Salience-driven contextual priming of speech recognition for human-robot interaction
- Pierre Lison; Geert-jan Kruijff
Abstract. The paper presents an implemented model for prim-ing speech recognition, using contextual information about salient entities. The underlying hypothesis is that, in human-robot interac-tion, speech recognition performance can be improved by exploiting knowledge about the immediate physical situation and the dialogue history. To this end, visual salience (objects perceived in the physical scene) and linguistic salience (objects, events already mentioned in the dialogue) are integrated into a single cross-modal salience model. The model is dynamically updated as the environment changes. It is used to establish expectations about which words are most likely to be heard in the given context....
Quasiregularity and Its Discontents: The Legacy of the Past Tense Debate
- Mark S. Seidenberg; A David C. Plautb
Rumelhart and McClelland’s chapter about learning the past tense created a degree of contro-versy extraordinary even in the adversarial culture of modern science. It also stimulated a vast amount of research that advanced the understanding of the past tense, inflectional morphology in English and other languages, the nature of linguistic representations, relations between language and other phenomena such as reading and object recognition, the properties of artificial neural net-works, and other topics. We examine the impact of the Rumelhart and McClelland model with the benefit of 25 years of hindsight. It is not clear who “won ” the debate. It...
Looking at the Overlooked Still life painting “lavishes attention on those things normally over- looked”.
- Norman Bryson
Linguists working on phenomena that are statistically rare in language use, face the problem of possible accidental gaps in the corpus. This problem is particularly relevant in historical linguistics as it raises the methodological issue of the amount of linguistic data needed to draw
PROSODY ANALYSIS AND MODELING FOR EMOTIONAL SPEECH SYNTHESIS
Current concatenative Text-to-Speech systems can synthesize varied emotions, but the subtle and range of the results are limited because large amount of emotional speech data are required. This paper studies a more flexible approach based on analyzing and modeling the emotional prosody features. Perceptual tests are first performed to investigate whether just manipulating prosody features can attain the communication purposes of emotions. Then, based on the positive results, the same corpus with sufficient prosody coverage is shared by different emotions in unit selection. Finally, an adaptation algorithm is proposed to predict the emotional prosody features. It models the prosodic variations...
Interpretability Improvements to Find the Balance Interpretability-Accuracy in Fuzzy Modeling: An Overview
- Jorge Casillas; Francisco Herrera; Luis Magdalena
Abstract. System modeling with fuzzy rule-based systems (FRBSs), i.e. fuzzy modeling (FM), usually comes with two contradictory requirements in the obtained model: the interpretability, capability to express the behavior of the real system in an understandable way, and the accuracy, capability to faithfully represent the real system. While linguistic FM (mainly developed by linguistic FRBSs) is focused on the interpretability, precise FM (mainly developed by Takagi-Sugeno-Kang FRBSs) is focused on the accuracy. Since both criteria are of vital importance in system modeling, the balance between them has started to pay attention in the fuzzy community in the last few years....
Grammatical and semantic features of some English words and idioms denoting happiness- the feeling of great pleasure
- Nguyen Thi; Van Lam
Abstract. This article is intended for the discussion of the lexemes denoting the feeling of great pleasure sub-classified into four groups of adjectives (‘delighted’, ‘elated’, and ‘jubilant’); nouns (‘bliss’, ‘ecstasy’, ‘euphoria’, ‘glee’, ‘joy’, and ‘rapture’); verbs (‘exult ’ and ‘rejoice’); and idioms (‘walk on air’, ‘in seventh heaven’, ‘on cloud nine’, ‘on top of the world’, ‘over the moon ’ and ‘thrilled to bits’). They are dealt with in respect of their grammatical features including the syntactic functions and morphology, and their semantic structures including lexical meaning, synonyms, collocational range, words and idioms of which the word denoting the feeling...
QUERY UNDERSTANDING ENHANCED BY HIERARCHICAL PARSING STRUCTURES
- Jingjing Liu; Panupong Pasupat; Yining Wang; Scott Cyphers; Jim Glass
Query understanding has been well studied in the areas of information retrieval and spoken language understanding (SLU). There are generally three layers of query understanding: domain classification, user intent detection, and semantic tagging. Classifiers can be applied to domain and intent detection in real systems, and semantic tagging (or slot filling) is commonly defined as a sequence-labeling task-- mapping a sequence of words to a sequence of labels. Various statistical features (e.g., n-grams) can be extracted from annotated queries for learning label prediction models; however, linguistic characteristics of queries, such as hierarchical structures and semantic relationships, are usually neglected in...
- Studia Linguistica Upsaliensia; Studia Linguistica Upsaliensia; Tabula Gratulatoria; Lars Ahrenberg; Ingrid Almqvist; Johan Hall; Jens Allwood; Harald Hammarström; Bo Andersson; Gerd Haverling; Jan Anward; Monica Hedlund; Ulla Birgegård; Hans Helander; Agneta Emanuelsson; Blanck Johan Heldt; Kristina Blomqvist; Inga-lill Holmberg; Lars Borin; Merle Horne; Sven-erik Brodd; David House; Rolf Carlson; Cilla Häggkvist; Sofia Gustafson; Capková Bo Isaksson; Silvie Cinková; Carina Jahani; Robin Cooper; Kerstin Jonasson; Mats Dahllöf; Olle Josephson; Bengt Dahlqvist; Päivi Juvonen; Helge J. Jakhelln; Dyvik Maarit Jänterä-jareborg; Susanne Ekeklint; Arne Jönsson; Joakim Enwall; Birsel Karakoç; Angela Falk; Fred Karlsson; Danuta Fjellestad; Marousia Ludwika Korolczyk; Markus Forsberg; Kimmo Koskenniemi; Eva Forsbom; Hans Kronning; Birgitta Garme; Merja Kytö; Barbara Gawronska; Einar Lauritzen; Christer Geisler; Caroline Liberg; Björn Granström; Rolf Lundén; Maria Toporowska; Gronostaj Lennart Lönngren; Britt-louise Gunnarsson; Ingrid Maier; Ebba Gustavii; Beáta Megyesi; Ulla Melander; Marttala Filip Salomonsson; Gernot Müller; Anju Saxena; Anette Månsson; Marianne Wifstrand Schiebe; Ingela Nilsson; Mojgan Seraji; Jens Nilsson; Petr Sgall; Mattias Nilsson; Margareta Attius Sohlman; Elisabeth Wåghäll; Nivre Eva Strangert; Bengt Nordberg; Ove Strid; Torbjørn Nordgård; Siv Strömquist; Niklas Norén; Lars-göran Sundell
214 pp. c © The authors 2008
CULTURE AND SEMIOTICS OF NATURE
- Olga Pânzaru
The paper presents the importance of the School of Semiotics from Tartu (Estonia) in the appearance and development of the Semiotics of Culture and Semiotics of Nature. Although the studies of speciality and some critics often speak about the influences of the Western structuralist linguistics and anthropology on the development of the school, it has been recognized that the School from Tartu has managed to preserve its independence and originality. The School of Semiotics from Tartu hasn't got an unique methodological approach, but concrete and different methodological patterns focused on a way of thinking directed, on the one hand on...
WORK, LANGUAGE AND PERSPECTIVE: An Empirical Investigation of the Interpretation of
- A Computer-based Information System
On the basis of empirical material, this paper will demonstrate how different perspectives on work can be pointed out and described, and how concept spheres can change when different work languages are brought together. In a process of systems development, various professions take part. Some professions have the purpose of describing and organizing the work, other professions have the purpose of performing the work. There is an important linguistic difference in perspective between those two purposes. The language of instructors and coordinators is general and normative, the language of workers is specific and descriptive. When a computer system is introduced,...
BioExcom: Detection and categorization of speculative sentences in biomedical literature
- Julien Desclés; Motasem Alrahabi; Jean-pierre Desclés; Lalic Université Paris-sorbonne
Abstract. Biological research papers are replete with speculative sentences. We present the BioExcom rule-based system, which detects speculations in biomedical literature. Furthermore, it enables to distinguish automatically between prior and new speculations in the analyzed paper. BioExcom is based on the Contextual Exploration processing (hierarchical research of linguistic surface markers with the EXCOM computational platform). To accomplish this task, BioExcom uses also specific linguistic resources established by concise semantic analysis performed by a biologist and a linguist. Our work shows that it is possible to detect and categorize speculative sentences without computational deep linguistic analyses. This work could be useful...
The lancaster corpus of mandarin chinese: A corpus for monolingual and contrastive language study
- Anthony Mcenery; Zhonghua Xiao
This paper presents the newly released Lancaster Corpus of Mandarin Chinese (LCMC), a Chinese match for the FLOB and Frown corpora of British and American English. LCMC is a one-million-word balanced corpus of written Mandarin Chinese. The corpus contains five hundred 2,000-word samples of written Chinese texts sampled from fifteen text categories published in Mainland China around 1991, totalling one million words. LCMC is XML-compliant and conforms to CES, with each document containing a corpus header giving general information about the corpus and a body of text. The corpus is segmented and POS tagged with a tagging precision rate of...
The Common European Framework of Reference: Development, Theoretical and Practical issues
- Brian North; Head Of Academic Development; Eurocentres Foundation
recommendation of an intergovernmental Symposium “Transparency and Coherence in Language Learning in Europe ” hosted by Switzerland and coordinated by Eurocentres at Rüschlikon, near Zurich in November 1991. The main aim of the Symposium had been to investigate the feasibility of relating languages courses and assessments in Europe to each other through some kind of common framework. Many school certificates awarded for language learning contained statements like “followed a course of English at intermediate level” or “successfully completed a course in Foundation French, ” whilst others reported “Grade C ” or “4.5 ” or “sehr gut. ” Examination certificates tended...
Measures of similarity among fuzzy concepts: A comparative analysis
- Rami Zwick; Edward Caristein; David V. Budescu
Many measures of similarity among fuzzy sets have been proposed in the literature, and some have been incorporated into linguistic approximation proce-dures. The motivations behind these measures are both geometric and set-theoretic. We briefly review 19 such measures and compare their performance in a behavioral experiment. For crudely categorizing pairs of fuzzy concepts as either "'similar " or "'dissimilar, ""all measures performed well. For distinguishing between degrees of similarity or dissimilarity, certain measures were clearly superior and others were clearly inferior; for a few subjects, however, none of the distance measures adequately modeled their similarity judgments. Measures that account for...
Linguistics in the Internet Age: Tools and the Fair Use of Digital Data
- William D. Lewis; Scott Farrar; D. Terence Langendoen
National Science Foundation The current work explores the fair use of linguistic data in the context of the Internet. It is argued that because of recent strides in Internet tech-nology, empirical linguistics is now at a critical turning point with respect to the way data are reused and disseminated. As the use of the Internet becomes more and more commonplace, the possibility of data misuse is becoming more acute, not only because data are now broadly accessible to anyone who is on-line, but also because of the development of very precise search engines that may access and reuse data in...
On the origin of the royal Kongo title ngangula
- Koen Bostoen; Odjas Ndonda Tshiyayi; Gilles‑maurice De Schryver
This article offers an in‑depth historical‑comparative linguistic account of the origin and etymology of ngangula. This term is not only a widespread blacksmith term in the Lower Congo region, but also a traditional royal Kongo title attesting to the importance of the blacksmith metaphor in Kongo political ideology. Popular etymology has it that ngangula is related to nganga, reconstructed in Proto‑Bantu as *-gàngà and commonly translated as ‘medicine‑man’. It is argued here that this widely held belief does not stand up to scrutiny. The term ngangula is shown to be derived from the common Bantu verb *pàngʊd- meaning ‘to cut;...
Towards a formal standard for interoperability in M&S/system of systems integration. Paper presented at
- Saurabh Mittal; Bernard P. Zeigler; Jose L. Risco-martin
Modeling and Simulation (M&S) is finding increasing application in development and testing of command and control systems comprised of information-intensive component systems. Achieving interoperability is one of the chief System of systems (SoS) engineering objectives in the development of command and control (C2) capabilities for joint and coalition warfare. In this paper, we apply an SoS perspective on the integration of M&S with such systems. We employ recently developed interoperability concepts based on linguistic categories along with the Discrete Event System Specification (DEVS) formalism to implement a standard for interoperability. We will show how the developed standard is implemented in...
EFFECT OF TOPICAL KNOWLEDGE ON L2 WRITING
- Ling He
This study investigates the effect of topical knowledge on university-level ESL (English as a Second Language) students ’ writing in a testing situation, following Messick”s (1989) validity theory, which embraces an integration of multiple types of validity evidence (content-, criterion-, and construct-based validity, along with social consequences) to support the inferences drawn from the test scores. A total of 50 participants with different levels of English language proficiency and various ethnic, cultural, and linguistic backgrounds took part in the study in a metropolitan city in western Canada. Each student wrote two 60-minute essays: one responding to a prompt requiring general...
Reports and Discussion Language Independent Statistical Software for Corpus Exploration
- John Sinclair; Oliver Mason; Jackie Ball; Geoff Barnbrook
Abstract. In this report two programs for statistical analysis of concordance lines are described. The programs have been developed for analysing the lexical context of a given word. It is shown how different parameter settings influence the outcome of collocational analysis, and how the concept of collocation can be extended to allow the extraction of lines typical for a word from a set of concordance lines. Even though all the examples are for English, the software is completely language independent and only requires minimal linguistic resources. 1.
1 Submitted to Journal of Multicultural Discourses 2010
- Marisa Tempel; Jan D. Ten Thije
The appreciation of cultural and linguistic adjustments in multilingual museum audio tours by international tourists