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Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística
(5701) Lingüística aplicada (5702) Lingüística diacrónica
(5703) Geografía lingüística (5704) Teoría lingüística
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Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 50,210

1. A questão dos silenciamentos em análise do discurso: Reflexões a partir de uma entrevista em circulação na mídia Rio-Grandina - Pinto, Denise Machado
Este trabalho apresenta uma pesquisa desenvolvida no Grupo de Estudos em Análise do Discurso (GEAD), da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), tendo como objetivo principal refletir sobre a noção do silêncio e analisar os processos de silenciamento e de produção de sentido, à luz dos Estudos Discursivos de linha pecheuxiana. Como materialidade de análise, foi utilizada uma entrevista feita com o prefeito da cidade de Rio Grande (RS), postada no blog olhardarua.com, no dia 27 de março de 2012. A matéria, publicada com o título “Entrevista com o prefeito de Rio Grande, Fábio Branco”, teve uma grande repercussão na mídia local, não apenas...

2. El arte de la conversación: ¿deleite virtuoso o inmoral? - Strosetzki, Christoph
Recent linguistic pragmatics has emphasized that talking is acting. Action, however, belongs to the field of ethics. Hence, of what nature is the relationship that exists between the norms of ethics and the rules of conversation? The question is easy to answer on particular cases, for example, when asking about the permissibility of lying and deception. The matter, however, becomes more complex, when comparing the field of ethics to the rules of conversation, so it will be studied first. Then, the forms of regulated existence in society and conversation are correlated with those in politics and state. This raises the...

3. Encrucijada de normas lingüísticas: los tiempos y los modos verbales, y la estructura del predicado en el «Libro decimosexto» de los «Comentarios de erudición», de Bartolomé Jiménez Patón - Monterrubio Prieto, Juan Miguel
This study examines verb modes and tenses as well as the predicate structure in «Libro decimosexto» of Bartolomé Jiménez Patón’s Comentarios de erudición in an effort to demonstrate how the text straddles the line between Medieval and Golden Age norms. Jiménez Patón, thus, combines traits already considered archaic at the time, due perhaps to his solid training in grammar and his linguistic awareness, with those modern solutions which, towards the end of the 1500’s, were forging the new Spanish language (that of the «plain style», which he championed), one that was gradually being refined in order to take its place...

4. A vanguarda moderna como inspiração - Pardal, Ana Filipa
Este projecto propõe a síntese entre a técnica da ilustração e a atitude e pensamentos modernistas, explorando o universo imagético e a forma como o receptor se envolve com ele. O objectivo é perceber porquê e como é que o receptor pode mais facilmente ser atraído por determinado objecto de design, através de estímulos sinestésicos. São explorados conceitos teóricos desde a definição de imagem e os seus componentes linguísticos, à interpretação, produção de cognição, criação visual, e o que possa estar relacionado, directamente ou não, com a capacidade de captar, reconhecer, interpretar e imaginar. Foram seleccionados excertos de obras de...

5. Deixis social y (des)cortesía verbal como estrategias argumentativas: análisis discursivo del debate político desde un enfoque sociopragmático - Pérez García, Encarnación
Esta investigación parte de considerar la lengua como principal vía de contacto para la transmisión de ideas, pensamientos e intenciones tanto individuales como colectivas. A esto se une la afirmación de que la lengua no es un mecanismo estático, sino que refleja los cambios y los acontecimientos que suceden en la sociedad. Se establece, por tanto, el binomio lengua/sociedad a partir del concepto de interacción verbal. En este trabajo, se demostrará cómo determinados usos lingüísticos se ponen al servicio del hablante para la consecución de fines concretos, elaborados según las exigencias del contexto inmediato en que se establece el intercambio...

6. La ciudad de los prodigios somos nosotros. Actividades de expresión oral a partir de lecturas: una propuesta creativa para los alumnos - Gillani Martín, Eugenio
Entre los cometidos que tenemos los profesores en el nivel de enseñanza en el que trabajo, enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras (LE) en escuelas oficiales de idiomas (E.O.I.), están también la práctica de la comprensión escrita y el fomento de la lectura, tanto en el aula como fuera de ella. Existe, al respecto, el hábito de proponer a los alumnos, a lo largo del curso y de forma más o menos obligatoria, la lectura en casa de cuentos y novelas que, posteriormente, se utilizarán en clase para actividades de análisis lingüístico (generalmente sobre contenidos gramaticales, léxicos, estructuras sintácticas, modelos textuales, etc.),...

7. Tareas para el turismo lingüístico. Cambiar los deberes. Ejemplo: encuesta 32ª Copa América, en Valencia - Franco Cordón, Ana Indira
Esta presentación surge a raíz de la experiencia propia como profesora en una escuela valenciana durante el verano, además de como estudiante en varias estancias lingüísticas en Inglaterra, y de la ponencia de Mercedes de Castro �Lengua, Cultura y Turismo� en las I Jornadas Internacionales de Lenguas Aplicadas al Turismo, organizadas por la Universidad Antonio de Nebrija en Octubre de 2006.

8. Fundamentos de ontología dialéctica - Peña, Lorenzo
[ES] Esta investigación ontológica aborda lo relativo al existir: qué es el existir; qué es aquello de lo que cabe decir que es o existe; si hay sentidos irreducibles de ese verbo `existir'; qué sea el no-existir -lo cual conduce al problema de si el existir se da por grados; si cabría la posibilidad de que no existiera nada; cómo se relaciona la existencia con la referencialidad lingüística; cuáles sean las leyes generales que rigen todo lo existente. Este último problema se desglosa en el estudio de varios principios ontológicos: los de inteligibilidad, razón suficiente, identidad de los indiscernibles, interdependencia,...

9. Auto-Emergencia de Comunicación Sintáctica en Entornos Estáticos y Dinámicos para Grupos de Robots mediante Evolución Gramatical y Aprendizaje por Refuerzo - Mingo Postiglioni, Jack Mario
La idea de dotar a un grupo de robots o agentes artificiales de un lenguaje ha sido objeto de intenso estudio en las ultimas décadas. Como no podía ser de otra forma los primeros intentos se enfocaron hacia el estudio de la emergencia de vocabularios compartidos convencionalmente por el grupo de robots. Las ventajas que puede ofrecer un léxico común son evidentes, como también lo es que un lenguaje con una estructura más compleja, en la que se pudieran combinar palabras, sería todavía más beneficioso. Surgen así algunas propuestas enfocadas hacia la emergencia de un lenguaje consensuado que muestre una...

10. Linguistic representations of motion do not depend on the visual motion system - Pavan, Andrea; Baggio, Giosuè
Embodied semantics proposes that constructing the meaning of motion verb phrases relies on representations of motion in sensory cortex. However, the data reported by earlier studies as evidence for this claim are also explained by a symbolic-semantics view proposing interactions between dissociable systems. In the experiments reported here, participants were visually adapted to real and implied leftward or rightward motion, which produced a motion aftereffect opposite to the direction of the adapting stimulus. Participants then decided whether a directionally ambiguous or a leftward- or rightward-directional verb phrase implied leftward or rightward motion. Because the visual system is engaged in the...

11. Motion words selectively modulate direction discrimination sensitivity for threshold motion - Pavan, Andrea; Skujevskis, Māris; Baggio, Giosuè
Can speech selectively modulate the sensitivity of a sensory system so that, in the presence of a suitable linguistic context, the discrimination of certain perceptual features becomes more or less likely? In this study, participants heard upward or downward motion words followed by a single visual field of random dots moving upwards or downwards. The time interval between the onsets of the auditory and the visual stimuli was varied parametrically. Motion direction could be either discriminable (suprathreshold motion) or non-discriminable (threshold motion). Participants had to judge whether the dots were moving upward or downward. Results show a double dissociation between...

12. DRAFT - Mark Allman
This is a draft and is not to be reproduced or quoted without the author’s explicit permission. For the first time in history, human beings are able to quickly, accurately and efficiently communicate, trade and interact on a global scale. What makes this phenomenon possible are the rapid advances in technology (especially the computer and digitization), communication (such as, fiber optic cables, satellites and the internet) and transportation witnessed in the last century. With these advances, geography, as a social barrier, has been transcended and many aspects of social life (conversing, buying, selling, art, literature, music, philosophy, religion, politics, economics...

13. Semantic Information Retrieval Based on Fuzzy Ontology for Electronic Commerce - Jun Zhai; Yiduo Liang; Yi Yu; Jiatao Jiang
Abstract—Information retrieval is the important work for Electronic Commerce. Ontology-based semantic retrieval is a hotspot of current research. In order to achieve fuzzy semantic retrieval, this paper applies a fuzzy ontology framework to information retrieval system in E-Commerce. The framework includes three parts: concepts, properties of concepts and values of properties, in which property’s value can be either standard data types or linguistic values of fuzzy concepts. The semantic query expansions are constructed by order relation, equivalence relation, inclusion relation, reversion relation and complement relation between fuzzy concepts defined in linguistic variable ontologies with Resource Description Framework (RDF). The application...

14. Context-Oriented Software Engineering: A Modularity Vision - Tetsuo Kamina; Tomoyuki Aotani; Hidehiko Masuhara; Tetsuo Tamai
There are a number of constructs to implement context-dependent behavior, such as conditional branches using if statements, method dispatching in object-oriented programming (such as the state de-sign pattern), dynamic deployment of aspects in aspect-oriented programming, and layers in context-oriented programming (COP). Uses of those constructs significantly affect the modularity of the obtained implementation. While there are a number of cases where COP improves modularity, it is not clear when we should use COP in general. This paper presents a preliminary study on our software de-velopment methodology, the context-oriented software engineering (COSE), which is a use-case-driven software development method-ology that guides...

15. Word count: 6812 Address for correspondence: - Thomas L. Griffiths; Tom Griffiths
Exploring inductive biases 2 Bayesian models as tools for exploring inductive biases Generalization – reasoning from the properties of observed entities to those of entities as yet unobserved – is at the heart of many aspects of human cognition. As several of the chapters in this book indicate, generalization plays a key role in language learning, where learners need to make judgments about the linguistic properties of utterances (such as their meaning or grammaticality) using their previous experience with a language. It also underlies our ability to form and use categories, allowing us to identify which objects are likely to...

16. Constructions with verbs of dispossession in Dutch A corpus-based case study - Martine Delorge; Timothy Colleman; M. Delorge; T. Colleman
This paper focuses on the constructional possibilities of verbs of reception and dispossession in Dutch. These verb classes have received considerably less linguistic attention than their counterparts among the verbs of transfer of possession, the verbs of giving. In this paper, we intend to show, however, that reception and dispossession verbs constitute an interesting area of investigation as well, by laying bare the constructional variation they display, both synchronically and diachronically. The first part of our paper provides a brief overview of this variation. In the second part, we present a case study of six typical verbs of dispossession: the...

17. Kripke’s Revenge - Theodore Sider; David Braun; Philosophical Studies
Millianism says that the semantic content of a name (or indexical) is simply its referent. This thesis arises within a general, powerful research program, the propositionalist approach to semantics, which sets as a goal for philosophical semantics an assignment of entities — semantic contents — to bits of language, culminating in the assignment of propositions to sentences. Communication, linguistic competence, truth conditions, and other semantic phenomena are ultimately explained in terms of semantic contents. Over 100 years ago Frege (1952/1892) pointed out the problem with Millian-ism: sentences containing co-referential names seem semantically inequivalent. ða=añ is trivial, a priori, etc.; ða=bñ...

18. The Tycho Brahe Annotated Corpus of Historical - Maria Clara; Paixão Sousa; Portuguese Corpus; Histórico Português Tycho
This paper describes the restructuring process of a large corpus of historical documents and the system architecture that is used for accessing it. The initial challenge of this process was to get the most out of existing material, normalizing the legacy markup and harvesting the inherent information using widely available standards. This resulted in a conceptual and technical restructuring of the formerly existing corpus. The development of the standardized markup and techniques allowed the inclusion of important new materials, such as original 16th and 17th century prints and manuscripts; and enlarged the potential user groups. On the technological side, we...

19. Afro-Asian and Afro-indigenous linguistic contacts in Spanish America - John M. Lipski
In reconstructing the language of the African diaspora in Latin America and assessing the possible imprint of African languages on Spanish and Portuguese, emphasis naturally falls on bilateral Afro-Spanish and Afro-Portuguese contacts. Whereas such an approach is substantially valid for the last century or so of African slavery in the Americas, when newly

20. 1 Problems and Solutions on Concept Transfer
Abstract How can we better transfer concepts and ideas to other cultures? Especially, where these concepts are quite foreign to the audiences? What kind of problems should we expect and what can we do to solve them? This paper discusses the attempts to teach engineering courses conducted entirely in English for Japanese college students. Engineering and foreign language professors in the United States and in Japan collaborated to develop the courses. One was a technical report-writing course for mechanical engineering majors. The students were required to write reports in English on their senior graduation projects. They were also asked to...

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