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Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 54,629

1. Inmigración e infección por el VIH en España - Pérez Molina, José A.
Desde mediados de los años 90 la inmigración ha sido un fenómeno creciente en nuestro país, que sólo en los últimos años se ha ralentizado. Como consecuencia de la incorporación de estos nuevos ciudadanos también han aparecido nuevos pacientes, entre los que se encuentran algunos infectados por el VIH. Esta es una población heterogénea aunque como rasgos generales podemos destacar que suelen ser más jóvenes, con mayor predominio de mujeres y se infectan más por vía heterosexual en comparación con los pacientes autóctonos. La infección se diagnostica más tarde y por tanto con recuentos de linfocitos CD4 más bajos, especialmente...

2. “O Bairrista ” : estudo da construção identitária gaúcha através do humor - Martins, Larissa
Este trabalho consiste na análise dos textos do blog “O Bairrista”. O objetivo foi compreender como o blog construiu a sua identidade gaúcha através do humor. Para a formação do corpus foram selecionados, 10 textos compreendendo o período de 13 de setembro de 2012 a 20 de setembro de 2012, abrangendo assim o período da semana farroupilha, momento importante para a cultura gaúcha. O trabalho está fundamentado em três eixos conceituais, são eles: o humor, os blogs, e as questões de identidade. Os principais autores utilizados foram: Propp, O’Reilly, Primo, Hall, Silva, Felippi e Martino. O método utilizado foi a...

3. A new approach for Delphi processes based on group consensus with linguistic terms - Agell Jané, Núria; van Ganzewinkel,, Christ Jan; Sánchez Soler, Monica; Roselló Saurí, Llorenç; Prats Duaygues, Francesc; Andriessen, Peter
A new approach for Delphi processes including a measure of consensus based on linguistic terms is introduced in this paper. The measure of consensus involves qualitative reasoning techniques and is based on the concept of entropy. In the proposed approach, consensus is reached automatically without the need for neither a moderator nor a final interaction among panelists. In addition, it permits panelists to answer with different levels of precision depending on their knowledge on each question. An illustrative example considering the opinions of stake holders in neonate health-care to reach a final consensual definition of chronic pain in neonates is presented.

4. Il "Dizionario Garzanti" nel quadro della lessicografia italiana contemporanea - Patota, Giuseppe
Over the last fifteen years, Italian lexicography has achieved significant results in the field of historical as well as general dictionaries, thanks to the publication of outstanding works which provide the users with a wide range of information, both in paper and digital form, namely: phonemic transcriptions, etymological indications, the dating of the entries with the original occurrence, use frequency, phraseology, synonyms and antonyms, polyrematic units, grammatical notes. As they are specifically geared to provide surveys of written and spoken Italian based on real evidence, these works have come to be crucial methodological tools for knowledge not merely linguistic. The Dizionario Italiano Garzanti is to be placed within...

5. Lexicographic treatment of Italian phrasal verbs: A corpus-based approach - Onesti, Cristina
Italian phrasal verbs -or verbi sintagmatici- have seen a growth of interest in the Italian linguistic panorama. However, a more systematic analysis is needed to clarify the theoretical status of these verb-particle constructions and to improve their lexicographic treatment, which is still inconsistent, as shown by an overall comparison between the major Italian monolingual dictionaries. Difficulties are related with both an unclear semantic classification of them and the lack of frequency and productivity data about their formation. Following the classification of Masini 2005 in terms of intensification, direction, metaphoric and actional meaning, the present paper carries out a case study aiming at frequency data in phrasal verbs withvia,...

6. The funny mirror of language: the process of reversing the English-Slovenian dictionary to build the framework for compiling the new Slovenian-English dictionary - Krek, Simon; Sorli, Mojca; Kocjancic, Polonca
The article describes the process of reversing the English-Slovenian dictionary database in XML format to create the framework for compiling the Slovenian-English dictionary. The aim was to maximize the abundance of information in an extensive dictionary database with a complex and detailed structure. The process involved lemmatization and POS-tagging of both source and target languages, construction of routines to form the preliminary list of possible headwords and their translation equivalents, as well as routines which enabled the grouping of numerous dictionary examples available in the original dictionary under the appropriate translation equivalent. The result is the reversed dictionary database in XML format with the DTD and XSL...

7. Refining and exploiting the structural markup of the eWDG - Schmidt, Thomas; Geyken, Alexander; Storrer, Angelika
In this paper, we describe a semi-automated approach to refine the dictionary-entry structure of the digital version of the Wörterbuch der deutschen Gegenwartssprache (WDG, en.: Dictionary of Present-day German), a dictionary compiled and published between 1952 and 1977 by the Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften that comprises six volumes with over 4,500 pages containing more than 120,000 headwords. We discuss the benefits of such a refinement in the context of the dictionary project Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache (DWDS, en: Digital Dictionary of the German language). In the current phase of the DWDS project, we aim to integrate multiple dictionary and corpus resources in German language into a digital...

8. La recerca lingüística en la TA - Melero Nogués, Maite
La recerca lingüística pot contribuir molt al desenvolupament de la Traducció Automàtica, i al problema fonamental de les divergències en la traducció, amb observacions de fenòmens, amb tècniques i teories que la recerca en TA pot adoptar i combinar amb mètodes estadístics d’anàlisi de corpus.

9. Hugo Chávez and the building of his self-image through metaphor - Negro Alousque, Isabel
In the last decades metaphor has been much researched from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. One of the metaphor research lines has been the study of metaphor in specialized genres, including politics (Musolff, 2004). Political metaphor has been considerably researched within the cognitive framework and a few investigations have been concerned with the use of metaphor by political leaders (e.g. Semino & Masci, 1996; Charteris-Black, 2004, 2009). The present paper focuses on the use of metaphor in the public discourse of Hugo Chávez, the former Venezuelan president. Chávez was a captivating, if polarizing, leader whose hallmark was his oratory. We analyse a sample of Chávez’s speeches for evidence of...

10. Revisiting metadiscourse: conceptual and methodological issues concerning signalling nouns - Flowerdew, John
The concept of metadiscourse – the ways in which writers and speakers interact through their use of language with readers and listeners (also referred to as metalanguage and metapragmatics) – has received considerable attention in applied linguistics in recent years, particularly in the study of academic discourse. Conceptualised within the applied linguistics context of developing optimal descriptions of genres as a basis for a genre-based pedagogy, this article first reviews some of the different approaches to metadiscourse, highlighting how the concept is construed in different ways by different researchers. The article then discusses a number of problematic issues in metadiscourse research: metadiscourse as textual or interpersonal; the size of the...

11. El arte rupestre del suroeste de Tejas como fuente para el estudio de contactos lingüísticos - Marcos Marín, Francisco
This contribution is oriented towards the process of introduction of Spanish in the Texas Southwest. It includes an explicit external source, previously studied by Archeology, without previous linguistic analysis though: Rock-Art. The extreme importance of Southwest Rock-Art adds a very interesting semiological construction. Rock-Art paintings are crucial for other sciences. Furthermore, they admit an ethno linguistic interpretation and help untie the knot which links Amerindian and Indo-European languages after the arrival of the conquistadores and the subsequent population. Following the general, conceptual and methodological foundations, the study concludes with the analysis of two concrete examples of human figures in two...

12. Culturas académicas: entre reinvención y contrabando - Araujo, Kathya
Based upon the analysis of a personal trajectory which implied shifting between Peruvian and Chilean academic milieus, this paper argues how in despite of new evaluations modalities (rankings, the search for isomorphic structures of argumentation and linguistic forms or even the fiction of global sociologies), particular academic cultures stay alive. In this regard, it intends to show that the singularity of intellectual styles, forms of professional sociability or even of linguistic and rhetoric uses in each one of them are nothing else but the manner in which each local academic culture answers to different social and political challenges departing from their...

13. Source versus spectral cues in the perception of indexical features in speech - Ortega, Hannah
Spoken language includes two different forms of information: linguistic (message related) and indexical (related to individual speaker characteristics). Recent research revealed that listeners are sensitive to indexical features such as regional dialect spoken in their speech community. However, little is known how listeners form a perceptual representation of speaker identity and how the indexical information is conveyed by the vocal source (related to voice) and filter (related to the changing shape of the vocal tract during speech production). This study explores the nature of the acoustic cues that listeners may use to identify gender and dialect of speaker. Nine spontaneous...

14. Sintagma Verbal Núcleo Flexionado en Español - Bès, Gabriel G.; Solana, Zulema
Este trabajo se propone la descripción de los sintagmas verbales núcleos flexionados, la formalización a partir de las propiedades del Paradigma 5P, desarrollado en el GRIL (Groupe de Recherche dans les Industries de la Langue) Universidad Blaise-Pascal de Clermont-Ferrand (Francia), y pretende evaluar estas hipótesis lingüísticas a través de su implantación en máquina. Se recurre a la herramienta xfst, un autómata de estados finitos, implementada en Xerox Research Centre Europe (XRCE) y Palo Alto Reserach Centre (PARC).

15. Extracción del sintagma verbal núclea y resolución de ambigüedades en la asignación categorial - Bès, Gabriel G.; Solana, Zulema
En el presente trabajo vamos a referirnos a la ambigüedad de la asignación categorial de las ocurrencias lingüísticas que son producto de la segmentación de un texto. La resolución de ambigüedad es una exigencia crucial en el análisis automático de textos. Este problema será tratado en paralelo con la extracción de sintagmas núcleos, en particular el sintagma núcleo verbal, etapa indispensable en el análisis automático de la oración. Recurriremos a dos útiles informáticos SMORPH (segmentación y morfología) y MPS (módulo post-smorf) integrados en una arquitectura común. Presentaremos los resultados obtenidos a partir de un sondeo realizado sobre tres textos periodísticos...

16. Functional connectivity of the striatum in experts of stenography - Ito, Takehito; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Shimojo, Shinsuke
Introduction: Stenography, or shorthand, is a unique set of skills that involves intensive training which is nearly life-long and orchestrating various brain functional modules, including auditory, linguistic, cognitive, mnemonic, and motor. Stenography provides cognitive neuroscientists with a unique opportunity to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the neural plasticity that enables such a high degree of expertise. However, shorthand is quickly being replaced with voice recognition technology. We took this nearly final opportunity to scan the brains of the last alive shorthand experts of the Japanese language. Methods: Thirteen right-handed stenographers and fourteen right-handed controls participated in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. Results: The...

17. Modelos internos dinâmicos e competência social da criança no pré-escolar - Antunes , Marta Justino Ferrúcio
O presente estudo tem como objectivo analisar a relação concorrente entre as representações internas da relação de vinculação e a competência social em crianças do pré-escolar, aos 5 anos. Aplicou-se, às 102 crianças participantes, a Attachment Story Completion Task, a fim de se avaliar os Modelos Internos Dinâmicos de vinculação e um conjunto de indicadores da competência social que compreendem a avaliação deste constructo de acordo com o Modelo Hierárquico. Utilizou-se, ainda, a edição revista da Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence para controlar os efeitos da capacidade linguística na produção das narrativas. Verificou-se a existência de uma correlação...

18. Expressing disagreement in English as a lingua franca: Whose pragmatic rules? - Maíz Arévalo, Carmen
Multicultural classrooms provide the intercultural pragmatist with a breeding ground to get firsthand information on intercultural communication. In such a context, if English is used as a lingua franca, these classrooms also become an ideal setting to observe the pragmatics of this relatively unknown variety. The present article aims to analyze qualitatively a sample of data produced by a multicultural group of masters students in which English is used as the lingua franca. More specifically, I intend to answer the following research question: In a multicultural class where English is the medium of instruction and students’ peer to peer communication,...

19. Étude de l’adverbe spécialement en tant que focalisateur événementiel - Hermoso Mellado-Damas, Adelaida
The aim of this article is to determine the different uses the adverb spécialement can receive in discourse. Therefore we work within an argumentative framework, according to which the application of some linguistic criteria prove that this item presents two main features: one paradigmatic, another eventive. Both features derive into two different discourse strategies depending on the fact that spécialement focuses upon the whole predication as an event or only a part of it. When the adverb operates as an eventive focusing, it involves some pragmatics effects that concern directly the expression of the speaker attitude.

20. Chomsky defensor de las contrastaciones cruciales - Gil, José María
Noam Chomsky (quien es posiblemente el lingüista más reconocido de la historia) supone, de forma equivocada, que en la ciencia hay contrastaciones cruciales. La confirmación de las hipótesis de una teoría x no nos habilita para desestimar la teoría z, incompatible con x (y viceversa). Se sugiere, como alternativa, un “principio de complementariedad en lingüística”, en virtud del cual podría aceptarse que alguna teoría lingüística zes científica si ésta caracteriza ciertos fenómenos lingüísticos aun cuando resulte incompatible con la de Chomsky.Noam Chomsky (who has probably been the most acclaimed linguist in history) assumes, wrongly, that there are crucial contrastations in...

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