Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 16.930

  1. fMRI correlates of cortical specialization and generalization for letter processing.

    Joseph, JE; Cerullo, MA; Farley, AB; Steinmetz, NA; Mier, CR
    The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine cortical specialization for letter processing. We assessed whether brain regions that were involved in letter processing exhibited domain-specific and/or mandatory responses, following Fodor's definition of properties of modular systems (Fodor, J.A., 1983. The Modularity of Mind. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.). Domain-specificity was operationalized as selective, or exclusive, activation for letters relative to object and visual noise processing and a baseline fixation task. Mandatory processing was operationalized as selective activation for letters during both a silent naming and a perceptual matching task. In addition to these operational definitions, other operational...

  2. A Comparison of Formal Methods for Evaluating the Language of Preference in Engineering Design

    Dong, Andy; Honda, Tomonori; Yang, Maria; Ji, Haifeng
    In design, as with many fields, the bases of decisions are generally not formally modeled but only talked or written about. The research problem addressed in this paper revolves around the problem of modeling the direct evaluation of design alternatives and their attributes as they are realized in linguistic communication. The question is what types of linguistic data provide the most reliable linguistic displays of preference and utility. The paper compares two formal methods for assessing a design team’s preferences for alternatives based on the team’s discussion: APPRAISAL and Preferential Probabilities from Transcripts (PPT). Results suggest that the two methods...

  3. Global University hegemony

    Marginson, S
    In this era institutions located in the United States exercise an extraordinary global hegemony in higher education, research and codified knowledge that supports American foreign policy and the world role of that nation in other spheres. American global hegemony in education and knowledge does not altogether negate the potential for bricolage, local translation and adaptation, mimed conformities, the diverse editing of universal rules, and other local variations on identity. But it has set in train powerful material forces that favour cultural and linguistic conformity and support specifically American interests, belying the potential of global convergence and integration to operate in...

  4. The role of second-person narration in representing mental states in Sylvia Plath's Smith Journal

    Demjén, Z
    This paper looks at instances of second person narration in the first journal published in The Unabridged Journals of Sylvia Plath (Kukil, 2000) in order to determine the potential that second person narration can have for the linguistic representation of mental states. The contributions of different disciplines (narratology, linguistics, psychology) to the study of second person narration are considered and their findings are re-applied to a non-fictional text. In a corpus-informed comparative analysis, the paper takes into consideration both perspectives from narratology and developments in the understanding of language use in the field of psychology to provide an interdisciplinary, but...

  5. Visual Advertising Across Cultures

    Messaris, Paul
    In thinking about the role of images in cross-cultural advertising, a useful starting point is the concept of "iconicity." In the vocabulary of communications theory, a mode of communication can be termed "iconic" if there is an analogical relationship between its constituent signs or symbols and the things that they represent (Sebeok, 2001; see also Peirce, 1991). For example, in the case of verbal onomatopoeia, a word contains an analogy to a real-world sound. In music, it can be argued that certain compositions - such as classical "program music"- contain analogies to human moods or emotions. However, the mode of...

  6. The relationship between attention and the development of early word reading skills in typically developing children and children at risk of reading difficulties

    Chatzispyridou, E
    Several studies have reported attention to be a predictor of literacy outcomes and/or its precursors across different measures of attention (e.g., Sims & Lonigan, 2013; Wanless et al., 2011), however, the evidence is inconsistent (e.g., Steele, 2012; Shapiro et al., 2013). There is also evidence that attentional difficulties co-occur with reading and language difficulties in children (e.g.,Germano, Gagliano & Curatolo, 2010; Gooch, Hulme & Snowling, 2014) and there are suggestions that attention is causally linked to reading difficulties (e.g., Bosse et al., 2007; Facoetti et al., 2005; 2009). The present thesis sought to examine whether different sub-components of attention were...

  7. Transfer learning for low-resource natural language analysis

    Zhang, Yuan, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Expressive machine learning models such as deep neural networks are highly effective when they can be trained with large amounts of in-domain labeled training data. While such annotations may not be readily available for the target task, it is often possible to find labeled data for another related task. The goal of this thesis is to develop novel transfer learning techniques that can effectively leverage annotations in source tasks to improve performance of the target low-resource task. In particular, we focus on two transfer learning scenarios: (1) transfer across languages and (2) transfer across tasks or domains in the same...

  8. Using Listener Judgments to Investigate Linguistic Influences on L2 Comprehensibility and Accentedness: A Validation and Generalization Study

    Saito, K; Trofimovich, P; Isaacs, T
    The current study investigated linguistic influences on comprehensibility (ease of understanding) and accentedness (linguistic nativelikeness) in second language (L2) learners’ extemporaneous speech. Target materials included picture narratives from 40 native French speakers of English from different proficiency levels. The narratives were subsequently rated by 20 native speakers with or without linguistic and pedagogical experience for comprehensibility, accentedness, and 11 linguistic variables spanning the domains of phonology, lexis, grammar, and discourse structure. Results showed that comprehensibility was associated with several linguistic variables (vowel/consonant errors, word stress, fluency, lexis, grammar), whereas accentedness was chiefly linked to pronunciation (vowel/consonant errors, word stress). Native-speaking...

  9. Second language speech production: Investigating linguistic correlates of comprehensibility and accentedness for learners at different ability levels

    Saito, K; Trofimovich, P; Isaacs, T
    The current project aimed to investigate the potentially different linguistic correlates of comprehensibility (i.e., ease of understanding) and accentedness (i.e., linguistic nativelikeness) in adult second language (L2) learners' extemporaneous speech production. Timed picture descriptions from 120 beginner, intermediate, and advanced Japanese learners of English were analyzed using native speaker global judgments based on learners' comprehensibility and accentedness, and then submitted to segmental, prosodic, temporal, lexical, and grammatical analyses. Results showed that comprehensibility was related to all linguistic domains, and accentedness was strongly tied with pronunciation (specifically segmentals) rather than lexical and grammatical domains. In particular, linguistic correlates of L2 comprehensibility...

  10. Análise Classificatória ou Classificação Automática na Sociedade Atual

    Sousa, Áurea
    "A classificação é uma atividade conceptual básica dos seres humanos. A necessidade e a tentativa de formar grupos de objetos semelhantes, dando origem a uma classificação, são reconhecidas desde os primórdios da humanidade. […] Na sociedade atual, há uma necessidade crescente de produzir classificações nos vários ramos da atividade científica e da atividade humana em geral. Na verdade, a Análise Classificatória tem tido um desenvolvimento relativamente recente, possibilitado pelo aumento do poder computacional nos últimos anos, podendo ser aplicada em diversas áreas, tais como a Arqueologia, a Biologia, a Geografia, a Geologia, a Psicologia, a Linguística, a História, a Medicina,...

  11. Complementing quantitative typology with behavioral approaches: Evidence for typological universals

    Jaeger, T. Florian; Tily, Harry J.
    Two main classes of theory have been advanced to explain correlations between linguistic features like those observed by Greenberg (1963). arbitrary constraint theories argue that certain sets of features patterm together because they have a single underlying cause in the innate language faculty (e.g., the Principles and Parameters program; see Chomsky & Lasnik 1993). functional theories argue that languages are less likely to have certain combinations of properties because, although possible in principle, they are harder to learn or to process, or less suitable for efficient communication (Hockett 1960, Bates & MacWhinney 1989, Hawkins 2004, Dryer 2007, Christiansen & Chater...

  12. Towards a reception history for 'Beowulf' in the context of the Nowell Codex, British Library Cotton MS Vitellius A.xv.

    Thomson, SCF
    Beowulf exists in only one eleventh-century manuscript, alongside four other texts: St Christopher, The Wonders of the East, Alexander’s Letter to Aristotle, and Judith. At first glance, the texts have little in common with one another: three are verse and two prose; two are religious, three secular. Dealing with religious persecution, remarkable animals, military campaigns, monster fights, and a female assassin, these texts cover Rome, Persia, India, southern Scandinavia, and Israel. This thesis considers some of the meanings Beowulf seems to carry in the context of its manuscript, exploring some ways an eleventh-century audience was expected to engage with it. The complex...

  13. Neural correlate of the construction of sentence meaning

    Scott, Terri L.; Brunner, Peter; Coon, William G.; Schalk, Gerwin; Fedorenko, Evelina G; Pritchett, Brianna L; Kanwisher, Nancy
    The neural processes that underlie your ability to read and understand this sentence are unknown. Sentence comprehension occurs very rapidly, and can only be understood at a mechanistic level by discovering the precise sequence of underlying computational and neural events. However, we have no continuous and online neural measure of sentence processing with high spatial and temporal resolution. Here we report just such a measure: intracranial recordings from the surface of the human brain show that neural activity, indexed by γ-power, increases monotonically over the course of a sentence as people read it. This steady increase in activity is absent...

  14. Women (Re)Writing Language: Literary Approaches to the Linguistic Representation of Women and Men in English and German

    Luck, C
    Since the 1970s activists and linguists have argued for a more inclusive linguistic representation of women and men. As a result, editorial guidelines, legislation and everyday usage now incorporate more inclusive terms. However, in many instances men continue to be referenced as the linguistic norm. The research questions guiding this thesis are: ‘Can literary texts help to shape attitudes toward inclusive language?’ and ‘Can they help to advance linguistic change?’ My starting point is narrative research. Zwaan showed that literary texts are processed differently to non-fiction. Furthermore, literary texts are able to ‘get under the radar’ of certain preconceptions, Dal...

  15. Effects of a Conversation-based Intervention on the Linguistic Skills of Children with Motor Speech Disorders who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication

    Soto, G; Clarke, MT

  16. Italian Occupational Nomenclature

    Rodgers, Emily
    This paper examines the social and linguistic significance of gendered occupational nouns in Italian. The history of feminism in Italy is important in understanding the effort it took for women to have the rights, in particular the workplace rights, that they have today. Examining nouns used to refer to women in certain occupations reflects this movement and the rate of its evolution. Some occupational nouns have variant forms, one or two that mark the female gender and one that marks the masculine but is used for males and females in the occupation. This is true particularly for nouns referring to...

  17. Early literacy and comprehension skills in children learning English as an additional language and monolingual children with language weaknesses

    Bowyer-Crane, C; Fricke, S; Schaefer, B; Lervag, A; Hulme, C
    Many children learning English as an additional language (EAL) show reading comprehension difficulties despite adequate decoding. However, the relationship between early language and reading comprehension in this group is not fully understood. The language and literacy skills of 80 children learning English from diverse language backgrounds and 80 monolingual English-speaking peers with language weaknesses were assessed at school entry (mean age = 4 years, 7 months) and after 2 years of schooling in the UK (mean age = 6 years, 3 months). The EAL group showed weaker language skills and stronger word reading than the monolingual group but no difference...

  18. La variación lingüística en subtitulación: el caso de las restricciones en Los amores imaginarios de Xavier Dolan

    Bolanos-Garcia-Escribano, A

  19. “Until I Became a Professional, I Was Not, Consciously, Indigenous”: One Intercultural Bilingual Educator’s Trajectory in Indigenous Language Revitalization

    Hornberger, Nancy H
    Drawing from long-term ethnographic research in the Andes, this paper examines one Quechua-speaking Indigenous bilingual educator’s trajectory as she traversed (and traverses) from rural highland communities of southern Peru through development as teacher, teacher educator, researcher, and advocate for Indigenous identity and language revitalization across urban, periurban, and rural spaces. Neri Mamani grew up in highland Peru and at the time I met her in 2005 was a bilingual intercultural education practitioner enrolled in master’s studies at the Program for Professional Development in Bilingual Intercultural Education for the Andean Region (PROEIB-Andes) at the University of San Simón in Cochabamba, Bolivia....

  20. Competence and Performance in Distributive/Collective Interpretations of Quantifiers in Child English and Spanish

    Oates, Morgan
    Crosslinguistically, children who are otherwise linguistically mature tend to assign a collective interpretation to quantifiers that are typically construed as distributive (each/cada) by adults; similarly, in distributive contexts, children accept quantifiers that adults interpret as collective (some/unos, the/los). The Pragmatic Scale Hypothesis proposes that collective and distributive meanings sit on a pragmatic scale, anchored by each/cada, which represents the distributive extreme of the scale with meaning derived through entailment. In contrast, some/unos and the/los derive meaning through a conversational, scalar implicature that is generated by virtue of the weaker informativeness of these quantifiers, relative to the stronger informativeness of each/cada....

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