The historical implications of the linguistic relationship between Makua and Sotho languages.1
- H. M. Batibo; J. Moilwa; N. Mosaka
Makua, known also as Emakhuwa, is a Bantu language, spoken by the Wamakhua people who occupy the eastern coastal region from south Tanzania to most of northern Mozambique. There are over half a million Makua speakers in Tanzania and over 3.2 million speakers in Mozambique. It is Mozambique's most numerous language
A Multi-Level Context-Dependent Prosodic Model Applied to Durational Modeling
- Nicolas Obin; Xavier Rodet; Anne Lacheret-dujour
We present in this article a multi-level prosodic model based on the estimation of prosodic parameters on a set of well de-fined linguistic units. Different linguistic units are used to re-present different scales of prosodic variations (local and global forms) and thus to estimate the linguistic factors that can ex-plain the variations of prosodic parameters independently on each level. This model is applied to the modeling of syllable-based durational parameters on two read speech corpora- labo-ratory and acted speech. Compared to a syllable-based baseline model, the proposed approach improves performance in terms of the temporal organization of the predicted durations...
Formal Linguistics and the Syntax of Spanish: Past, Present and Future1
- Margarita Suñer
The organizers of the Symposium suggested the topic of this presentation. From the very beginning my main purpose was to discuss an example of how one works within formal linguistics, my area of specialization. I must also make clear that I do not believe that there is an entity called the syntax of Spanish, but that rather there exists what we call syntax and that we apply its principles and hypotheses to different languages. The idea is that syntax is unique, universal according to Chomsky – the top guru of formal linguistics according to my estimate. To a large degree...
How does vowel context influence loops
- Christian Geng; Susanne Fuchs; Christine Mooshammer; Bernd Pompino-marschall
ABSTRACT: This study investigated the influence of vowel context onto the tongue back movement trajectories in /VC/-sequences, where V was one of 14 German vowels. Three German subjects were recorded by means of EMA. The experimental settings, with a velar consonant and a comparatively large vowel system including a tense-lax distinction, was chosen to maximize coarticulation, which, in turn, should enhance the disentangling of, in a narrower sense, productional from linguistic influences on observed movement patterns. The main results of our study indicate dominating biomechanical principles operating on a front-back-dimension.
CODE SWITCHING AND ENGLISH LANGUAGE AS A FREE-CULTURE MÉDIUM: CASE STUDY OF THE NOVEL NECESSARY LIES BY EVA STACHNIAK1
- Wlodzimierz J. Szymaniak; Piaget Republic; Cape Verde; Wlodzimierz J. Szymaniak
This article proposes to examine a situation that is both particular and common: the use of language in the case of the immigrant. Our study is based on the linguistic commentary of the novel Necessary Lies by Eva Stachniak (2000) and analyses the protagonist's linguistic evolution, which is clearly vis-ible through the narrative text about her situation during the first phase of ac-culturation in Canadá. RESUMEN El artículo propone una aproximación a una situación que es, a la vez, particular y frecuente: el uso de la lengua en la situación del inmigrante. El estudio consiste en el comentario lingüístico de...
Spoken language tutorial dialogue
- Beverly Park Woolf; James Allen
An existing natural language speech dialogue system will be integrated with an existing mathematics tutor to provide adaptive instruction for grade school children. The resulting dialogue tutor will use general linguistic knowledge, including a fairly complex model of English and task-oriented dialogues, to speak to the student when he or she has trouble solving a problem. The tutor will initiate an interaction to diagnose missing knowledge and provide a customized explanation, select appropriate hints for a particular diagnosed problem based on student gender, cognitive development and student history, and provide a summary to ensure that students have the correct information....
Translating passives in English and Swedish: a text linguistic perspective
- Anna-lena Fredriksson; English Department
The aim of this work-in-progress report is to study whether the textual and grammatical structure of passive clauses is retained or altered in translations between English and Swedish. The passive is interesting to study in this perspective since it is a multifunctional category closely linked to textual structure. It constitutes a useful text-structuring tool in that it makes it possible to ‘thematize a Given
A Cross-linguistic Investigation on the Acquisition of Spanish Aspect
- Diana Hsien-jen Chin
This study investigates the cross-linguistic effects on the acquisition of the semantic interpretation of the Preterit and Imperfect marking in Spanish as a second language (L2). The influence of language learners ’ native language on the acquisition of L2 tense-aspect morphology has been reported by many
Discourse and Cognitive Perspectives on Human Language (2003), 131-145. On Thai Copulas, khUU1 and pen1: A Cognitive Approach
- Kiyoko Takahashi; Rumiko Shinzato
Recent linguistic research has seen robust interest in the incorporation of cognitive science insight into linguistic analyses.1 To name a few, such studies include Langacker’s (1990, 2000) cognitive grammar, Talmy’s
Time course of linguistic information extraction from consecutive words during eye fixations in reading
- Albrecht W. Inhoff; Brianna M. Eiter; Ralph Radach
Sequential attention shift models of reading predict that an attended (typically fixated) word must be recognized before useful linguistic information can be obtained from the following (parafoveal) word. These models also predict that linguistic information is obtained from a parafoveal word immediately prior to a saccade toward it. To test these assumptions, sentences were constructed with a critical pretarget–target word sequence, and the temporal availability of the (parafoveal) target preview was manipulated while the pretarget word was fixated. Target viewing effects, examined as a function of prior target visibility, revealed that extraction of linguistic target information began 70–140 ms after...
Integrated linguistic resources for language exploitation technologies
- Stephanie Strassel; Christopher Cieri; Andrew Cole; Denise Dipersio; Mark Liberman; Mohamed Maamouri; Kazuaki Maeda
Linguistic Data Consortium has recently embarked on an effort to create integrated linguistic resources and related infrastructure for language exploitation technologies within the DARPA GALE (Global Autonomous Language Exploitation) Program. GALE targets an end-to-end system consisting of three major engines: Transcription, Translation and Distillation. Multilingual speech or text from a variety of genres is taken as input and English text is given as output, with information of interest presented in an integrated and consolidated fashion to the end user. GALE's goals requires a quantum leap in the performance of human language technology, while also demanding solutions that are more intelligent,...
Cross-linguistic influence in L2 learners' production and perception of pitch accent in Dutch and French
- Rasier, Laurent
The dynamics of linguistic diversity. Egalitarian multilingualism and power imbalance among northern Vanuatu languages
- François, Alexandre
[en] THE CONSTRUCTION OF AUTHORIAL POSITIONING IN SECONDARY SCHOOL WRITTEN PRODUCTION: AN ANALYSIS OF APPRAISAL RESOURCES AS ARGUMENT STRATEGIES
- ANA PAULA GUIDA TAVARES
[pt] O objetivo deste estudo é investigar a construção do posicionamento autoral em textos dissertativo-argumentativos produzidos por alunos do Ensino Médio, reconhecendo esta prática discursiva como espaço sociossemiótico de elaboração de estratégias argumentativas e negociação de significados. Considerando a escrita como atividade consciente, planejada, pensada e repensada, a presente pesquisa tem como suporte teórico: a perspectiva de linguagem proposta pela Linguística Sistêmico-Funcional (Halliday e Hassan, 1989; Halliday e Matthiessen, 1999; Eggins, 2004; Gouveia, 2009); o Sistema da Avaliatividade (Martin e White, 2005; Vian Jr, 2002); o estudo de Gêneros (Martin, 1992; Bakhtin, 1992; Miller, 1994) e teorias de Argumentação (Breton,...
[en] ENTROPY-GUIDED FEATURE GENERATION FOR LARGE MARGIN STRUCTURED LEARNING
- ERALDO LUIS REZENDE FERNANDES; RUY LUIZ MILIDIU
[en] Structured learning consists in learning a mapping from inputs to structured outputs by means of a sample of correct input-output pairs. Many important problems fit in this setting. For instance, dependency parsing involves the recognition of a tree underlying a sentence. Feature generation is an important subtask of structured learning modeling. Usually, it is partially solved by a domain expert that builds complex and discriminative feature templates by conjoining the available basic features. This is a limited and expensive way to generate features and is recognized as a modeling bottleneck. In this work, we propose an automatic method to...
First evaluation of esfinge: a question answering system for Portuguese
- Luís Costa
luis.costa at sintef.no In this paper I will start by describing Esfinge- a general domain Portuguese question answering system, and then the strategies I used to participate in the CLEF-2004 QA track. Then I will present and discuss the results obtained and finally describe some of the work planned for the near future. 1 Esfinge With a question answering system we want, for a given question, that the system be able of returning answers with the help of an information repository. This task requires the processing of the question and of the information repository. Existing systems use in this processing...
Linguistic Redundancy in Twitter
- Fabio Massimo Zanzotto; Marco Pennacchiotti; Kostas Tsioutsiouliklis
In the last few years, the interest of the research community in micro-blogs and social media services, such as Twitter, is growing exponentially. Yet, so far not much attention has been paid on a key characteristic of microblogs: the high level of information redundancy. The aim of this paper is to systematically approach this problem by providing an operational definition of redundancy. We cast redundancy in the framework of Textual Entailment Recognition. We also provide quantitative evidence on the pervasiveness of redundancy in Twitter, and describe a dataset of redundancy-annotated tweets. Finally, we present a general purpose system for identifying...
The actortopic model for extracting social networks in literary narrative. NIPS Workshop: Machine Learning for Social Computing
- Asli Celikyilmaz; Dilek Hakkani-tur; Hua He; Greg Kondrak; Denilson Barbosa
We present a generative model for conversational dialogues, namely the actortopic model (ACTM), that extend the author-topic model (Rosen-Zvi, et.al, 2004) to identify actors of given conversation in literary narratives. Thus ACTM assigns each instance of quoted speech to an appropriate character. We model dialogues in a literary text, which take place between two or more actors conversing on different topics, as distributions over topics, which are also mixtures of the term distributions associated with multiple actors. This follows the linguistic intuition that rich contextual information can be useful in understanding dialogues, eventually effecting the social network construction. We propose...
A Joint Model for Extended Semantic Role Labeling
- Vivek Srikumar; Dan Roth
This paper presents a model that extends semantic role labeling. Existing approaches independently analyze relations expressed by verb predicates or those expressed as nominalizations. However, sentences express relations via other linguistic phenomena as well. Furthermore, these phenomena interact with each other, thus restricting the structures they articulate. In this paper, we use this intuition to define a joint inference model that captures the inter-dependencies between verb semantic role labeling and relations expressed using prepositions. The scarcity of jointly labeled data presents a crucial technical challenge for learning a joint model. The key strength of our model is that we use...
Preservation of interpolation features by fibring
- Walter Carnielli; Cristina Sernadas
Fibring is a metalogical constructor that permits to combine different logics by operating on their deductive systems under certain natural restrictions, as for example that the two given logics are presented by deductive systems of the same type. Under such circumstances, fibring will produce a new deductive system by means of the free use of inference rules from both deductive systems, provided the rules are schematic, in the sense of using variables that are open for application to formulas with new linguistic symbols (from the point of view of each logic component). Fibring is a generalization of fusion, a less...