Mostrando recursos 121 - 140 de 75,399

  1. Rights Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License

    Chan Yuen Ki
    The effect of input frequency and linguistic complexity on the learning of bei2 constructions in Cantonese preschoolers

  2. Clinical Consensus Statement:

    Tracheostomy Care; Robert T. Sataloff
    Sponsorships or competing interests that may be relevant to content are disclosed at the end of this article. I congratulate Mitchell et al1 on the consensus statement on tracheotomy care. However, the rationale behind their deci-sion on terminology is unclear. They defined the terms trache-otomy (a temporary opening) and tracheostomy (a permanent opening, such as performed with a laryngectomy) correctly. They stated further that “it was understood among the panel that tracheotomy is the correct name for the surgical proce-dure discussed in this document. ” Nevertheless, they chose to use the term tracheostomy throughout the consensus state-ment, perpetuating incorrect usage...

  3. A Case of Urban Sound Change in Rural Michigan'

    Rika Ito
    Eckert (2000) points out the necessity of investigating beliefs and attitudes and associating them with linguistic behavior in order to get a fuller under-standing of variable linguistic performance. Such examination gives us an excellent opportunity to explore why a particular linguistic variable is more

  4. $rec.titulo


    Language planning is a crucial aspect of sociolinguistic concern that most nations and states grapple with. This situation is more pronounced in the former European colonies where indigenous languages are competing with the inherited colonial languages in a struggle for the emergence of a national language. This paper presents a comparative examination of social and historical challenges to the linguistic agenda of a national language in two British colonies of West Africa, Ghana and Nigeria, on the framework of three approaches advanced by Bamgbose (1991) with the motive of identifying the way forward. The study finds the gradualist approach most...

  5. JOURNAL CIT Doshisha Studies in English; n47-48 p235-253 Mar

    Kitao Kenji
    An analysis of differences in politeness between Japanese and English fodUses on those that affect the relative Imposition involVed in a request. Introductory sections draw on previous-research and theory, and discuss general linguistic and cultural principles underlying requests, politeness, and politeness strategies. Four rules for times when a speaker does not need to show politeness in requests are outlined, including: (1) the emergendy rule;, (2) the authority rule; (3) the insulting rule; and (4) the ben,.-iary ruleRules-VIE ' positive and negative politeness,'which increase solidarity and increase imposition are-explained, including (1) the solidarity rule, (2) the option rule, (3) the indirect...

  6. CONSONANTAL WEAKENING AND LICENSING IN OPTIMALITY THEORY Seung-Hoon Shin


    This paper explores several patterns of consonantal weakening such as voicing and spirantization. Given that such weakening usually applies to either intervocalic or intersonorant obstruents, this paper contends that inherently redundant features such as [voice] for sonorants or [continuant] for vowels, cannot license their syllabic constituents, thus triggering consonantal weakening. In addition, based on the typology of consonantal weakening such as one-step weakening with voicing or spirantization and full weakening with both voicing and spirantization, this paper maintains that several patterns of consonantal weakening is the consequence of licensing and more importantly, of constraint relations such as conjunction. Finally, this...

  7. Gender Difference in CALL Programs for English as a Second Language Acquisition

    Cheng-chieh Lai; Ming-mu Kuo
    Abstract: The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of gender differences on the application of CALL programs for second language acquisition. Gender difference is an important theme in linguistic education because it influences the design of curriculum, teaching method, instructional strategy, and students ’ learning processes. This study applied a mixed-methods design, using both quantitative and qualitative methods, both descriptive and comparative in design. The participants were 200 students (male=34, Female=166) taking EFL courses and CALL programs in Wenzao Ursuline College of Languages in Taiwan. Findings from the study indicated that although 94 % students (N=188) acknowledge...

  8. Disenfranchisement in Linguistically Diverse Societies. The Case of the European

    Victor Ginsburgh; Shlomo Weber
    We consider a linguistically diversified society that has to select a set of languages to be used for official purposes. We examine the notion of language disenfranchisement that is created when one or more languages fail to be included in the list of the official ones, implying that some individuals are denied full access to the documents and to the political process in their native tongues. To derive one of our disenfranchisement indices, we use the Dyen percentage cognate matrix of linguistic distances between lan-guages. We then apply survey and population data on language proficiency in the European Union, calculate...

  9. Review The Web as Corpus: Theory and Practice.

    Maristella Gatto
    and thorough introduction to the promising field of ‘Web as Corpus ’ (hereafter WaC) at a time when exponentially cumulating online language use has, to a great extent, become the default mode of per-sonal and professional communication. The increas-ing production of huge amounts of linguistic data on the Web has also become powerful resources in linguistic and social research. It is without exagger-ation to say that WaC is coming of age. Although several dedicated monographs have been published on this subject, the book stands out by putting both theoretical considerations and technical and analyt-ical aspects at the center in the...

  10. International Journal of Uncertainty, Fuzziness and Knowledge-Based Systems c © World Scientific Publishing Company IIVFDT: Ignorance Functions based Interval-Valued Fuzzy Decision Tree with Genetic Tuning.

    J. Sanz; H. Bustince; F. Herrera
    The choice of membership functions plays an essential role in the success of fuzzy systems. This is a complex problem due to the possible lack of knowledge when assigning punctual values as membership degrees. To face this handicap, we propose a methodol-ogy called Ignorance functions based Interval-Valued Fuzzy Decision Tree with genetic tuning, IIVFDT for short, which allows to improve the performance of fuzzy decision trees by taking into account the ignorance degree. This ignorance degree is the result of a weak ignorance function applied to the punctual value set as membership degree. Our IIVFDT proposal is composed of four...

  11. HLA GENETIC DIVERSITY AND LINGUISTIC VARIATION IN

    Alicia Sanchez-mazas; Estella Poloni; Guillaume Jacques; Laurent Sagart; Alicia Sanchez-mazas; Estella Poloni; Guillaume Jacques; East Asia; Alicia Sanchez-mazas; Estella S. Poloni; Guillaume Jacques; Laurent Sagart
    HAL is a multi-disciplinary open access archive for the deposit and dissemination of sci-entific research documents, whether they are pub-lished or not. The documents may come from teaching and research institutions in France or abroad, or from public or private research centers. L’archive ouverte pluridisciplinaire HAL, est destinée au dépôt et a ̀ la diffusion de documents scientifiques de niveau recherche, publiés ou non, émanant des établissements d’enseignement et de recherche français ou étrangers, des laboratoires publics ou privés.

  12. Is the Ontological Commitment to "Rules " Really Preferable to Linguistic Science? A Critical Assessment of the Symbolist-Connectionist Debate

    English Verbs; Kow Kuroda
    This paper aims to assess critically the debate on the "learning of the past tenses of English verbs" between those symbolists who are proponents of symbol manipulation model of the language and those connectionists who are proponents ofparallel distributed processing model of it, thereby suggesting that between such extreme positions there is still a realistic position that linguists can take to blur the debate. It is when linguistics is conceived as a phmomenology ofthe language, as much as chemistry, for example, is a phenomenology of the nature. If the position is adopted, theoretical constructs such as "rules, " "schemes, "...

  13. NATURALIST CONCEPTIONS ABOUT AGGLUTINATIVE LANGUAGES: VINSON’S IDEAS ABOUT BASQUE AND LINGUISTIC DARWINISM1

    B. Oyharçabal
    primitivism The writings of the linguist and philologist J. Vinson were largely responsi-ble for introducing to Basque studies la science républicaine (a curious expression employed recently by Bidart (2001: 198)) in the half-century between 1870 and

  14. The Reliability Evaluation of Power System Based on Uncertain Linguistic Information


    Abstract. Electric power system reliability evaluation depends on reasonable target setting and calculation. This article mainly analyses the new index of power system reliability assessment in the electricity market environment, and on the basis of this, introduces the application of uncertain linguistic information in the ceremony system reliability evaluation, representing original parameters with uncertain number, and random processing fault condition happened and transfer events and process.

  15. L 2 0 0

    Simon Cookson; Simon Hunter; Daniel Jackson
    English for Academic Purposes (EAP Writing) is a compulsory course for English literature and language students at Obirin University.!e first semester focuses on expository writing, typical of the TOEFL ® writing exam.!e second semester focuses on writing about literature. To facilitate their writing all students are provided with a user account for Criterion, a web-based essay management system. Essays submitted to Criterion are evaluated by computer, and returned to the writer in approximately one minute. Submitted essays are kept on the Criterion server, where they can be accessed and evaluated by teachers, and further revised by students.!is paper will present...

  16. A Cross-linguistic Analysis of Interactive Metadiscourse Devices Employment in Native English and Arab ESL Academic Writings

    Ali Ayed; S. Alshahrani
    Abstract—This study presents a qualitative, comparative study of interactive metadiscourse in the academic writing of two groups of Native speakers of English and Native speakers of Arabic doctorate students working in the field of linguistics. It investigates the writers ’ capability to deploy the propositional discourse and interpretations in a coherent and convincing way appropriate to the projected readers ’ comprehensive abilities. A small-scale sample of 80 ‘discussion ’ and ‘conclusion ’ chapters constitutes this corpus. This small-size corpus aligns with the contemporary trends in corpus-based work in the fields of English where smaller, more focused corpora, which have been...

  17. The Functions of You Know as Politeness Strategies

    Kumiko Kondo
    You know has been regarded as a linguistic hedging device, which is apparently a redundant expression. In some cases, it is said that you know should not be used often because it gives the addressee unpleasant feelings. However, you know is used most frequently in informal and in spoken situations,

  18. Utiioersity of hlichgan

    Aida Hurtado; Patricia Gurin; Rirssell Sage Fotindation; Aida Hurtado; Patricia Gurin
    Attitudes toward bilingualism among a national sample of per-sons'of Mexican descent are cast in a set of social psychological forces in which structural integration and childhood linguistic environment influence ethnic identity, which in turn influ-ences bilingualism attitudes through its impact on political consciousness. Support is provided by evidence that ethnic identity, specifically a politically-framed conception of self as ChicanalChicano and as part of In mza, fosters positive views of bilingualism both directly and indirectly through political consciousness. Ethnic identity also influences bilingualism at-titudes through a different and contradictory path. Traditional self-conceptions as Mexican and Spanish-speaking directly en-courage support of bilingualism...

  19. A Study of Two English Language Coursebooks in Turkey: Focus on Multiple Intelligences

    Arda Arikan; Elif Soydan; Özlem İşler C
    This study aims to analyze two coursebooks, namely, Texture of English 4 and My English 5on the basis of to what extent the activities and tasks included reflect the intelligent types proposed by multiple intelligences theory. Taking the general characteristics of the intelligences into account, a checklist has been designed and the activities in those two coursebooks were categorized according to the checklist prepared. It is found that although both coursebooks represent different intelligence types and at varying degrees, verbal/linguistic intelligence is the predominant one while the naturalist intelligence is represented the least. Results also showed that there is not...

  20. Mechanisms of accommodation among emerging adults in a university setting

    Douglas S. Bigham
    In accommodation contexts where dialects already contain extensive overlap, the processes of convergence/divergence may be better specified in terms of the “expan-sion ” and “reduction ” of linguistic variation. Among emerging adults at Southern Illinois University, contact between South Midland and Northern Cities speakers illustrates that accommodation of variation in the /u/, /o/, /æ/, and /ɔ / vowels is expressed not through the wholesale adoption of new forms but rather through an expansion or reduction of the range of previously existing forms. By providing this alternative view, this study mitigates the competing discussions regarding the primary importance of speaker identity/attitudes...

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