Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 68,489

  1. Morphological structure in the Arabic mental lexicon: parallels between standard and dialectal Arabic

    Sami Boudelaa; William D. Marslen-wilson
    The Arabic language is acquired by its native speakers both as a regional spoken Arabic dialect, acquired in early childhood as a first language, and as the more formal variety known as Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), typically acquired later in childhood. These varieties of Arabic show a range of linguistic similarities and differences. Since previous psycholinguistic research in Arabic has primarily used MSA, it remains to be established whether the same cognitive properties hold for the dialects. Here we focus on the morphological level, and ask whether roots and word patterns play similar or different roles in MSA and in...

  2. A comprehensive benchmark of kernel methods to extract protein-protein interactions from literature

    Domonkos Tikk; Peter Palaga; Ulf Leser
    The most important way of conveying new findings in biomedical research is scientific publication. Extraction of protein– protein interactions (PPIs) reported in scientific publications is one of the core topics of text mining in the life sciences. Recently, a new class of such methods has been proposed- convolution kernels that identify PPIs using deep parses of sentences. However, comparing published results of different PPI extraction methods is impossible due to the use of different evaluation corpora, different evaluation metrics, different tuning procedures, etc. In this paper, we study whether the reported performance metrics are robust across different corpora and learning...

  3. Correspondence

    Miriam Siegel; Jane B. Allendorfer; Christopher J. Lindsell; Jennifer Vannest; Jerzy P. Szaflarski; Miriam Siegel
    The effects of linguistic relationships among paired

  4. Children’s Computation of Complex Linguistic Forms: A Study of Frequency and Imageability Effects

    Cristina D. Dye; Matthew Walenski; Elizabeth L. Prado; Stewart Mostofsky; Michael T. Ullman
    This study investigates the storage vs. composition of inflected forms in typically-developing children. Children aged 8–12 were tested on the production of regular and irregular past-tense forms. Storage (vs. composition) was examined by probing for past-tense frequency effects and imageability effects – both of which are diagnostic tests for storage – while controlling for a number of confounding factors. We also examined sex as a factor. Irregular inflected forms, which must depend on stored representations, always showed evidence of storage (frequency and/or imageability effects), not only across all children, but also separately in both sexes. In contrast, for regular forms,...

  5. Research Article Healthy Aging and Compensation of Sentence Comprehension Auditory Deficits

    Marcela Lima Silagi; Camila Maia Rabelo; Eliane Schochat; Letícia Lessa Mansur
    Copyright © 2015 Marcela Lima Silagi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Objectives. To analyze the effect of aging on sentence auditory comprehension and to study the relationship between this language skill and cognitive functions (attention, working memory, and executive functions). Methods. A total of 90 healthy subjects were divided into three groups: adults (50–59 years), young-old (60–69 years), and old-old (70–80 years). Subjects were assessed using the Revised Token Test.Themeasures used for performance...

  6. Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, UK

    David P. Corina; Laurel A. Lawyer; Deborah Cates; David P. Corina
    doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00587 Cross-linguistic differences in the neural representation of human language: evidence from users of signed languages

  7. Price Comparisons on the Internet Based on Computational Intelligence

    Jun Woo Kim; Sung Ho Ha
    Information-intensive Web services such as price comparison sites have recently been gaining popularity. However, most users including novice shoppers have difficulty in browsing such sites because of the massive amount of information gathered and the uncertainty surrounding Web environments. Even conventional price comparison sites face various problems, which suggests the necessity of a new approach to address these problems. Therefore, for this study, an intelligent product search system was developed that enables price comparisons for online shoppers in a more effective manner. In particular, the developed system adopts linguistic price ratings based on fuzzy logic to accommodate user-defined price ranges,...

  8. RESEARCH ARTICLE An Online Database of New Guinea Languages

    Simon J. Greenhill
    The island of New Guinea has the world’s highest linguistic diversity, with more than 900 languages divided into at least 23 distinct language families. This diversity includes the world’s third largest language family: Trans-New Guinea. However, the region is one of the world’s least well studied, and primary data is scattered across a wide range of publications and more often then not hidden in unpublished “gray ” literature. The lack of primary research data on the New Guinea languages has been a major impediment to our under-standing of these languages, and the history of the peoples in New Guinea.

  9. RESEARCH ARTICLE Generation of Silver Standard Concept Annotations from Biomedical Texts with Special Relevance to Phenotypes

    Anika Oellrich; Nigel Collier; Damian Smedley; Tudor Groza
    Electronic health records and scientific articles possess differing linguistic characteristics that may impact the performance of natural language processing tools developed for one or the other. In this paper, we investigate the performance of four extant concept recognition tools: the clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System (cTAKES), the National Center for Biomedical Ontology (NCBO) Annotator, the Biomedical Concept Annotation System (BeCAS) and MetaMap. Each of the four concept recognition systems is applied to four different corpora: the i2b2 corpus of clinical documents, a PubMed corpus of Medline abstracts, a clinical trails corpus and the ShARe/CLEF corpus. In addition, we...

  10. Linguistic diversity and traffic accidents: lessons from statistical studies of cultural traits

    James Winters
    The recent proliferation of digital databases of cultural and linguistic data, together with new statistical techniques becoming available has lead to a rise in so-called nomothetic studies [1–8]. These seek relationships between demographic variables and cultural traits from large, cross-cultural datasets. The insights from these studies are important for understanding how cultural traits evolve. While these studies are fascinating and are good at generating testable hypotheses, they may underestimate the probability of finding spurious correlations between cultural traits. Here we show that this kind of approach can find links between such unlikely cultural traits as traffic accidents, levels of extra-martial...

  11. Opening New Windows on Language

    Antonio Benítez-burraco; Juan Uriagereka; Firas H. Kobeissy; Zhongya Wang; Ali M. Alawieh; Mohammad Mofrad; Antonio Benítez-burraco; Benítez-burraco A; Uriagereka J
    Front. Mol. Neurosci. 8:84. doi: 10.3389/fnmol.2015.00084 Recent research has added new dimensions to our understanding of classical evolution, according to which evolutionary novelties result from gene mutations inherited from parents to offspring. Language is surely one such novelty. Together with specific changes in our genome and epigenome, we suggest that two other (related) mechanisms may have contributed to the brain rewiring underlying human cognitive evolution and, specifically, the changes in brain connectivity that prompted the emergence of our species-specific linguistic abilities: the horizontal transfer of genetic material by viral and non-viral vectors and the brain/immune system crosstalk (more generally, the...

  12. Testing the Stem Dominance Hypothesis: Meaning Analysis of Inflected Words and Prepositional Phrases

    Minna Lehtonen; Gabor Harrer; Erling W; Matti Laine
    We tested the hypothesis that lexical-semantic access of inflected words is governed by the word stem. Object drawings overlaid with a dot/arrow marking position/movement were matched with corresponding linguistic expressions like ‘‘from the house’’. To test whether the stem dominates lexical-semantic access irrespective of its position, we used Swedish prepositional phrases (locative information via preposition immediately preceding the stem) or Finnish case-inflected words (locative information via suffix immediately following the stem). Both in monolingual Swedish and in bilingual Finnish-Swedish speakers, correct stems with incorrect prepositions/case-endings were hardest to reject. This finding supports the view that the stem is indeed the...

  13. DEBATE Open Access Simulated consultations: a sociolinguistic perspective

    Sarah Atkins; Celia Roberts; Kamila Hawthorne; Trisha Greenhalgh
    Background: Assessment of consulting skills using simulated patients is widespread in medical education. Most research into such assessment is sited in a statistical paradigm that focuses on psychometric properties or replicability of such tests. Equally important, but less researched, is the question of how far consultations with simulated patients reflect real clinical encounters – for which sociolinguistics, defined as the study of language in its socio-cultural context, provides a helpful analytic lens. Discussion: In this debate article, we draw on a detailed empirical study of assessed role-plays, involving sociolinguistic analysis of talk in OSCE interactions. We consider critically the evidence...

  14. RESEARCH ARTICLE An Integrated Approach of Fuzzy Linguistic Preference Based AHP and Fuzzy COPRAS for Machine Tool Evaluation

    Huu-tho Nguyen; Siti Zawiah; Md Dawal; Yusoff Nukman; Hideki Aoyama
    Globalization of business and competitiveness in manufacturing has forced companies to improve their manufacturing facilities to respond to market requirements. Machine tool eval-uation involves an essential decision using imprecise and vague information, and plays a major role to improve the productivity and flexibility in manufacturing. The aim of this study is to present an integrated approach for decision-making in machine tool selection. This paper is focused on the integration of a consistent fuzzy AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) and a fuzzy COmplex PRoportional ASsessment (COPRAS) for multi-attribute decision-making in selecting the most suitable machine tool. In this method, the fuzzy linguistic...

  15. Some Structural Aspects of Language Are More Stable than Others: A Comparison of Seven Methods

    Dan Dediu; Michael Cysouw
    Understanding the patterns and causes of differential structural stability is an area of major interest for the study of language change and evolution. It is still debated whether structural features have intrinsic stabilities across language families and geographic areas, or if the processes governing their rate of change are completely dependent upon the specific context of a given language or language family. We conducted an extensive literature review and selected seven different approaches to conceptualising and estimating the stability of structural linguistic features, aiming at comparing them using the same dataset, the World Atlas of Language Structures. We found that,...

  16. M: Facilitating the recruitment of minority ethnic people into research: qualitative case study of South Asians and asthma. PLoS Med 2009

    Aziz Sheikh; Laila Halani; Raj Bhopal; Gopalakrishnan Netuveli; Martyn R. Partridge; Josip Car; Chris Griffiths; Mark Levy
    Background: There is international interest in enhancing recruitment of minority ethnic people into research, particularly in disease areas with substantial ethnic inequalities. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis found that UK South Asians are at three times increased risk of hospitalisation for asthma when compared to white Europeans. US asthma trials are far more likely to report enrolling minority ethnic people into studies than those conducted in Europe. We investigated approaches to bolster recruitment of South Asians into UK asthma studies through qualitative research with US and UK researchers, and UK community leaders. Methods and Findings: Interviews were conducted with...

  17. RESEARCH ARTICLE Crowdsourcing Language Change with Smartphone Applications

    Adrian Leemann; Marie-josé Kolly; Ross Purves; David Britain; Elvira Glaser
    Crowdsourcing linguistic phenomena with smartphone applications is relatively new. In lin-guistics, apps have predominantly been developed to create pronunciation dictionaries, to train acoustic models, and to archive endangered languages. This paper presents the first account of how apps can be used to collect data suitable for documenting language change: we created an app, Dialäkt Äpp (DÄ), which predicts users ’ dialects. For 16 linguistic vari-ables, users select a dialectal variant from a drop-down menu. DÄ then geographically locates the user’s dialect by suggesting a list of communes where dialect variants most sim-ilar to their choices are used. Underlying this prediction...

  18. Production and Comprehension of Time Reference in Korean Nonfluent Aphasia

    Jiyeon Leea; Miseon Kwonc; Hae Ri Nad; Roelien Bastiaansee; Cynthia K. Thompsona
    Objectives—Individuals with nonfluent agrammatic aphasia show impaired production and comprehension of time reference via verbal morphology. However, cross-linguistic findings to date suggest inconsistent evidence as to whether tense processing in general is impaired or time reference to the past is selectively difficult in this population. This study examined production and comprehension of time reference via verb morphology in Korean-speaking individuals with nonfluent aphasia. Methods—A group of 9 healthy controls and 8 individuals with nonfluent aphasia (5 for the production task) participated in the study. Sentence priming production and auditory sentence to picture matching tasks were used, parallel with the previous...

  19. Reviewed by:

    Cristina Baus; Eva Gutiérrez; Manuel Carreiras; Iris Berent; Ariel M. Cohen-goldberg
    The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional role of syllables in sign language and how the different phonological combinations influence sign production. Moreover, the influence of age of acquisition was evaluated. Deaf signers (native and non-native) of Catalan Signed Language (LSC) were asked in a picture-sign interference task to sign picture names while ignoring distractor-signs with which they shared two phonological parameters (out of three of the main sign parameters: Location, Movement, and Handshape). The results revealed a different impact of the three phonological combinations. While no effect was observed for the phonological combination Handshape-Location, the...

  20. Uniparental Markers of Contemporary Italian Population Reveals Details on Its Pre-Roman Heritage

    Francesca Brisighelli; Manuel Fondevila; Ro Blanco-verea; Vincenzo L. Pascali; Cristian Capelli; Antonio Salas
    Background: According to archaeological records and historical documentation, Italy has been a melting point for populations of different geographical and ethnic matrices. Although Italy has been a favorite subject for numerous population genetic studies, genetic patterns have never been analyzed comprehensively, including uniparental and autosomal markers throughout the country. Methods/Principal Findings: A total of 583 individuals were sampled from across the Italian Peninsula, from ten distant (if homogeneous by language) ethnic communities — and from two linguistic isolates (Ladins, Grecani Salentini). All samples were first typed for the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region and selected coding region SNPs (mtSNPs). This...

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