Understanding Narrative is Like Observing Agents
- Guido Boella; Rossana Damiano; Leonardo Lesmo
this paper, we suggest that AI techniques, especially the ones developed in the field of agent modeling and intelligent interfaces, can be exploited both to build systems for narrative understanding and to allow agents to describe their own behavior in a narrative style. In particular, we will show how it is possible to exploit a model of dialog interpretation for building a system that understands stories and produces a representation of the characters' plans and intentions. First of all, the notion of belief-desire-and-intention (BDI) agents seems to be relevant to dialog interpretation. The aim of BDI models is to build...
A System for Facilitating and Enhancing Web Search
- Steffen Staab; Christian Braun; Ilvio Bruder; Antje Düsterhöft; Andreas Heuer; Meike Klettke; Günter Neumann; Bernd Prager, et al.
We present a system that uses semantic methods and natural language processing capabilites in order to provide comprehensive and easy-to-use access to tourist information in the WWW. Thereby, the system is designed such that as background knowledge and linguistic coverage increase, the benefits of the system improve, while it guarantees state-of-the-art information and database retrieval capabilities as its bottom line.
Indirect Speech Acts and Politeness: A Computational Approach
- Liliana Ardissono; Guido Boella; Leonardo Lesmo
This paper describes a framework for the representation and interpretation of indirect speech acts, relating them to the politeness phenomenon, with particular attention to the case of requests. The speech acts are represented as actions of a plan library and are activated on the basis of the presence of syntactic and semantic information in the linguistic form of the input utterance. The speech act analyzer receives in input the semantic representation of the input sentence and uses the politeness indicators to climb up the decomposition and generalization hierarchies of acts encoded in the library. During this process, it eliminates the...
Recognizing Preliminary Sentences in Dialogue Interpretation
- Liliana Ardissono; Guido Boella; Dario Sestero
. In traditional plan-based dialogue interpretation systems, speech-acts are directly used for identifying the speaker's domain plans and little analysis is performed of the role of sentences in dialogue. This may lead to the activation of a large number of hypotheses on an agent's domain plans. In this paper, we describe how to interpret background sentences occurring in a dialogue by using knowledge coming from the linguistic and domain levels, and from a model of the user. We consider two kinds of utterances: the first one justifies the performance of subsequent speech-acts; the second represents information to be used for...
Shadows of Fuzzy Sets -- A Natural Way to Describe 2-D and Multi-D Fuzzy Uncertainty in Linguistic Terms
- Hung Nguyen Berlin; Vladik Kreinovich
Fuzzy information processing systems start with expert knowledge which is usually formulated in terms of words from natural language. This knowledge is then usually reformulated in computer-friendly terms of membership functions, and the system transform these input membership functions into the membership functions which describe the result of fuzzy data processing. It is then desirable to translate this fuzzy information back from the computer-friendly membership functions language to the humanfriendly natural language. In a 1-D case, when we are interested in a single quantity y, it is usually easy to describe the resulting membership function by a word from natural...
Expanding the Domain of a Multi-lingual Speech-to-Speech Translation System
- Alon Lavie; Lori Levin; Puming Zhan; Maite Taboada; Donna Gates; Mirella Lapata; Cortis Clark; Matthew Broadhead; Alex Waibel
JANUS is a multi-lingual speech-to-speech translation system, which has been designed to translate spontaneous spoken language in a limited domain. In this paper, we describe our recent preliminary efforts to expand the domain of coverage of the system from the rather limited Appointment Scheduling domain, to the much richer Travel Planning domain. We compare the two domains in terms of out-of-vocabulary rates and linguistic complexity. We discuss the challenges that these differences impose on our translation system and some planned changes in the design of the system. Initial evaluations on Travel Planning data are also presented.
Qualitative Modeling and Controller Design using Dynamic Fuzzy Systems
- Klaus Schmid; Volker Krebs
: Qualitative modeling may be applied when knowledge about a system is only available in linguistic form. The knowledge might be processed by a dynamic fuzzy system consisting of a rule base and an inference method modeling human reasoning. Conventional fuzzy inference methods do not consider this association to human reasoning and therefore are not suitable for the dynamic processing of linguistic knowledge. Inference has to provide both, quantitative and qualitative information about the model output. In this paper a new inference method based on the concept of interpolating rules is presented. It results in a mapping of fuzzy inputs...
What Conceptual Graph Workbenches Need for Natural Language Processing
- Graham A. Mann
. An important capability of the conceptual graph knowledge engineering tools now under development will be the transformation of natural language texts into graphs (conceptual parsing) and its reverse, the production of text from graphs (conceptual generation). Are the existing basic designs adequate for these tasks? Experience developing the BEELINE system's natural language capabilities suggests that good entry/editing tools, a generous but not unlimited storage capacity and efficient, bidirectional lexical access techniques are needed to support the supply of data structures at both the linguistic and conceptual knowledge levels. An active formalism capable of supporting declarative and procedural programs containing...
Recognition of Problem-solving Plans in Dialogue Interpretation
- Liliana Ardissono Guido; Guido Boella; Leonardo Lesmo
The paper addresses the role of problem solving plans in the interpretation of natural language dialogues. It introduces a library of actions which describes in a declarative way the different steps made in the process of planning and executing an action. The library is used to trace the activity of a speaker: the recognition of her plans and goals is driven by the problem solving library, which specifies how domain and linguistic actions have been connected to each other. Introduction This paper aims at clarifying the role of problemsolving plans in modeling the process of plan and goal recognition of...
Towards A Formal Framework For Linguistic Annotations
- Steven Bird; Mark Liberman
`Linguistic annotation' is a term covering any transcription, translation or annotation of textual data or recorded linguistic signals. While there are several ongoing efforts to provide formats and tools for such annotations and to publish annotated linguistic databases, the lack of widely accepted standards is becoming a critical problem. Proposed standards, to the extent they exist, have focussed on file formats. This paper focuses instead on the logical structure of linguistic annotations. We survey a wide variety of annotation formats and demonstrate a common conceptual core. This provides the foundation for an algebraic framework which encompasses the representation, archiving and...
COLOR-X: Validating Linguistically-based Conceptual Models
- J. F. M. Burg; R.P. van de Riet
This paper discusses a requirements engineerings method that makes heavy use of linguistic instruments. The paper focuses on the validation phase in which syntactically verified conceptual models are checked for their correspondence with the original intentions of the users. It is quite clear that the users themselves are the only ones who are capable of doing so. However, the users have severe problems reading and understanding the conceptual models created by software analysts. Therefore, two validation techniques have been incorporated in the requirements engineerings method, that transform the models in formats that are understandable for the users. The first technique...
Multidimensional Exploration of Online Linguistic Field Data
- Steven Bird
Advances in storage technology make it possible to house virtually unlimited quantities of recorded speech data online. Advances in character-encoding technology make it possible to create platform-independent transcriptions. Advances in web technology make it possible to publish this data for essentially no marginal cost. These developments have profound consequences for the accessibility, quality and quantity of linguistic field data. Recordings become accessible. Transcriptions become verifiable. Large corpora become manageable. In order to illustrate the potential for this mode of operation in field linguistics, I describe a piece of online fieldwork involving a tone language of Cameroon. A complex verb paradigm...
Modeling the Retrieval Process of an Information Retrieval System Using an Ordinal Fuzzy Linguistic Approach
- E. Herrera-viedma
A linguistic model of an Information Retrieval System (IRS) dened using an ordinal fuzzy linguistic approach is proposed. The ordinal fuzzy linguistic approach is presented and the use of it for modeling the imprecision and subjectivity that appears in the user-IRS interaction is studied. The user queries and IRS responses are modeled linguistically using the concept of fuzzy linguistic variable. The system accepts Boolean queries whose terms are weighted by means of ordinal linguistic values according to three semantics at a time: threshold semantic, quantitative semantic and importance semantic. The threshold and importance semantics are used by the users in...
A Formal Framework for Linguistic Annotation
- Steven Bird; Mark Liberman
`Linguistic annotation' covers any descriptive or analytic notations applied to raw language data. The basic data may be in the form of time functions -- audio, video and/or physiological recordings -- or it may be textual. The added notations may include transcriptions of all sorts (from phonetic features to discourse structures), part-of-speech and sense tagging, syntactic analysis, `named entity' identification, co-reference annotation, and so on. While there are several ongoing efforts to provide formats and tools for such annotations and to publish annotated linguistic databases, the lack of widely accepted standards is becoming a critical problem. Proposed standards, to the...
COLOR-X: Object Modeling profits from Linguistics
- J. F. M. Burg; R.P. van de Riet
This paper describes a linguistically based object modeling technique for modeling Information and Communication Systems. This technique is a combination of a linguistically based, formal conceptual modeling language and a high-level graphical analysis and design method. The process of modeling Information and Communication Systems is interactively supported by a Lexicon, which delivers correct information that the analyst and designer use as a base for their final models. Our modeling technique and the supporting lexicon facilitates the modeling process and results in models that are consistent and complete. Keywords: Object Model, Linguistics, Cpl, Information and Communication Systems, Lexicon 1 INTRODUCTION This...
Integrating Different Learning Approaches into a Multilingual Spoken Language Translation System
- P. Geutner; B. Suhm; F.-D. Buø; T. Kemp; L. Mayfield; A. E. Mcnair; I. Rogina; T. Schultz; T. Sloboda; W. Ward; M. Woszczyna; A. Waibel
Building multilingual spoken language translation systems requires knowledge about both acoustic models and language models of each language to be translated. Our multilingual translation system JANUS-2 is able to translate English and German spoken input into either English, German, Spanish, Japanese or Korean output. Getting optimal acoustic and language models as well as developing adequate dictionaries for all these languages requires a lot of hand-tuning and is time-consuming and labor intensive. In this paper we will present learning techniques that improve acoustic models by automatically adapting codebook sizes, a learning algorithm that increases and adapts phonetic dictionaries for the recognition...
The Impact of Linguistics on Conceptual Models: Consistency and Understandability
- J. F. M. Burg; R.P. van de Riet
This paper describes a vision in which linguistic knowledge and theories are introduced into conceptual modeling, and it sums up the advantages achieved by this approach. We will show how the extension of conceptual modeling techniques with linguistic theories increases their expressive power, the capability to formalize wellknown conceptual aspects, like object roles and constraints, and their internal consistency. Furthermore, we will explain the advantages gained from using such an extended conceptual modeling technique by describing the adjustments and improvements of the modeling process itself and the extensions to the validation and verification process of the sophisticated models. We will...
A Fuzzy Approach to Complex Linguistic Query Based Image Retrieval
- Swarup Medasani And; Swarup Medasani; Raghu Krishnapuram
The current trend in the rapid growth of on-line image databases has brought forth several innovative approaches to content-based image retrieval. Most current techniques retrieve images based on an example image or object shapes/features extracted from images. Retrieval based on linguistic queries has not recieved much attention. In this paper, we present a fuzzy connective approach to handle complex linguistic queries consisting of multiple attributes. We represent each (fuzzy) attribute in a complex query by a (multi-dimensional) membership function. The degree to which an image satisfies the attribute is obtained by finding the membership value of the feature vector corresponding...
GETESS - Searching the Web Exploiting German Texts
- Steffen Staab; Christian Braun; Ilvio Bruder; Antje Düsterhöft; Andreas Heuer; Meike Klettke; Günter Neumann; Bernd Prager; Jan Pretzel; Hans-Peter Schnurr; Rudi Studer
. We present an intelligent information agent that uses semantic methods and natural language processing capabilites in order to gather tourist information from the WWW and present it to the human user in an intuitive, user-friendly way. Thereby, the information agent is designed such that as background knowledge and linguistic coverage increase, its benefits improve, while it guarantees state-of-the-art information and database retrieval capabilities as its bottom line. 1 Introduction Due to the vast amounts of information in the WWW, its users have more and more difficulties finding the information they are looking for among the many heterogeneous information resources....
Statistical Analysis of Dialogue Structure
- Ye-Yi Wang; Alex Waibel
We introduce a statistical model for dialogues. We describe a dynamic programming algorithm that can be used to bracket a dialogue into segments and label each segment with its speech act. We evaluate the performance of the model. We also use this model for language modelling and get perplexity reduction. 1 INTRODUCTION Dialogue structure provides important information for spoken language understanding. This structure comprises the current topic, discourse state, and speech act, etc. Many researchers used topic information to reduce the perplexity of a task [1, 2]. In our experiments, we also found that dialogue structure information also helps to...