Innovación en el diseño y evaluación de proyectos: establecimiento de las relaciones lingüísticas entre objetivos y problemas
- Zapata, Carlos M.; Vargas, Fabio Alberto
Language plays a crucial role in project design and
assessment, especially in problem-and-goal identification
and enunciation. Formally is not proposed, but some
researchers recognize structures for expressing both
organizational goals and problems. However, either a
direct relationship among problems and goals is not
commonly proposed or, if needed, is intuitively defined.
Problem-and-goal relationship is important in the sense
that, with its usage, organizational members could propose
solutions to problems linked to organizational strategic
goals. For this reason, in this paper we present an
innovative proposal for establishing linguistic relationships
among organizational goals and problems. Also, we show
En torno al tratamiento lexicográfico de la fraseología humorística
- Timofeeva, Larissa
Este trabajo centra su atención en la representación lexicográfica de la fraseología humorística. El humor, aun siendo un fenómeno eminentemente pragmático, forma parte del significado de algunas unidades fraseológicas (UF). Sin embargo, son confusos los criterios para considerar un fraseologismo como humorístico, lo cual provoca la disparidad de descripciones lexicográficas recogidas en distintos diccionarios. Por eso, tras un análisis de la significación fraseológica y de los puntos básicos del humor lingüístico, intentamos aunar ambos enfoques con el fin de elaborar pautas claras de determinación del carácter humorístico de algunas UF y, por ende, de la inclusión de la marca correspondiente...
An open diachronic corpus of historical Spanish
- Sánchez Martínez, Felipe; Martínez Sempere, Isabel; Ivars Ribes, Xavier; Carrasco Jiménez, Rafael Carlos
The IMPACT-es diachronic corpus of historical Spanish compiles over one hundred books—containing approximately 8 million words—in addition to a complementary lexicon which links more than 10,000 lemmas with attestations of the different variants found in the documents. This textual corpus and the accompanying lexicon have been released under an open license (Creative Commons BY-NC-SA) in order to permit their intensive exploitation in linguistic research. Approximately 7 % of the words in the corpus (a selection aimed at enhancing the coverage of the most frequent word forms) have been annotated with their lemma, part of speech, and modern equivalent. This paper...
Adaptation of “the resilience scale” for the adult population of Portugal
- Carvalho, Claudia Alexandra Ferreira; Leal, Isabel Pereira
This paper describes the adaptation of “The Resilience Scale” for Portuguese adults. This instrument was submitted to back-translation (linguistic and conceptual equivalence), to psychometric validation (n = 365), to pretest and retest. It was obtained conceptual and linguistic equivalence/psychometric validation with alpha Cronbach 0.868 for the 23 items, suggesting internal consistency. Factorial analysis grouped the 23 variables in 4 factors: I – Perseverance; II-Sense of life; III-Serenity; IV Self- reliance and self-confidence, with satisfactory alpha Cronbach values for each factor. The sensitivity of items was verified by the coefficient of asymmetry and flatness. It was proved temporal stability of the...
An automatic child-directed speech detector for the study of child language development
- Vosoughi, Soroush; Roy, Deb K.
In this paper, we present an automatic child-directed speech detection system to be used in the study of child language development. Child-directed speech (CDS) is speech that is directed by caregivers towards infants. It is not uncommon for corpora used in child language development studies to have a combination of CDS and non-CDS. As the size of the corpora used in these studies grow, manual annotation of CDS becomes impractical. Our automatic CDS detector addresses this issue. The focus of this paper is to propose and evaluate different sets of features for the detection of CDS, using several offthe-shelf classifiers....
Early Father-Child Interactions and Behaviour Problems
- Domoney, J
Many development trajectories leading to maladaptive outcomes begin in infancy and toddlerhood. With more fathers caring for their children from a younger age there is a need to understand the associations between paternal behaviour and child development. This thesis will explore the relationship between father-child interaction and child outcomes in the early years. Part one is a review of the literature looking at the association between father-child interaction in the preschool years and child outcomes across social, behavioural, cognitive and linguistic domains. The key question addressed is, ‘Do father-child interactions in the preschool years predict later child outcomes?’ Part two...
Deducing linguistic structure from the statistics of large corpora
- Eric Brill; David Magerman; Mitchell Marcus; Beatrice Santorini
Within the last two years, approaches using both stochastic and symbolic techniques have proved adequate to deduce lexical ambiguity resolution rules with less than 3-4 % error rate, when trained on moderate
K.: Automatic Extraction of Verb Phrases from Annotated Corpora: A Linguistic Evaluation for Estonian
- Gaël Dias; Heiki-jaan Kaalep; Kadri Muischnek
Under consideration for other conferences (specify)? No Statistically-based phrase extractors are fundamental tools for the improvement of Natural Language Processing applications designed for the new languages of the emerging countries. In this context, we will present a new architecture called SENTA (Software for the Extraction of N-ary Textual Associations) that identifies verbal phrases from lemmatized corpora. In particular, SENTA proposes a solution to the definition of ad hoc association measure thresholds and introduces a new association measure called the Mutual Expectation. In order to evaluate SENTA, an exhaustive linguistic analysis of the results has been carried out that takes advantage...
0 The evolution of language: a comparative review
- W. Tecumseh Fitch
Abstract. For many years the evolution of language has been seen as a disreputable topic, mired in fanciful ‘‘just so stories’ ’ about language origins. However, in the last decade a new synthesis of modern linguistics, cognitive neuroscience and neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory has begun to make important contributions to our understanding of the biology and evolution of language. I review some of this recent progress, focusing on the value of the comparative method, which uses data from animal species to draw inferences about language evolution. Discussing speech first, I show how data concerning a wide variety of species, from monkeys...
Sequential decision strategies for machine interpretation of speech
- Christian Raymond; Associate Member; Frédéric Béchet; Nathalie Camelin; Student Member; Renato De Mori; Géraldine Damnati
Abstract—Recognition errors made by automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems may not prevent the development of useful dialogue applications if the interpretation strategy has an introspection capability for evaluating the reliability of the results. This paper proposes an interpretation strategy which is particularly effective when applications are developed with a training corpus of moderate size. From the lattice of word hypotheses generated by an ASR system, a short list of conceptual structures is obtained with a set of finite state machines (FSM). Interpretation or a rejection decision is then performed by a tree-based strategy. The nodes of the tree correspond to...
On the role of the simplicity heuristic in language processing: Evidence from structural and inferential processing
- Lee Osterhout; David A. Swinney
This paper evaluates whether or not simplicity or "minimalistic " heuristics, which are posited to account for local ambiguity resolution at the level of structural processing and for the lack of inferential elaboration during discourse processing, represent the most accurate account of language processing. Evidence from on-line studies is presented which suggests that alternative, more knowledge-based mechanisms for handling processing are brought to bear in these situations. Perhaps the best-known (and certainly most ubiquitous) characteristic of language that needs to be confronted by language processing models is ambiguity. Ambiguity (and the decisional uncertainty that accompanies it) exists at every putative...
Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences www.elsevier.com/locate/shpsc Explanation: a mechanist alternative
- William Bechtel; Adele Abrahamsen
Explanations in the life sciences frequently involve presenting a model of the mechanism taken to be responsible for a given phenomenon. Such explanations depart in numerous ways from nomological explanations commonly presented in philosophy of science. This paper focuses on three sorts of differences. First, scientists who develop mechanistic explanations are not limited to linguistic representations and logical inference; they frequently employ diagrams to characterize mechanisms and simulations to reason about them. Thus, the epistemic resources for presenting mechanistic explanations are considerably richer than those suggested by a nomological framework. Second, the fact that mechanisms involve organized systems of component...
Los principios pragmáticos y la interpretación crítica del lenguaje
- Pedroza Arias, Flor Lucía
The interpretation of a text, unlike meaning, requires the addressee to reconstruct the communicative purpose, make inferences, make value judgments, take position regarding the proposed topic and identify the meaning of the text. The study of these extra-linguistic elements is based on the principles of Pragmatics, because this is the science of language that governs the use of language in communication and determines both the use of a concrete utterance by a particular speaker, as well as the analysis of such statements. To this purpose, the present research study outlines the design and development of an educational intervention called «The...
Diálogo Democrático y Políticas Lingüísticas: una propuesta
- Torrente Paternina, Lilian Paola
The design and writing of public policies aimed at the use and/or promotion of foreign languages or public linguistic policies does not take into account a participatory effort from the differentgroups of society that will by benefitted or affected by their implementation; on the contrary, the responsibility of developing these policies (such as the Colombian National Bilinguism Plan) hasbeen left in the hands of experts in the topic. The role of citizens as participants in the development and/or evaluation of public linguistic policies for the promotion and teaching of foreign languagesis practically inexistent and the Colombian State has not established...
Política lingüística del portugués en Brasil: del colonialismo al siglo XXI
- Castellanos Brieva, Jan Paul
La política lingüística del portugués en Brasil ha pasado por distintas etapas en la historia y ha determinado el proceso de consolidación de la nación brasileña. En este artículo revisaré históricamente, por medio de una revisión bibliográfica, la política lingüística del portugués en Brasil desde el colonialismo hasta el proceso de expansión de la lengua a nivel internacional en el siglo XXI. Las razones que consolidaron y posicionaron el portugués en Brasil son: primero, la lengua portuguesa apoyó la construcción de la nación durante la colonia, la independencia y los inicios de la república en detrimento de las lenguas indígenas...
La lectura y escritura de géneros profesionales en EpFE
- Cassany, Daniel
Conferencia plenaria en el II CIEFE sobre algunas de las características más importantes de la educación lingüística del español para fines específicos (EpFE), así como los aspectos más particulares en contextos laborales auténticos (entornos educativo, empresarial, institucional) y algunas reflexiones sobre este ámbito relevante, creciente y desatendido de la enseñanza del español.
La teoría de los códigos. Desigualdades lingüísticas en educación
- Mayoral Arqué, Dolors
Las desigualdades lingüísticas en educación constituyen un problema que puede acentuarse con el cambio de sociedad. Este artículo recupera la teoría de los códigos de Basil Bernstein desde una perspectiva culturalista para aclarar sus aspectos más polémicos y, al mismo tiempo, introducir un nuevo modelo de análisis que pone en relación el capital cultural de las familias con el nivel de desarrollo lingüístico de los adolescentes. Se observa que el nivel de estudios alcanzado por los padres adquiere una notable importancia en el desarrollo de la competencia comunicativa, especialmente en el desarrollo de las habilidades correspondientes al lenguaje escrito en...
Uma tradução da obra de Edgar A. Poe voltada para neoleitores à luz da Linguística de
- Pasqualini, Bianca Franco
O Texto E A Adequação Linguística: Reflexões Para O Ensino de Produção Textual.
- Sortica, Maurício Marques
Teaching maths to young language-impaired children
- Donlan, C; Hutt, E
Knowledge is transmitted, explored and advanced via language face-to-face, in printed texts, and in other media. Children and their teachers write, read, talk and listen mathematics. Mathematics education begins and proceeds in language, it advances or stumbles because of language, and its outcomes are often assessed in language. "Language and Mathematical Educuation" presents current perspectives and reviews the key issues. It brings together in one volume work from researchers concerned with various aspects of language in mathematics education. Each contributor provides an account of their research and draws out the practical implications in terms which will inform and guide teachers....