Counting Genera vs. Counting Languages: A Response to Maslova
- Matthew S. Dryer
This paper is a response to the preceding paper in this journal, by Elena Maslova, and assumes familiarity with that paper. I will focus on a number of issues that are associated with the relative value of counting genetic groups of a time depth of 3500 to 4000 years (henceforth genera) and of counting actual numbers of languages. In many respects, Maslova's paper considerably raises the level of discussion on the issue of testing typological generalizations, and is suggestive of more sophisticated approaches to such problems. However, I will argue that (1) Maslova makes rather unlikely assumptions about the number...
Intonation's many functions
- French Studies
For the non-linguist, intonation is often thought of as a feature of human voice which conveys emotions and attitudes. Yet Intonation has another – although considered marginal by linguists – role in speech: to indicate the declarative or interrogative sentence modality and its many variants (whose linguistic status is often debatable). But intonation is also heavily conditioned by linguistic rules, specific to each language, respected by the speaker even in the most severe physical conditions of speech production. Intonation in the (linguistic) system When we speak, when we read, even silently, a musical movement inevitably accompanies our words, constituting the...
Impact of linguistic analysis on the semantic graph coverage and learning of document extracts
- Jure Leskovec; Natasa Milic-frayling; Marko Grobelnik
Automatic document summarization is a problem of creating a document surrogate that adequately represents the full document content. We aim at a summarization system that can replicate the quality of summaries created by humans. In this paper we investigate the machine learning method for extracting full sentences from documents based on the document semantic graph structure. In particular, we explore how the Support Vector Machines (SVM) learning method is affected by the quality of linguistic analyses and the corresponding semantic graph representations. We apply two types of linguistic analysis: (1) a simple part-of-speech tagging of noun phrases and verbs and...
Customizing germanet for the use in deep linguistic processing
- Melanie Siegel; Feiyu Xu; Günter Neumann
In this paper we show an approach to the customization of GermaNet to the German HPSG grammar lexicon developed in the Verbmobil project. GermaNet has a broad coverage of the German base vocabulary and fine-grained semantic classification; while the HPSG grammar lexicon is comparatively small und has a coarse-grained semantic classification. In our approach, we have developed a mapping algorithm to relate the synsets in GermaNet with the semantic sorts in HPSG. The evaluation result shows that this approach is useful for the lexical extension of our deep grammar development to cope with real-world text understanding.
Argument structure and the child’s contribution to language learning
- Jeffrey Lidz; Lila R. Gleitman
whether children are able to learn language (or any-thing) because they are equipped with a very powerful general-purpose learning mechanism or because they are equipped with a domain-specific constrained langu-age acquisition device. Recent advances in statistical approaches to language learning seem to boost the plausibility of general-purpose learning. However, in this article we propose that in the domain of verb learn-ing, children rely more on their internally generated pre-conceptions about linguistic structure than on robust cues in the input, suggesting that at least in this aspect of language learning, domain-specific grammatical knowledge guides linguistic development. A much-debated question in the...
- Rachel Panckhurst; Université Paul-valéry
Mediated electronic discourse and computational linguistic analysis: Improving learning through choice
Localized globalization: A multi-local, multivariate investigation of quotative like
- Isabelle Buchstaller Alex
Studies of linguistic variability that can be interpreted locally as well as trans-locally (e.g.
- L. Sagart
Abstract: the author argues that Hakka and southern Gan are sister dialects, as they share several innovations not found elsewhere; that they arose out of the Chinese dialect spoken in central Jiangxi in Song times, a stratified dialect which included a non-Chinese substratum, probably Miao-Yao; an archaic layer; and a more recent layer with an important Late Middle Chinese component. It is claimed that the linguistic boundary between southern Gan and Hakka arose secondarily due to the effect of an old administrative and geographical boundary. It is also argued that Hakka devoicing took place in the south, when Hakka was...
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia,
- Jean-marie Marandin; Linguistic Modelling Laboratory; Held In Varna
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- Agnieszka Mykowiecka
1998), which resulted in creating test-suites for various European languages. As a test-suite, BRG contains not only grammatical sentences but also ungrammatical ones, violating various linguistic rules. At the moment, the project is at the final stage of data entering. The test-suite contains sentences of written Polish. They are hand-annotated with correctness markers, lists of linguistic phenomena names and HPSG-style Attribute-Value Matrices (AVMs) (see Section 4 below). Sentences included in BRG are elicited instead of, e.g., being extracted from a text corpus. This allows us to represent in the test-suite also less common phenomena which rarely occur in real corpora...
Language Acquisition, Linguistic Evidence, the Baby, and the Bathwater Jean-Philippe Marcotte
marco043 *at * umn *dot * edu
Distinctive Feature Matrices in Fluid Construction Grammar
- Remi Van Trijp
Language users are confronted with a huge search space when processing linguistic utterances, and they unavoidably have to deal with multiple hy-potheses when parsing a sentence. One of the main functions of grammar is therefore to restrict the set of possible combinations and to guide the lan-guage user through this search process. However, grammatical constructions are polysemous and can have different functions in different contexts. A big challenge for grammar formalisms is therefore to represent this multifunc-tionality in such a way that both captures the necessary generalizations and constrains the search space. In this talk, I will demonstrate how the...
Used by permission TOWARD A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES OF SOUTHWESTERN MALUKUl
- Mark Taber; Mark Taber
Relatively little is known about the indigenous languages in southwestern Maluku, Indonesia. The reasons are many, not the least of which is the logistical remoteness of these nineteen islands. This paper seeks to update our understanding of the situation by presenting the results of a recent linguistic survey conducted by Pattimura University and the Summer Institute of Linguistics. Data were collected from 41 villages using a 210-item wordlist as the primary instrument. The data were subsequently analyzed with the aid of the computer program WORDSURV. The results have helped to answer our questions regarding (1) the number of languages currently...
C.: Hybridization in Question Answering Systems
- Jennifer Chu-carroll; David Ferrucci; John Prager; Christopher Welty
Question answering systems can benefit from the incorporation of a broad range of technologies, including natural language processing, machine learning, information retrieval, knowledge representation, and automated reasoning. We have designed an architecture that identifies the essential roles of components in a question answering system. This architecture greatly facilitates experimentation by enabling comparisons between different choices for filling the component roles, and also provides a framework for exploring hybridization of techniques – that is, combining different approaches to question answering. We present results from an initial experiment that illustrate substantial performance improvement by combining statistical and linguistic approaches to question answering....
Cracking Open the Systems: Media, Materiality and Agency in Teresa Burga´s Self-Portrait. Structure. Report. 9.6.72
- Biczel, Dorota
Relying on media archaeology of Friedrich Kittler, this article examines a large-scale installation, Self-Portrait. Structure. Report. 9.6.72 (1972), by Peruvian artist Teresa Burga (b. Iquitos, 1935) in comparison with the structuralist underpinnings of the dominant formulations of Conceptual art. I argue that in Self-Portrait, Burga mobilizes the logic of the media in order to open up closed, disciplinary system inscribed within both tautological/linguistic and so-called critical currents of Conceptual art. Under a familiar concept, Burga’s project combines diagrams, blueprints, photographs, medical records, light, and sound. Thus, it functions at the critical juncture of language, media, and material experiences. On the...
Logos: Revista de Lingüística, Literatura y Filosofía
1 Generic Architectures for Computing With Words Based on BK-Products of Fuzzy Relations
- Bobby C. Granville
This paper introduces a fuzzy CW application and the BK-products form of analysis on fuzzy binary relations. We present a front-end CW system which makes relational computations easier because it no longer requires its users to have deep knowledge of fuzzy BK-products and their calculations. We also show how the front-end tool can be used to study the process of analysis on binary fuzzy relations with words in a natural language query. Our prototype front-end for Fuzzy Knowledge Based Systems (FEFKBS) is used to demonstrate an implementation of a CW application. It is designed to accept words taken from the...
A Linguistic Contribution to the Study of Relationships Between Units of Different Levels: Menzerath’s Law From an Intra-Systemic Perspective
- Peter Grzybek; Emmerich Kelih; Ernst Stadlober
Abstract As has been repeatedly shown, the frequencies with which word lengths (WL) and sentence lengths (SL) occur in texts and corpora, are very systematically organized. Further-more, WL and SL frequencies (and statistical characteristics derived therefrom) are efficient factors in text classification, mainly for the distinction of particular discourse styles (cf. Grzy-bek et al. 2005; Kelih et al. 2005, 2006; Antic ́ at al. 2006). Recently, the relationship between these two linguistic levels has been specifically studied (Grzybek and Stadlober 2006), refer-ring to the theoretical context of Menzerath’s Law (cf. Altmann 1983), aiming at a theoretical modelling of the relation...
- Kenneth Mølbjerg Jørgensen; Erlend Dehlin
The paper discusses the concept of identity in relation to management. We take our starting point in Wittgenstein’s concept language games. We argue that identity is a question of using linguistic tools to construct reality. Two elements of the language game metaphor are central here: rules and family resemblance. We argue that rules and family resemblance are central for the construction of identity because they are the link between individual and social realities. We use the concept of narrating to emphasize how individuals construct themselves as meaningful individuals in the world. Narrating is the process by which individuals seek to...
Variance and Informativity in Different Measures of Linguistic Acceptability
- Thomas Weskott; Gisbert Fanselow
In this paper, we deal with the issue of variability in different measures of linguistic acceptability. It has been argued that acceptability, when measured with the magnitude estimation method (ME), reveals the underlying gradience of linguistic judgments, while other measures, like Likert-scale judgments (e.g. on a 7-point scale) do not provide the same amount of information about the gradient basis of linguistic