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Nomenclatura Unesco > (57) Lingüística

Mostrando recursos 121 - 140 de 52,133

121. Children gesture before beginning to speak: is this an evidence for phylogeny? - Michèle Guidetti
gesture, pragmatic development, continuity between phylogenesis and ontogenesis As language and communication do not fossilize, the empirical study of their evolution is quite difficult. One way to overcome this difficulty is to use comparative methods (Hauser, Chomsky & Fitch, 2002). What is at stake here is the use of gestures in children communication and how gestures and pragmatics can help us to make hypothesis about continuity and discontinuity in communication and language in phylogeny. Children gesture before beginning to speak and go on using gestures as they grow up and when they become adults (e.g. when they use conventional gestures,...

122. Compulsory Readings - El Anglo-sajón; Factores Culturales; Cambio Lingüístico; Dr. Guarddon Anelo
The aim of this course is to make the student familiar with the notion of linguistic change and the factors that underlie it. Language does not evolve separately from the cognitive skills of its users and the cultural context where they are immersed. This situation is reflected by lexical structure, morphology, phonology and syntax. Furthermore, in this course the language is analyzed as a self-regulated system, whose internal organization is disrupted by changes that force it to re-establish a state of equilibrium by a further chain of alterations. We reappraise language change from an ecological view of language that can...

123. THE UNIVERSAL FORCE OF FREE CHOICE ANY1
This paper adds to the ongoing debate about the quantificational status of English FC any. It argues that any is a universal, though its universality is such that it can be conjoined with an existential statement. This is established by showing, first of all, that various properties that are amenable to a universal account of FC any remain elusive in recent accounts that treat it as an indefinite. Secondly, it presents a detailed description of supplementary/numeral any, cases in which any occurs with an indefinite. Such cases have been assumed to provide evidence for the indefinite-any view but an explicit...

124. Phonaesthemic and Etymological effects on the Distribution of Senses in Statistical Models of Semantics - Armelle Boussidan; Eyal Sagi; Sabine Ploux
This paper uses methods based on corpus statistics and synonymy to explore the role language history and sound/form relationships play in conceptual organization through a case study relating the phonaestheme gl- to its prevalent Proto-Indo European root, *ghel. The results of both methods point to a strong link between the phonaestheme and the historical root, suggesting that the lineage of a language plays an important role in the distribution of linguistic meaning. The implications of these findings are discussed.

125. Galen-In-Use: Using artificial intelligence terminology tools to improve the linguistic coherence of a national coding system for surgical procedures - Jean Marie Rodriguesa; Béatrice Trombert-paviota; Robert Baudb; Judith Wagnerb
GALEN has developed a language independent common reference model based on a medically oriented ontology and practical tools and techniques for managing healthcare terminology including natural language processing. GALEN-IN-USE is the current phase which applied the modelling and the tools to the development or the updating of coding systems for surgical procedures in different national coding centres co-operating within the European Federation of Coding Centre (EFCC) to create a language independent knowledge repository for multicultural Europe. We used an integrated set of artificial intelligence terminology tools named CLAssification Manager workbench to process French professional medical language rubrics into intermediate dissections...

126. Sonority as a basis for rhythmic class discrimination - Antonio Galves; Jesus Garcia; Denise Duarte; Charlotte Galves
Recently, several papers, starting with Ramus, Nespor and Mehler (1999), gave evidence that simple statistics of the speech signal could discriminate between different rhythmic classes.In the present paper, we propose a new approach to the problem of finding acoustic correlates of the rhythmic classes. Its main ingredient is a rough measure of sonority defined directly from the spectrogram of the signal. This approach has the major ad-vantage that it can be implemented in an entirely automatic way, with no need of previous hand-labelling of the acoustic signal. Applied to the same linguistic samples considered in RNM, it produces the same...

127. Article A Re-evaluation of Kanji Textbooks for Learners of Japanese as a Second Language - Stephen Richmond
As perhaps one of the most difficult areas of Japanese as a second language (JSL), kanji pose a number of problems for the foreign learner. A glance through a small sample of JSL kanji textbooks will reveal the wide range of kanji learning methodologies used to overcome these difficulties. These methods are, on close analysis, often based on inaccurate or over-generalised assumptions on kanji, which can be traced back to the central belief that kanji are essentially a logographic script. Naturally, there are differences in learners and their environments which must be considered when creating JSL kanji learning materials, though...

128. Semantic coordination: A new approach and an application - P. Bouquet; L. Serafini; S. Zanobini
Abstract. Semantic coordination, namely the problem of finding an agreement on the meaning of heterogeneous semantic models, is one of the key issues in the development of the Semantic Web. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for discovering semantic mappings across hierarchical classifications based on a new approach to semantic coordination. This approach shifts the problem of semantic coordination from the problem of computing linguistic or structural similarities (what most other proposed approaches do) to the problem of deducing relations between sets of logical formulae that represent the meaning of concepts belong-ing to different models. We show how...

129. $rec.titulo
What does syntax add to the meaning of words? In psy-chology and linguistics, this question has spawned investi-gations of compositionality in language – how the meanings of complex expressions, like noun phrases, are determined by the meanings of their parts and the rules tions, which have asked whether cross-linguistic syntactic variation leads to differences in the content of nouns. For example, English, but not Japanese, makes a distinction be-tween count syntax (e.g., a string/some strings) and mass syntax (some string), which corresponds to a referential distinction between a kind of individual and a kind of stuff. According to some, these...

130. Fray Alonso de Molina, pionero de la salud comunitaria en el siglo XVI en la Nueva España: análisis de los textos y términos lingüísticos sobre la salud recogidos en sus confesionarios, ordenanzas y vocabularios - López Ortego, Cristina

131. [en] ARGUMENTATION IN HIGH SCHOOL WRITING: ANALYSIS OF ELEMENTS OF MODALITY AND EVALUATION THROUGH THE SYSTEMIC-FUNCTIONAL PERSPECTIVE - LEONARDO MIGUEL
[pt] A presente pesquisa tem como objetivo observar a argumentação em redações escolares de alunos do Ensino Médio da rede pública estadual do Rio de Janeiro por meio do estudo de elementos lexicais com função modalizadora e de sequências textuais com valor de julgamento. A fundamentação teórica tomou por base pressupostos da Linguística Sistêmico-Funcional (Halliday, 1994) visando à análise da modalidade (Halliday, 1994; Eggins, 2004; Thompson, 2004). A Teoria da Avaliatividade (Martin e White, 2005; Hunston e Thompson, 1999, Stubbs, 1996), especialmente o subsistema de Julgamento, foi utilizada para a investigação da avaliação que os autores assumem e expressam por...

132. Plagiarism meets paraphrasing: insights for the next generation in automatic plagiarism detection - Barrón Cedeño, Luis Alberto; Vila, Marta; Martí, M. Antònia; Rosso, Paolo
Although paraphrasing is the linguistic mechanism underlying many plagiarism cases, little attention has been paid to its analysis in the framework of automatic plagiarism detection. Therefore, state-of-the-art plagiarism detectors find it difficult to detect cases of paraphrase plagiarism. In this article, we analyze the relationship between paraphrasing and plagiarism, paying special attention to which paraphrase phenomena underlie acts of plagiarism and which of them are detected by plagiarism detection systems. With this aim in mind, we created the P4P corpus, a new resource that uses a paraphrase typology to annotate a subset of the PAN-PC-10 corpus for automatic plagiarism detection....

133. Interpretación y formación para los centros sanitarios españoles - RUIZ MEZCUA, Aurora; Universidad de Córdoba
RESUMEN: La traducción científica abarca temáticas muy heterogéneas y para poder desempeñar su labor correctamente, el propio traductor o intérprete debe «convertirse», en cierto modo y en la mayoría de las ocasiones, en ese profesional de la ciencia al que traduce o interpreta y también en el paciente o usuario del servicio, lo cual conlleva ciertas responsabilidades. Trabajar como intérprete en los servicios públicos es una actividad muy compleja que requiere una formación específica en diversos ámbitos, como son: el sociocultural de los idiomas implicados, el lingüístico-terminológico que se deriva del trabajo desempeñado, el científico-metodológico que debe ponerse en funcionamiento...

134. Delirant isti translatores! Análise dalgúns elementos de difícil traduzadaptación en Astérix - VILA BARBOSA, María Magdalena; Universidade de Vigo
RESUME: Máis de cincuenta anos despois da súa creación, Astérix segue a conquistar lectores de todo o mundo. En 2009 saía á venda o álbum conmemorativo de quincuaxésimo aniversario, e, co gallo daquela celebración, saíron á luz algúns datos sobre a maquinaria tradutiva deste imperio do cómic. A partir da análise do contexto histórico-social de creación de Astérix e dos trazos máis característicos desta banda deseñada, indagaremos no papel desempeñado pola tradución –entendida coma negociación cultural– para que un heroe fortemente galo funcione tan ben máis aló dos Perineos. Con exemplos sacados d’O libro de ouro, comentaremos algunhas das dificultades...

135. DIARIO ÍNTIMO DE GUERRA - Charbonnier, Colette
El marco constitucional de 1978 rompió con el régimen dictatorial anterior y culminó el proceso de la Transición española, iniciando la etapa de monarquía parlamentaria. De hecho, la Transición ha sido interpretada como una �ruptura� por parte de historiadores, constitucionalistas y politólogos. ¿Y para los lingüistas? El lingüista que se sitúa en el campo del Análisis del Discurso y que se dedica al estudio de los hechos del habla, a saber los discursos , considera el discurso político como un buen reflejo de las ideas de un momento, de un período y de las relaciones de comunicación entre los protagonistas políticos y sociales,...

136. Un caso de demencia frontotemporal en su variante lingüística fluente - Garzón, Nataly; Méndez, Amparo; Benito, María
La dificultad para encontrar las palabras en una conversación y expresar lo que se piensa, así como la pérdida del conocimiento en la escriturade las palabras y su significado en presencia de un habla fluida; se evidencia en este estudio de caso; en una mujer de 62 años, con estudiosen comercio y secretariado bilingüe, quien previamente a sus dificultades, se desempeñó como secretaria de alta gerencia con sobresalienteshabilidades lingüísticas y en su escritura tipo palmer. Ha presentado una progresión gradual de sus déficits, evolucionando hacia un perfil dedeterioro global cognoscitivo, específicamente de sus habilidades del lenguaje, déficit de memoria explicita...

137. EL PODER DE LA VOZ PASADA. LA ENUNCIACIÓN PROVERBIAL COMO ARGUMENTO DE AUTOR - Gómez-Jordana Ferary, Sonia
Este artículo estudia el proceso de enunciación proverbial, entendiéndolo como un argumento de autoridad polifónico. Para ello, trabajamos sobre un corpus formado por proverbios recogidos en contextos periodísticos desde los años 80 hasta la actualidad. Nos preguntaremos cómo se llega a construir colectivamente este tipo de fórmula que acaba transmitiéndose a través de las generaciones, Veremos también de qué manera interaccionan el ayer y el hoy en la enunciación proverbial, cómo el presente se sirve del pasado. Y nos preguntaremos qué le confiere al proverbio su típica carga argumentativa. Para ello, relacionaremos el Poder con la Memoria y veremos así cómo políticos...

138. Influencias interlingüísticas: desarrollos recientes. Transferencias en adquisición de tiempo y aspecto en español 3 - Fessi, Inès
This paper aims to present a review of some of the most recent theoretical and empirical developments in cross-linguistic influence research, particularly those related to the relatively young field of Third language acquisition. It also emphasizes the most important findings and results in the field and highlights the necessity to further investigate the underexplored areas such as cross-linguistic effects in syntax acquisition, especially those referring to tense-aspect acquisition in Spanish L3.

139. Enseñanza-aprendizaje de las colocaciones en nivel inicial (A1-A2) - Fernández Lázaro, Gisele
Learning collocations in a second language entails various problematic aspects which can make it difficult for the learner to express himself correctly both orally and in writing. One of the most recurrent problems is the linguistic interference or negative transfer that second language learners apply to certain collocations, which do not correlate exactly from their mother language to the target language. This paper analyses the advantages of having explicit knowledge of collocations from the early stages in the learning process of the student. It also analyses how teachers can go about teaching collocations in a productive way. To this end,...

140. COHESIVE DEVICES AND TRANSLATION: AN ANALYSIS - Rosane Silveira
analysis, systemic grammar and cognitive psychology have con-tributed to the development of a descriptive theory of translation, in contrast to the traditional prescriptive approach. In a descriptive approach to translation, one major concern is to identify the kinds of knowledge that are used by the translator (Bell, 1991). As Bell observes, the translator ' s communicative competence is made up of various kinds of linguistic and social knowledge in both the source and the target language. In the present paper, I will analyze one as-pect of the linguistic knowledge that translators must possess — knowledge about textual cohesion. Beaugrande and...

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