Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 76,362

  1. Electronic Information Management and Intellectual Property Rights

    Graham P. Cornish
    The paper examines the concept of “digital is different ” or not as the case may be and how and if digital publications are different from their paper counterparts. The concept of copyright in a digital age is explored and various different interpretations of the concept and its application discussed. The linguistic problems of using words from a paper-based environment will be considered and such basic words as “copyright”, “copy”, “author”, “publisher ” and “user ” are put in a new context. Ideas such as databases, fair use and exceptions are explored in their relationship to technological measures to control...

  2. MASTERS OF EDUCATION In the Area of Middle Years Language and Literacy

    Janie Harrison; Janie Harrison
    or other means, without the permission of the author. ii In the 21 st century, what it means to be literate is evolving. This project examines digital storytelling as one way to incorporate multiliteracies into the traditional literacy skills of writing stories. Included in the project is a guide designed to support students‘ learning as they create digital stories. The guide provides instructors with the information needed to work one on one with students aged 11-18 to generate digital stories. A digital story uses digital technology to tell a story with words, images and sounds, producing a multimodal text. Professional...

  3. A Model Based on Fuzzy Linguistic Information to Evaluate the Quality of Digital Libraries

    Francisco Javier Cabrerizo; See Profile; Javier López-gijón; Enrique Herrera-viedma; F. J. Cabrerizo; A. A. Ruíz; E. Herrera-viedma
    The Web is changing the information access processes and it is one of the most important information media. Thus, the developments on the Web are having a great influence over the developments on others information access instruments as digital libraries. As the development of digital libraries is to satisfy user need, user satisfaction is essential for the success of a digital library. The aim of this paper is to present a model based on fuzzy linguistic information to evaluate the quality of digital libraries. The quality evaluation of digital libraries is defined using users ’ perceptions on the quality of...

  4. &Telecommunication Company

    Sui Bo; Zhengzhou China; Yang Yufang; Zhengzhou China; Yan Lijuan; Gao Jianwei
    Abstract—Nowadays, selection of an optimal investment program has become a challenging task for the decision makers in the Electric Power Company. Investment program selection for a company can be viewed as a complicated multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problem which requires consideration of selection attributes. Moreover, decision makers tend to use multi-granularity linguistic term sets for expressing their assessments because of their different backgrounds and preferences, some of which may be uncertain and incomplete. Therefore, this paper studies the multi-attirbute decision-making problem under two-tuple linguistic environment and proposes a new approach based on grey target theory. A new two-tuple linguistic bull’s-eye...

  5. Printed in the United States of America

    Book Reviews
    For quite some time, second language acquisition researchers have been re minded, with irritating persistence (and not without justification), that second language acquisition research has been overly anglo-centered. This book is a fitting reply to that criticism since it is "based on the premise that a sound understanding of the acquisition and use of a second language requires evidence from a wide range of different second (and first) languages acquired and used in a variety of settings " (introduction, p. 1). The book is part of a cross-linguistic series on second language research and the subtitle promises to provide "a...

  6. IMPLICIT LEARNING IN TYPICAL DEVELOPMENT AND CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS

    Kelly Anne Barnes; Kelly Anne Barnes
    Learning is critical for the typical development of linguistic, social, and motor skills. However, little is known about whether learning develops during childhood or is disrupted in developmental disorders. This dissertation examined associative implicit learning, which occurs unintentionally and enables learning about variability and stability in the environment (e.g., when or where something is likely to occur). Chapter I discussed theories of brain and cognitive development that guided and informed this body of work. In Chapter II, we investigated whether younger children, older children, and adults differed in learning of simple and complex sequence structure (a source of variability in...

  7. PUB TYPE Speeches/Conference Papers (150) Reports

    George Don; Don George
    This paper considers the process by which humans are able to select from the complex string of sounds impinging on the ear and understand certain frequency combinations to be linguistic signals while other combinations are not. A brief review of the complex subcortical region, particularly the known but seldom studied reticular system, indicates the probability that prior to its assessment in the cerebral cortex, the signal is filtered and integrated into matrices or patterns. From this hypothesis, a model is presented suggesting the process by which a speech signal is integrated subcortically into a series of increasingly complex matrices before...

  8. Action Research, Democratic Dialogue and the Issue of ‘Critical Mass’ in Change. Qualitative Inquiry

    Bj&oslash Rn Gustavsen
    The idea of inquiry as a collaborative effort together with people rather than an investigation of them gives rise to a new generation of issues and problems: How to manage when the number of collaborators takes on substantial proportions? Of what does the collaboration consist in large-scale networks formed to create a shared under-standing rather than diffuse any given understanding? On the basis of experience from action research in working life in Scandinavia, these and other problems linked to the relationships among language, inquiry, and "mass " are raised and discussed. When how to conduct inquiry together with other people...

  9. 10.1177/1075547004273019SCIENCE COMMUNICATIONLarson et al. / ETAPHORS AND BIORISKS Metaphors and Biorisks The War on Infectious Diseases and Invasive Species

    Brendon M. H. Larson; Brigitte Nerlich; Patrick Wallis
    This article seeks to construct a comparative investigation of the role and application of milita-ristic metaphors in three contested areas of science-society discourse (invasive species, foot-and-mouth disease, and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome). It examines differences in the uses of metaphors and the role played by the emergence or neglect of critical linguistic engagement in these areas of public concern. It contributes to debates about the relationship between language use, policy, and the public understanding of science and technology. It demonstrates that milita-ristic metaphors are still part of a pervasive, but by no means inevitable, mode of science and policy communication.

  10. THE ONE, THE MANY AND THE OTHER: REPRESENTING MULTI-

    Deborah Cameron; Mono-lingualism
    This paper argues that 21st-century Britain has seen an unprecedented rise in English-only sentiment, predicated on de-ethnicized post-multicultural discourses of “community cohesion. ” Whereas 20th-century verbal hygiene and other forms of linguistic prescriptivism in the UK had been relatively indifferent to multilingualism and how it was expressed, speakers of Arabic and other UK-based non-anglophone languages have recently taken on the symbolic status of “folk devils ” in British society, though most convicted perpetrators of terrorism, such as in the 7/7 bombings in London in 2005 are proficient speakers of English, and sometimes themselves monolinguals. Cameron expands in this essay on...

  11. Natural Language Processing for Swiss German Dialects

    Scherrer Yves; Yves Scherrer
    Most Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications focus on standardized, written language varieties. From a practical point of view, this focus is understandable: such systems are most likely to be used on written data of a standard variety, and this kind of data is also most easily available for training and parametrizing NLP systems. However, in many regions of the world, the linguistic reality is somewhat more complex: many speakers use some kind of non-standard language variety-- mostly in speech, but sometimes also in writing. Non-standard lects are subject to continuous variation along the dialectal and sociolinguistic level. From a methodological...

  12. Language Use By Bilingual Special Educators Of English Language Learners With Disabilities

    Oneyda M. Paneque; Diane Rodriguez
    Using an exploratory case study approach, the language use of five bilingual special education teachers of English Language Learners (ELLs) with disabilities was examined. Audio tapes, classroom observations, and teacher interviews yielded data on the language used by the bilingual teachers. Data revealed information on the frequency of the use of English and Spanish, patterns of language use for each language, and differences in the way English and Spanish were used in the classroom. Implications for teacher preparation programs are discussed. There are many challenges that teachers face in the classroom particularly when working with students at risk of academic...

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    Patricia Arnaiz-castro; Félix Guillén
    Título: La ansiedad entre estudiantes españoles de inglés como LE de dife-rentes titulaciones universitarias. Resumen: Los efectos de la ansiedad en el aprendizaje de una lengua ex-tranjera se han estudiado desde los años setenta, y a pesar de significativos avances en los enfoques para la enseñanza de la lengua, la literatura contin-úa asegurando la existencia de aprensión lingüística en el aula y su efecto debilitador en el proceso de aprendizaje. Sin embargo, muy pocas investiga-ciones se han llevado en un contexto sociocultural comparable al nuestro, esto es, una universidad española donde se aprende inglés. Este estudio tie-ne como objetivo examinar...

  14. BEYOND TRADITIONAL LITERATURE: TOWARDS ORAL THEORY AS AURAL LINGUISTICS

    Jacob Willem Alant; Supervisor Prof; Edgard Sienaert; Vir Toby; Lucky En Xoli
    Oral Theory, which is the discipline that studies the oral tradition, has been characterized as a literary anthropology, centered on essentially two notions: tradition on the one hand, literature on the other. Though emphasis has moved from an initial preoccupation with oral-textual form (as advocated by Parry and Lord) to concerns with the oral text as social practice, the anthropological/literary orientation has generally remained intact. But through its deSignation of a traditional 'other ' Oral Theory is, at best, a sub-field of anthropology; the literature it purports to study is not literature, but anthropological data. This undermines the existence of...

  15. Summary

    Peter Sundkvist
    The Shetland Isles, a group of islands settled in the North Sea approximately halfway between Norway and Scotland, are perhaps popularly best known for ponies, sheep dogs, and knitwear. Considerably less well known is the fact that the isles are also home to a highly distinct local dialect. The Shetland dialect constitutes a form of Lowland Scots but also displays a significant Scandinavian component. This is attributable to Shetland's history: the isles were settled by Vikings around 800AD and a Nordic language- first Old Norse and later Norn- was spoken there up until about the 18th century. As for many...

  16. Applications of stalling mechanisms in Chinese-English bilinguals ’ L1 and

    L Spoken Discourse; Chihsia Tang
    This article reports an empirical research into the correlation between adult speakers’ communication strategic competence and their language proficiency by comparing Chinese-English bilinguals ’ application of stalling devices in their L1 and L2 spoken discourse. Dörnyei and Kormos’ ((1998). Problem-solving mechanisms in L2 communication. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 20, 349–385) taxonomy of communicative strategies is employed as the analytical framework for the present investigation. The qualitative observations reveal that the general categorical variations of stalling strategy in our participants ’ L1 and L2 discourse are indistinguishable, manifesting the universality of linguistic communicative strategies. Yet, participants are found to be...

  17. Middle-class African Americans: Reactions and attitudes toward African American English

    Jacquelyn Rahman
    abstract: This article examines the attitudes of a group of middle-class African Americans toward varieties that are available to them for helping to project the at-titudes, stances, and affiliations that they perceive as effective in negotiating social and professional environments where vastly distinct linguistic norms may prevail. The research uses subjective reaction tests, interviews, and an online survey to ask questions about the significance of “sounding black ” in judgments the participants make about standardness, social class, and appropriateness of speech styles for vari-ous environments. The research also examines linguistic features that contribute to the social judgments. Results show a...

  18. $rec.titulo

    İkinci Dilde; Yazma Becerisinin; Değerlendirilmesi Üzerine; Nicel Bir Yaklaşım
    Abstract: Feedback in ESL/EFL writing has been inconclusive. In literature, several studies are available about the degree of the effect of the varying feedbacks (explicit vs. implicit; coded vs. uncoded, etc.) on the learners ’ motivation and success. The effect of optimum number of writing exams on the success of L2 learners may be important as much as the effectiveness of feedback types on learners ’ errors in their compositions. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of number of writing exams on the linguistic errors in EFL/ESL student compositions. In this study there are two groups...

  19. Signature III Seminar

    K. C. Choi
    The two-day seminar offered a good window into the research interests of my Seton Hall University colleagues in departments other than my own. Such a forum to listen, converse, and exchange ideas with a broad spectrum of fellow faculty members are few, so I was appreciative of the opportunity to do so under the framework of Signature III. A recurring question for me has been the issue of how the various research programs (or course proposals) might reflect or fit into what can be called the Catholic intellectual tradition (CIT). To be sure, CIT is itself something more amorphous than...

  20. The Trial of the Expert Witness Negotiating Credibility in Child Abuse Correspondence

    Catherine F. Schryer; Elena Afros; Marcellina Mian; Marlee Spafford; Lorelei Lingard
    This article reports on forensic letters written by physicians specializing in identifying children who have experienced maltreatment. These writers face an extraordinary exigence in that they must provide an opinion as to whether a child has experienced abuse without specifically diagnosing abuse and thus crossing into a legal domain. Their credibility was also at issue because, in this jurisdiction, child abuse identification was not recognized as a medical subspecialty and because the status of expert witnesses is currently being challenged. Through an analysis of 72 forensic letters combined with inter-view data from six letter writers and five letter readers, we...

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