- Mark Allman
This is a draft and is not to be reproduced or quoted without the author’s explicit permission. For the first time in history, human beings are able to quickly, accurately and efficiently communicate, trade and interact on a global scale. What makes this phenomenon possible are the rapid advances in technology (especially the computer and digitization), communication (such as, fiber optic cables, satellites and the internet) and transportation witnessed in the last century. With these advances, geography, as a social barrier, has been transcended and many aspects of social life (conversing, buying, selling, art, literature, music, philosophy, religion, politics, economics...
Semantic Information Retrieval Based on Fuzzy Ontology for Electronic Commerce
- Jun Zhai; Yiduo Liang; Yi Yu; Jiatao Jiang
Abstract—Information retrieval is the important work for Electronic Commerce. Ontology-based semantic retrieval is a hotspot of current research. In order to achieve fuzzy semantic retrieval, this paper applies a fuzzy ontology framework to information retrieval system in E-Commerce. The framework includes three parts: concepts, properties of concepts and values of properties, in which property’s value can be either standard data types or linguistic values of fuzzy concepts. The semantic query expansions are constructed by order relation, equivalence relation, inclusion relation, reversion relation and complement relation between fuzzy concepts defined in linguistic variable ontologies with Resource Description Framework (RDF). The application...
Context-Oriented Software Engineering: A Modularity Vision
- Tetsuo Kamina; Tomoyuki Aotani; Hidehiko Masuhara; Tetsuo Tamai
There are a number of constructs to implement context-dependent behavior, such as conditional branches using if statements, method dispatching in object-oriented programming (such as the state de-sign pattern), dynamic deployment of aspects in aspect-oriented programming, and layers in context-oriented programming (COP). Uses of those constructs significantly affect the modularity of the obtained implementation. While there are a number of cases where COP improves modularity, it is not clear when we should use COP in general. This paper presents a preliminary study on our software de-velopment methodology, the context-oriented software engineering (COSE), which is a use-case-driven software development method-ology that guides...
Word count: 6812 Address for correspondence:
- Thomas L. Griffiths; Tom Griffiths
Exploring inductive biases 2 Bayesian models as tools for exploring inductive biases Generalization – reasoning from the properties of observed entities to those of entities as yet unobserved – is at the heart of many aspects of human cognition. As several of the chapters in this book indicate, generalization plays a key role in language learning, where learners need to make judgments about the linguistic properties of utterances (such as their meaning or grammaticality) using their previous experience with a language. It also underlies our ability to form and use categories, allowing us to identify which objects are likely to...
Constructions with verbs of dispossession in Dutch A corpus-based case study
- Martine Delorge; Timothy Colleman; M. Delorge; T. Colleman
This paper focuses on the constructional possibilities of verbs of reception and dispossession in Dutch. These verb classes have received considerably less linguistic attention than their counterparts among the verbs of transfer of possession, the verbs of giving. In this paper, we intend to show, however, that reception and dispossession verbs constitute an interesting area of investigation as well, by laying bare the constructional variation they display, both synchronically and diachronically. The first part of our paper provides a brief overview of this variation. In the second part, we present a case study of six typical verbs of dispossession: the...
- Theodore Sider; David Braun; Philosophical Studies
Millianism says that the semantic content of a name (or indexical) is simply its referent. This thesis arises within a general, powerful research program, the propositionalist approach to semantics, which sets as a goal for philosophical semantics an assignment of entities — semantic contents — to bits of language, culminating in the assignment of propositions to sentences. Communication, linguistic competence, truth conditions, and other semantic phenomena are ultimately explained in terms of semantic contents. Over 100 years ago Frege (1952/1892) pointed out the problem with Millian-ism: sentences containing co-referential names seem semantically inequivalent. ða=añ is trivial, a priori, etc.; ða=bñ...
The Tycho Brahe Annotated Corpus of Historical
- Maria Clara; Paixão Sousa; Portuguese Corpus; Histórico Português Tycho
This paper describes the restructuring process of a large corpus of historical documents and the system architecture that is used for accessing it. The initial challenge of this process was to get the most out of existing material, normalizing the legacy markup and harvesting the inherent information using widely available standards. This resulted in a conceptual and technical restructuring of the formerly existing corpus. The development of the standardized markup and techniques allowed the inclusion of important new materials, such as original 16th and 17th century prints and manuscripts; and enlarged the potential user groups. On the technological side, we...
Afro-Asian and Afro-indigenous linguistic contacts in Spanish America
- John M. Lipski
In reconstructing the language of the African diaspora in Latin America and assessing the possible imprint of African languages on Spanish and Portuguese, emphasis naturally falls on bilateral Afro-Spanish and Afro-Portuguese contacts. Whereas such an approach is substantially valid for the last century or so of African slavery in the Americas, when newly
1 Problems and Solutions on Concept Transfer
Abstract How can we better transfer concepts and ideas to other cultures? Especially, where these concepts are quite foreign to the audiences? What kind of problems should we expect and what can we do to solve them? This paper discusses the attempts to teach engineering courses conducted entirely in English for Japanese college students. Engineering and foreign language professors in the United States and in Japan collaborated to develop the courses. One was a technical report-writing course for mechanical engineering majors. The students were required to write reports in English on their senior graduation projects. They were also asked to...
To appear in the Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society Demonstratives in Soliloquial Japanese
- Yoko Hasegawa
Language is recognized as an instrument of communication and thought. The research exploring language for communication is enormous, and our knowledge of various linguistic devices for communicating effectively has advanced significantly in recent decades. By contrast, exploration of language for thought
Explaining Polarization and its Dimensions in Nigeria: A DER Decomposition Approach
- Awoyemi Taiwo T; Araar Abdelkrim; Awoyemi Taiwo T; Araar Abdelkrim
Nigeria is a country of high ethnic and linguistic diversity, threatened by internal fissures and persistent levels of violence. It is argued that, ethnically polarized societies are prone to competitive rent-seeking activities by different groups and will have difficulty agreeing on public goods such as infrastructure, education, and good policies. This in part explains high level of inequity in income distribution and poverty in the country. High potential for large regional differences in economic and social conditions makes Nigeria susceptible to disintegration if the regional differences in standards of living continue to grow. Thus, the study aims to give insight...
Linguistic processes in the indexing and retrieval of documents
- W. J. Hutchins
For the storage and retrieval of documents in a library or other depository many kinds of clerical and intellectual operations are performed by librarians and by library users. Some of these are purely routine and are done almost ‘mechanically ’ but others are highly complex and require
Universidad Barcelona Dep. de Lingüistica General,
- Jordi Carrera; Irene Castellón; Departament De Lingüistica General; Gran Via; Corts Catalanes; Marina Lloberes; Gran Via De Les Corts; Lluís Padró; C Jordi Girona; Nevena Tinkova
Resumen: En el marco del área del PLN, obtener análisis sintácticos profundos de manera automática es indispensable de cara a desarrollar aplicaciones que puedan hacer uso de representaciones semánticas de cualquier nivel. Uno de los objetivos del proyecto KNOW es poner a disposición de la comunidad científica gramáticas de segmentación profunda de amplia cobertura. En este artículo presentamos la implementación en el entorno FreeLing de las gramáticas del castellano, catalán e inglés, lenguas que, junto con el vasco, constituyen las lenguas objeto de interés del proyecto KNOW. Palabras clave: PLN, análisis automático, análisis profundo, gramática de análisis, representación semántica, catalán,...
Teacher Education Quarterly, Fall 2003 Fostering Positive Dispositions toward Diversity: Dialogical Explorations of a Moral Dilemma
- Elza Magalhães Major; Cynthia H. Brock; Magalhães Major; Cynthia H. Brock; Elza Magalhães Major; Cynthia H. Brock
We pay attention to what we expect to see, we hear what we can place in our understanding, and we act according to our world views. (Wenger, 1998, p. 8) At present, numbers of students from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds in U. S. schools continue to increase exponentially. For example, between 1991 and 2000 the population of English as a Second Language (ESL) students in U.S. schools (PreK-12) more than doubled (NABE Clearinghouse, 2000). While the numbers of students from diverse backgrounds are increasing, the U.S. teaching force consists primarily of monolingual middle- to lower-middle class European American women...
Counting and the grammar: Case and numerals in Inari Sami
- Diane Nelson; Ida Toivonen
This paper examines new data from Inari Sami which pose a challenge for two basic principles within generative grammar, namely that the lexicon consists of an unordered set, and that rules of the grammar cannot “count”. Drawing on evidence from the system of case and numerals in Inari Sami, we first discuss the data in light of Case Theory, in order to identify the structural relations and mechanisms involved in Inari Sami. We then examine several theories of numerals from a cross-linguistic perspective, and conclude that none of the existing theories can account for the Inari Sami data while still...
Feature geometry in disordered phonologies
- Daniel A. Dinnsen
Two types of systems are in general use for the description and classification of consonants in disordered phonological systems: conventional place-voice-man-ner and standard distinctive features. This paper proposes the use of a third model, feature geometry, which is an analysis framework recently developed in the linguistic study of primary languages. Feature geometry allows for relatively independent behaviour of individual distinctive features, but also organizes them into hierarchies in order to capture the fact that features very often act together in rules. Application of the feature geometry to the study of the phonologies of 40 misarticulating children, specifically to the phenomena...
Papers The origin of language and communication
- Brad Harrub; Bert Thompson; Dave Miller
By age four, most humans have developed an ability to communicate through oral language. By age six or seven, most humans can comprehend, as well as express, written thoughts. These unique abilities of communicating through a native language clearly separate humans from all animals. The obvious question then arises, where did we obtain this dis-tinctive trait? Organic evolution has proven unable to elucidate the origin of language and communication. Knowing how beneficial this ability is to humans, one would wonder why this skill has not evolved in other species. Materialistic science is insufficient to explain not only how speech came...
- Andrew Burn; Helen Nixon
English has a long, intimate relationship with the visual: the illuminated manuscripts of mediaeval romance; the woodcuts of 17C chapbooks and 18C broadsheet ballads; the painting and poetry of the pre-Raphaelites; Dickens illustrated by Cruikshank, Milton by Blake, Coleridge by Doré, Ted Hughes by Leonard Baskin; the art of the modern picture-book; the graphic novel; the comic strip from DC and Marvel to manga; the modern audio-visual narratives of film, television and computer games. However, the history of English as a school and university subject has been one of a struggle which has lead to the establishment of the discrete...
The Language Proficiency Profile-2: Assessment of the Global Communication Skills of Deaf Children Across Languages and Modalities of Expression
- James M. Bebko; Rosemary Calderon; Robert Treder
Data are presented from two studies that investigate the de-velopmental trends and concurrent validity of a measure of language and communication skills for deaf children, the Lan-guage Proficiency Profile-2 (LPP-2), developed by Bebko and McKinnon (1993). The LPP-2 was designed to evaluate the overall linguistic/communicative skills of deaf children, inde-pendent of any specific language or modality of expression. It focuses on the totality of the children’s communication skills. Experiment 1 investigated developmental trends of the LPP-2 for both deaf and hearing children, studying a combined sample of deaf and hearing children from the United States and Canada. Experiment 2 investigated...
A Semantic Lexicon for Emotions and Feelings
- Yvette Yannick Mathieu
In this paper, the FEELING system for extracting and building semantic representations of emotions, feelings and psychological states expressed in texts is presented, as well as the linguistic knowledge used by the system. Semantic representations are described by means of a set of feature structures. Letters to the Editor is taken as a domain for the evaluation of this work.