Rapid processing of emotional and voice information as evidenced by ERPs
- Silke Paulmann; Patricia Schmidt; Marc Pell; Sonja A. Kotz
Next to linguistic content, the human voice carries speaker iden-tity information (e.g. female/male, young/old) and can also carry emotional information. Although various studies have started to specify the brain regions that underlie the different functions of human voice processing, few studies have aimed to specify the time course underlying these processes. By means of event-related potentials (ERPs) we aimed to determine the time-course of neural responses to emotional speech, speaker identification, and their interplay. While engaged in an implicit voice processing task (probe verification) participants listened to emotional sentences spoken by two female and two male speakers of two different...
Immigration Trends, Language Skills and the Labour Market Integration of Recent Immigrants*
- Monica Boyd
Using Citizenship and Immigration annual flow data and information from the 2006 Canada census, this presentation provides answers to the following two questions: 1) What are the changes over time in the English/French language skills of recent immigrants and how are they linked to the management of Canada’s immigration? 2) What is the relationship between English/French proficiency and labour market outcomes, such as labour force participation, unemployment, part-time work, occupation, weeks worked, earnings and employment in linguistic enclaves? The findings update earlier research, confirming again that low levels of language proficiency in destination country languages are strongly associated with unfavorable...
ASV Toolbox – A Modular Collection of Language Exploration Tools
- Chris Biemann; Uwe Quasthoff; Gerhard Heyer; Florian Holz
ASV Toolbox is a modular collection of tools for the exploration of written language data both for scientific and educational purposes. It includes modules that operate on word lists or texts and allow to perform various linguistic annotation, classification and clustering tasks, including language detection, POS–tagging, base form reduction, named entity recognition, and terminology extraction. On a more abstract level, the algorithms deal with various kinds of word similarity, using pattern–based and statistical approaches. The collection can be used to work on large real-world data sets as well as for studying the underlying algorithms. Each module of the ASV Toolbox...
Linguistik online 36, 4/08 Opening a Pandora's Box: Proper Names in English Phraseology
- Patrizia Pierini (rome
This article explores the linguistic-cultural aspects and usage of phraseological units involving personal and place names in English. The introductory sections outline the linguistic features of proper names and phraseological units. The qualitative part of this study provides a list of units belonging to four phraseological types (idioms, stereotyped similes, binomials, formulae), drawn from idiom dictionaries. An investigation of the sources of names shows that the personal and place names involved are historically, socially or culturally prominent in British culture. Here is noted a predominance of personal over place names, and within the former, a predominance of male over female...
VIT – Venice Italian Treebank: Syntactic and Quantitative Features
- Rodolfo Delmonte; Antonella Bristot; Sara Tonelli
In this paper we will describe VIT (Venice Italian Treebank), created at the University of Venice. We will focus on the syntactic-semantic features and on the quantitative analysis of the data of our treebank comparing them to other treebanks. In general, we will try to substantiate the claim that treebanking grammars or parsers is dramatically dependent on the chosen treebank; and eventually this process seems to be dependent either from substantial factors such as the adopted linguistic framework for structural description or, ultimately, the described language.
Context effects when reading negative and affirmative sentences
- Jana Lüdtke; Barbara Kaup
In two experiments, participants were presented with narratives in which a target entity (e.g., water) was introduced. The final sentences affirmed or negated that a particular property held for the target entity (e.g., The water was (not) warm). The linguistic context was manipulated. In Experiment 1, reading times for the negative target sentences (but not those for the affirmative ones) were affected by the context manipulation, with shorter reading times in conditions in which the negated proposition had been explicitly mentioned in the prior text. Experiment 2 demonstrated a similar facilitation effect with respect to inferred propositions. The results of...
2007. V-raising and grammar competition in Korean: Evidence from negation and quantifier scope. Linguistic Inquiry 38
- Chung-hye Han; Jeffrey Lidz; Julien Musolino
In a head-final language, V-raising is hard to detect since there is no evidence from the string to support a raising analysis. If the language has a cliticlike negation that associates with the verb in syntax, then scope facts concerning negation and a quantified object NP could provide evidence regarding the height of the verb. Even so, such facts are rare, especially in the input to children, and so we might expect that not all speakers exposed to a head-final language acquire the same grammar as far as V-raising is concerned. Here, we present evidence supporting this expectation. Using experimental...
Socrates, Trust and the Internet
Abstract: Socrates, one of the world’s greatest philosophers, never wrote anything, and confined all his philosophy to spoken debate. The important issues for Socrates were trust and control: he felt the radical decontextualisation that resulted from the portability and stasis of written forms would obscure the author’s intentions, and allow the misuse of the written outside of the local context. Trust has once more become a central problem, both politically and epistemologically, but since Socrates ’ day, various technologies have undermined his distinction, making the relationship between trustworthiness and linguistic mode more complex. In this paper, I review the state...
Languages of Science in the Era of Nation-state Formation: The Israeli Universities and Their (non)Participation in the Revival of Hebrew1
- Nina G. Kheimets; Alek D. Epstein
This paper presents sociological analysis of the linguistic and cultural identity of two of Israel’s most influential and high-ranked universities during their formative years, that were also the de facto formative years of the Israeli state-in-the-making (19241948). We argue that the influence of external universal factors on a nation-state was sometimes crucial long before the period characterised by social scientists as an era of globalisation. Influenced by European nationalism, the leaders of the Zionist movement emphasised the importance of the restoration of Hebrew as a national language. In various European national movements the universities played a central role in the...
Dwarf-Class Verbs, Theta-Theory and Argument Linking
- Jeremy Hartman
This paper investigates a class of English verbs that pose a challenge for theories of the relation between thematic roles and syntactic structure. The search for principles that govern this relation is a central task of linguistic theory, and the problem of formulating these principles—the so-called
Querying linguistic treebanks with monadic second-order logic in linear time
- Hendrik Maryns; Stephan Kepser
MonaSearch is a new powerful query tool for linguistic treebanks. The query language of MonaSearch is monadic second-order logic, an extension of first-order logic capable of expressing probably all linguis-tically interesting queries. In order to process queries efficiently, they are compiled into tree automata. A treebank is queried by checking whether the automaton representing the query accepts the tree, for each tree. Experiments show that even complex queries can be exe-cuted very efficiently. The tree automaton toolkit MONA is used for the computation of the automata. 1
Ms., UMass Amherst Harmonic grammar with linear programming∗
- Joe Pater; Christopher Potts; Rajesh Bhatt; Umass Amherst
Abstract Harmonic Grammar (HG) is a model of linguistic constraint interaction in which well-formedness is calculated as the sum of weighted constraint violations. We show how linear programming algorithms can be used to determine whether there is a weighting for a set of constraints that fits a set of linguistic data. Our associated software package HaLP provides a practical tool for studying large and complex linguistic systems in the HG framework, and thus it can be valuable for comparing HG’s linear model to the model of constraint ranking assumed in Optimality Theory. We describe the translation from linguistic systems to...
1 Communicating structure, affect and movement: Comment on Bharucha, Curtis & Paroo
- Zoltán Dienes; Gustav Kuhn; Xiuyan Guo; Catherine Jones
Barucha et al propose that music serves to communicate affect, the experience of motion, and an inducement to a particular structural interpretation. We will take the meaning of “communicate ” to be broad and not necessarily imply all the pragmatic constraints that successful communication often entails. For example, we will take a structure to be successfully communicated even if the recipient is not consciously aware of what the structure as such really is. Commonly people appreciate musical structure, have the experiences intended by the composer, yet are not consciously aware of what the structure is. Indeed, this commentary will focus...
1 THE NEW CENTURY’S CHANGE: NEW CHALLENGES AND CURRICULUM RESPONSES
- Cecilia Braslavsky
fter the fall of the Berlin wall and the increasing pace of globalization, the world began to perceive a culture change comparable to that of the fifteenth century, which saw the convergence of urbanization, of the development of a meritocracy in the class structure, of industrialization and of the linguistic and communications revolution based on the writing down of numerous languages and the introduction of the printing press. The present culture change also comes from the convergence of a number of transformations in practically all human activities which gives the totality greater breadth and depth than the simple sum of...
THE RECOGNITION OF RELIGION Archeological Diagnosis and Implicit Theorizing
- Peter Jackson
Students of religion have many good reasons to avoid the domain of prehistory. On the one hand, the very term “prehistoric religion ” evokes a host of clichés associated with less successful typologies and evolutionary approaches to religion, all of which seem to imply that Paleolithic and Neolithic populations shared special kinds or modes of religion that could be characterized as “prehistoric. ” Furthermore, prehistoric artifacts fail to produce the kind of verifiable semantic input that students of religion are trained to examine before trying to make any substantial claims about religion. Although the apparent innocence of the term “prehistory...
ARTICLE NO. BL981998 Hemispheric Differences in Context Sensitivity During Lexical Ambiguity Resolution
- Debra Titone
Three experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of contextual con-straint on lexical ambiguity resolution in the cerebral hemispheres. A cross-modal priming variant of the divided visual field task was utilized in which subjects heard sentences containing homonyms and made lexical decisions to targets semantically related to dominant and subordinate meanings. Experiment 1 showed priming in both hemispheres of dominant meanings for homonyms embedded in neutral sen-tence contexts. Experiment 2 showed priming in both hemispheres of dominant and subordinate meanings for homonyms embedded in sentence contexts that biased a central semantic feature of the subordinate meaning. Experiment 3 showed priming...
CROSS-LANGUAGE DIFFERENCES IN OVERLAP AND ASSIMILATION PATTERNS IN KOREAN AND RUSSIAN
- Alexei Kochetov; Marianne Pouplier; Minjung Son
This paper investigates cross-linguistic differences in gestural overlap in consonant clusters and discusses how different patterns of overlap may interact with language-specific place assimilation patterns. We examine Russian and Korean stop-stop sequences within and across words, produced at two speaking rates. Significant differences in degrees of overlap emerge between the two languages for both prosodic conditions. We discuss to what extent language-specific differences in overlap can be linked to the language-specific propensity for articulatory place assimilation.
An extended, specificity based approach to linguistic summarization of time series
- Janusz Kacprzyk; Anna Wilbik
We reformulate and extend our previ-ous works (cf. Kacprzyk, Wilbik and Zadrożny  – ), mainly towards a more complex evaluation of results on the linguistic summarization of time se-ries meant as the derivation of an lin-guistic quantifier driven aggregation of partial trends with respect to the dy-namics of change, duration and variabil-ity. We use Zadeh’s calculus of linguisti-cally quantified propositions but, in ad-dition to the basic criterion of a degree of truth (validity), we also use a degree of specificity to make it possible to ac-count for a frequent case that though the degree of truth of a very...
Inter-rater Agreement Measures and the Refinement of Metrics in the PLATO MT Evaluation Paradigm
- Keith J. Miller; Michelle Vanni
The PLATO machine translation (MT) evaluation (MTE) research program has as a goal the systematic development of a predictive relationship between discrete, well-defined MTE metrics and the specific information processing tasks that can be reliably performed with output. Traditional measures of quality, informed by the International Standards for Language Engineering (ISLE), namely, clarity, coherence, morphology, syntax, general and domain-specific lexical robustness, and named-entity translation, as well as a DARPA-inspired measure of adequacy are its core. For robust validation, indispensable for refinement of tests and guidelines, we measure inter-rater reliability on the assessments. Here we report on our results, focusing on...
Analyzing the effects of a linguistic approach to the teaching of algebra: students tell “stories of
- Annalisa Cusi; Reggio Emilia
development ” revealing new competencies and conceptions