environment, in terms that are easily understood by human users. In the paper, we describe the histogram of forces and its application to...

  6. 2005 Probabilistic grammars as models of gradience in language processing

    Matthew W. Crocker; Frank Keller
    Abstract 1 This article deals with gradience in human sentence processing. We review the experimental evidence for the role of experience in guiding the decisions of the sentence processor. Based on this evidence, we argue that the gradient behavior observed in the processing of certain syntactic constructions can be traced back to the amount of past experience that the processor has had with these constructions. In modeling terms, linguistic experience can be approximated using large, balanced corpora. We give an overview of corpus-based and probabilistic models in the literature that have exploited this fact, and hence are well placed to...

  7. Cognitive Science, Human-Computer Interaction and Semiotics: subliming multifolded boundaries 1


    Chico Buarque 3 One of the meanings of "subliming " is the process in which a solid is converted to vapour by means of heat, and then re-solidified on condensing back. Cognitive Science, Semiotics, and Human-Computer Interaction are metaphorically passing through a similar process, a process that will re-solidify on a different kind of solid, one that respects the components. Cognitive Science, in its strongest form, aggregates philosophical, anthropological, linguistic, psychological, neurological, and cybernetic interests in the study of cognition as information processing (Varela et al., 1991). Recently, models based on self-organisation and chaos have challenged this framework by linking...

  8. Abstract — DRAFT — Grounding Language in the World: Schema Theory Meets Semiotics

    Deb Roy
    A theoretical framework for grounding language is introduced that provides a computational path from sensing and motor action to words and speech acts. The approach combines concepts from semiotics and schema theory to develop a holistic approach to linguistic meaning. Schemas serve as structured beliefs that are grounded in an agent’s physical environment through a causal-predictive cycle. Speech acts are interpreted in terms of grounded schemas. The theory reflects lessons learned from implementations of several language processing robots and provides a framework for the practical design of situated, physically-embedded natural language processing systems.

  9. 2002 Pan-Canadian Education Research Agenda Symposium

    Charles S. Ungerleider; Tracey C. Burns
    The opinions expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not represent the views of the Canadian Education Statistics Council The literature devoted to technology and education is replete with claims regarding the contribution of computer technologies to teaching and learning in elementary and secondary schools. The claims have fuelled expectations and encouraged local and provincial school jurisdictions to expend significant resources on new technologies. This review of research is a response to the call by the Canadian Education Statistics Council to prepare a paper addressing some dimension of the impact of information and communication technology (ICT)...

  10. A model and its application for uncertainly group decision making ∗

    Jianzhong Chen; Ying Liu
    Abstract. To better solve the complicated problem of multi-attribute group decision making (MAGDM), we proposed a systemic approach by extending TOPSIS method. Linguistic assess terms of each group member were translated into the matrix of fuzzy triangular numbers. By using the incomplete preference information, multi-steps interactive procedure was applied for evaluating, selecting, ranking and approximating group ideal point step by step. In addition, the parameters of group satisfaction degree were designed to weigh group consensus and control the procedure; thus, the order of alternatives were given out conveniently. Therefore, the cumbersome for aggregating and computing group preference data could be...

  11. $rec.titulo


    Comparing oral language and reading comprehension This presentation is based on preliminary findings following interviews with Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students from remote, provincial and metropolitan areas about their strategies for reading multimodal texts in NSW literacy tests. This PhD research is part of an Australian Research Council (ARC) Linkage project which aims to develop a model of image-text relations. The paper investigates the characteristics of successful and struggling readers based on analysis of the complexity of texts read and the linguistic repertoire such as complexity of oral grammar and vocabulary, exhibited by students during think aloud reading sessions and interviews....

  12. by

    Anna R. Parker; Anna R. Parker
    I hereby declare that this thesis is of my own composition, and that it contains no material previously submitted for the award of any other degree. The work reported in this thesis has been executed by myself, except where due ac-knowledgement is made in the text. ii Anna R. Parker This thesis investigates the evolutionary plausibility of the Minimalist Program. Is such a theory of language reasonable given the assumption that the human linguistic capacity has been subject to the usual forces and processes of evolu-tion? More generally, this thesis is a comment on the manner in which theories of...

  13. On Metamodeling in Megamodels

    Dragan Gašević; Nima Kaviani; Marek Hatala
    Abstract. Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) introduced the notion of metamodeling as the main means for defining modeling languages. As a well organized engineering discipline, MDE should also have its theory clearly defined in terms of the relationships between key MDE concepts. Following the spirit of MDE, where models are first class citizens, even the MDE theory can be defined by models, or so called megamodels. In this paper, we use Favre’s megamodel that was already used for defining linguistic metamodeling. Starting from the premise that this megamodel can also be used for defining other MDE concepts, we use it to specify...

  14. Goldenstein: Analysis of Facial Expressions in American Sign Language

    Christian Vogler; Siome Goldenstein
    In the age of speech and voice recognition technologies, sign language recognition is an essential part of ensuring equal access for deaf people. To date, sign language recognition research has mostly ignored facial expressions that arise as part of a natural sign language discourse, even though they carry important grammatical and prosodic information. One reason is that tracking the motion and dynamics of expressions in human faces from video is a hard task, especially with the high number of occlusions from the signers ’ hands. In this paper, we present a 3D deformable model tracking system to address this problem....

  15. Learning issues in a multi-modal robot-instruction scenario

    J. J. Steil; F. Röthling; R. Haschke; H. Ritter
    Abstract — One of the challenges for the realization of future intelligent robots is to design architectures which make user instruction of work tasks by interactive demonstration effective and convenient. A key prerequisite for enhancement of robot learning beyond the level of low-level skill acquisition is situated multi-modal communication. Currently, most existing robot platforms still have to advance to make the development of an integrated learning architecture feasible. We report on the status of the Bielefeld GRAVIS-robot architecture that combines statistical methods, neural networks, and finite state machines into an integrated system for instructing grasping tasks by human-machine interaction. It...

  16. Statistical transliteration for English-Arabic cross language information retrieval

    Nasreen Abduljaleel; Leah S. Larkey
    Out of vocabulary (OOV) words are problematic for cross language information retrieval. One way to deal with OOV words when the two languages have different alphabets, is to transliterate the unknown words, that is, to render them in the orthography of the second language. In the present study, we present a simple statistical technique to train an English to Arabic transliteration model from pairs of names. We call this a selected n-gram model because a two-stage training procedure first learns which n-gram segments should be added to the unigram inventory for the source language, and then a second stage learns...

  17. A Requirements Elicitation Approach Based in Templates and Patterns?

    A. Durán Toro; B. Bernárdez Jiménez; A. Ruiz Cortés; M. Toro Bonilla
    Abstract One of the main problems of requirements elicitation is expressing customer requirements in a form that can be understood not only by requirements engineers but also by noncomputer professional customers and users. The usual choice for expressing elicited requirements is natural language, since it is frequently the only common language to all participants. Problems of natural language are well–known, but using more formal notations too early is a risky choice that can make requirements impossible to understand for customers and users. Moreover, requirements engineers do not usually have good writing skills, and sometimes semantically correct requirements, expressed in natural...

  18. Interpretation as Abduction

    Jerry R. Hobbs; Mark Stickel; Paul Martin
    Abduction is inference to the best explanation. In the TACITUS project at SRI we have developed an approach to abductive inference, called “weighted abduction”, that has resulted in a significant simplification of how the problem of interpreting texts is conceptualized. The interpretation of a text is the minimal explanation of why the text would be true. More precisely, to interpret a text, one must prove the logical form of the text from what is already mutually known, allowing for coercions, merging redundancies where possible, and making assumptions where necessary. It is shown how such “local pragmatics ” problems as reference...

  19. How to deal with wicked anaphora

    Dan Cristea; Oana-diana Postolache
    This paper revises a framework (called AR-engine) capable of easily defining and operating models of anaphora resolution. The proposed engine envisages the linguistic and semantic entities involved in the cognitive process of anaphora resolution as represented in three layers: the referential expressions layer, the projected layer of referential expression’s features and the semantic layer of discourse entities. Within this framework, cases of anaphora resolution usually considered difficult to be tackled are investigated and solutions are proposed. Among them, one finds relations triggered by syntactic constraints, lemma and number disagreement, and bridging anaphora. The investigation uses a contiguous text from the...

  20. The use of locative expressions in dependence of the spatial relation between target and reference object in two-dimensional layouts

    Hubert D. Zimmer; Harry R. Speiser; Jörg Baus; Anselm Blocher
    Abstract. In two experiments we investigated the use of German locative expressions as a function of the spatial relation between a reference object (RO) and a to-be-located object (LO). In the experiments, a speaker described to another participant, by locative expressions, where LO can be found in relation to RO. LO (a blue dot) was presented at different positions around RO (a red dot). The listener saw RO only, and her or his task was to find LO by moving a small window over the screen using the computer mouse. The positions of LO were circularly arranged around RO and...

Aviso de cookies: Usamos cookies propias y de terceros para mejorar nuestros servicios, para análisis estadístico y para mostrarle publicidad. Si continua navegando consideramos que acepta su uso en los términos establecidos en la Política de cookies.