Mostrando recursos 121 - 140 de 78,713


    Henry S. Thompson
    This paper explores the options available in the formal definitions of generation and, parasitically, transla-tion, with respect to the assumed ne-cessity for using a single grammar for analysis and synthesis. This leads to the consideratiOn of different adequacy conditions relating the input to the generation process and the products of analysis of its Output. I. A SCHEMATIC DEFINITION OF ~GENERATES' We start from the assumption of a constraint-based theory of linguistic description, which supports at least the notions of derivation and underly-ing form, in that the definition of grammaticality appeals to a relation between surface strings and some formal structure....

  2. A Puzzle for Fregeans: Fine-grained Generics and the Challenge of Semantic Descent *

    A number of influential approaches to intensional phenomena in language may be broadly characterized as “Fregean ” in the sense that each of them postulates fine-grained modes-of-presentation as the semantic values of singular terms (e.g., proper names). Such theories require a semantic mechanism for “descending ” from the mode-of-presentation itself to the item being presented. This is necessary in order to avoid mistakenly predicating the property of the mode-of-presentation, rather than the presented entity. I will argue that this characteristic of Fregean theories keeps them from generalizing in a natural way to linguistic contexts, notably fine-grained generic contexts, which independently...

  3. Fugue: A computer mediated conversational system that supports turn negotiation

    Tara Rosenberger Shankar; Max Vankleek; Antonio Vicente; Brian K. Smith
    Computer mediated communication (CMC) systems are providing new ways to communicate. Yet many text-based CMC systems do not represent the invisible, interactive practices, such as turnnegotiation, commonly found in face-to-face (FTF) conversations. Designing new text structures may help address these problems. To explore the effects of adding rhythmic, non-verbal cues to computermediated communication (CMC), we developed Fugue, a networked environment that creates visualizations of conversations as they occur, dynamically highlighting social presence and turnnegotiating events on a two-dimensional grid. In this paper we examine traditional text-based conversation systems, the role of turn-negotiating, social presence and activity in FTF communication, and...

  4. The Formal Architecture of

    Lexical-functional Grammar; Ronald M. Kaplan
    Abstract. This paper describes the basic architectural concepts that underlie the formal theory of Lexical-Functional Grammar. The LFG formalism, which has evolved from previous computational, linguistic, and psycholinguistic research, provides a simple set of devices for describing the common properties of all human languages and the particular properties of individual languages. It postulates two levels of syntactic representation for a sentence, a constituent structure and a functional structure. These are related by a piecewise correspondence that permits the properties of the abstract functional structure to be de ned in terms of con gurations of constituent structure phrases. The basic architecture...


    José L. Sierra; Martín Molina
    htpp:// This paper describes the adaptation approach of reusable knowledge representation components used in the KSM environment for the formulation and operationalisation of structured knowledge models. Reusable knowledge representation components in KSM are called primitives of representation. A primitive of representation provides: (1) a knowledge representation formalism (2) a set of tasks that use this knowledge together with several problem-solving methods to carry out these tasks (3) a knowledge acquisition module that provides different services to acquire and validate this knowledge (4) an abstract terminology about the linguistic categories included in the representation language associated to the primitive. Primitives of...

  6. has applications in Speech Technology

    Gordon Hunter
    - could reduce frustration to customers caused by "For information on your account, dial one, … for other options, press the star key" and lead to easier human-machine interaction. But the best current systems have very limited "understanding " of language, typically:- based on keywords or key phrases- simple statistical associations- template-based syntax- finite state transition networks Traditional linguistic analysis of dialogue- assumes a rather deep understanding- hence difficult to apply to computer Alternative Approach- try to model structure of word sequences and turns within dialogue, rather than model pragmatics of conversations.- hope to link statistical patterns with traditional linguistic...

  7. Segregatory Coordination and Ellipsis in Text Generation

    In this paper, we provide an account of how to generate sentences with coordination con-structions from clause-sized semantic represen-tations. An algorithm is developed and various examples from linguistic literature will be used to demonstrate that the algorithm does its job well. 1


    Jin-xia Huang; Key-sun Choi
    This pape clarifies the definition of alignment from the viewpoint of linguistic similarity. We propose new method for the alignment betwee the languages that do not belong to the same language family. On the contrary to most of the previously proposed methods that rely heavily on statistics, our method attempts to use linguistic knowledge to overcome the problems of statistical model. 1.1 Previous Works 1.

  9. Machine Translation Using Abductive Inference

    Jerry R. Hobbs; Megumi Kameyama
    Many existing approaches to machine translation take for granted that the information presented in the output is found somewhere in the input, and, moreover, that such information should be expressed at a single rep-resentational level, say, in terms of the parse trees or of "semantic " assertions. Languages, however, not only ex-press the equivalent information by drastically different linguistic means, but also often disagree in what dis-tinctions should be expressed linguistically at all. For example, in translating from Japanese to English, it is often necessary to supply determiners for noun phrases, and this in general cannot be done without deep...

  10. Accessor variety criteria for chinese word extraction

    Haodi Feng; Kang Chen; Xiaotie Deng; Weimin Zheng
    We are interested in the problem of word extraction from Chinese text collections. We define a word to be a meaningful string composed of several Chinese characters. For example, �� �, “percent”, and ���, “more and more”, are not recognized as traditional Chinese words from the viewpoint of some people. However, in our work, they are words because they are very widely used and have specific meanings. We start with the viewpoint that a word is a distinguished linguistic entity that can be used in many different language environments. We consider the characters that are directly before a string (predecessors)...

  11. AMarker{Propagation Algorithm for Text Coherence 1

    A M. Harabagiu; Dan I. Moldovan
    Text coherence is a di cult problem in natural language processing. A text is considered to be coherent when sentences follow logically one after the other. In this paper we describe a computational method that provides an explanation why a text is coherent. By providing such an explanation, one can infer a number of assertions unstated in a text. Our computational method is based on a parallel marker-propagation algorithm that is independent of the size of the knowledge base. We assume that the sentences have been already syntactically parsed and relations between verbs and their grammatical cases were established. At...

  12. A dynamic syntax-semantics interface

    Tsutomu Fujinami
    The relation between syntax and semantics of natural language can be regarded as a constraint. With the ideas from Channel Theory (Barwise 1993, Barwise and Seligman 1994), the way that an utterance represents a situation can be captured as a linguistic channel. To study the operational aspects of such achannel, we construct it as a system of communicating processes by turning to the-calculus (Milner et al. 1992). We show how a concurrent bottom-up chart parser can be encoded in the calculus and how a semantic object similar to those employed in Situation Theoretic Discourse Representation Theory (Cooper 1993) can be...

  13. 4 A knowledge-based sign synthesis architecture

    Long Paper; Stavroula-evita Fotinea Eleni Efthimiou; George Caridakis Kostas Karpouzis; A S. -e. Fotinea; E. Efthimiou; A E. Efthimiou; A G. Caridakis; K. Karpouzis; A K. Karpouzis
    9 Abstract This paper presents the modules that comprise 10 a knowledge-based sign synthesis architecture for Greek 11 sign language (GSL). Such system combines natural 12 language (NL) knowledge, machine translation (MT) 13 techniques and avatar technology in order to allow for 14 dynamic generation of sign utterances. The NL knowledge 15 of the system consists of a sign lexicon and a set of GSL 16 structure rules, and is exploited in the context of typical 17 natural language processing (NLP) procedures, which 18 involve syntactic parsing of linguistic input as well as 19 structure and lexicon mapping according to...

  14. Fuzzy Miner A Fuzzy System for Solving Pattern Classification Problems

    Nikos Pelekis; Babis Theodoulidis; Ioannis Kopanakis
    Abstract. The purpose of this paper is to study the problem of pattern classification as this is presented in the context of data mining. Among the various approaches we focus on the use of Fuzzy Logic for pattern classification, due to its close relation to human thinking. More specifically, this paper presents a heuristic fuzzy method for the classification of numerical data, followed by the design and the implementation of its corresponding tool (Fuzzy Miner). The initial idea comes from the fact that fuzzy systems are universal approximators of any real continuous function. An approximation method coming from the domain...

  15. Complex anaphors: The

    A. Lind; L. Hall; Johansson S; M. Consten M; C. Paradis C; Willners M. L; J. Pedersen; G. Gilquin
    Can we tell what we said when we hear ourselves saying something else?-Some preliminary results on a new instrument for the testing of verbal self-monitoring J. Blomberg Linguistic relativity, mediation and the categorization of motion P. Durst-Andersen The psychology of indirect speech acts

  16. Track

    Paulo Quaresma; Irene Rodrigues
    Abstract. In this paper the methodology followed to build a questionanswering system for the Portuguese language is described. The system modules are built using computational linguistic tools such as: a Portuguese parser based on constraint grammars for the syntactic analysis of the documents sentences and the user questions; a semantic interpreter that rewrites sentences syntactic analysis into discourse representation structures in order to obtain the corpus documents and user questions semantic representation; and finally, a semantic/pragmatic interpreter in order to obtain a knowledge base with facts extracted from the documents using ontologies (general and domain specific) and logic inference. This...

  17. A Task Repository for Ambient Intelligence

    Porfírio Filipe; Nuno Mamede
    Abstract. This paper describes a task repository, a device semantic interface to express device capabilities, and an advice algorithm that suggests the best task-device pair to satisfy a request. The purpose of the task repository is the adaptation of a pervasive environment (Ambient Intelligence) to support natural language applications, such as a natural language interface. The task repository has a predefined group of concepts linked to linguistic and semantic resources and is updated, at runtime, with task descriptors associated with a set of heterogeneous devices. We assume that each device, belonging to the pervasive environment, holds its own semantic interface...

  18. Question Taxonomies for Digital Reference

    Jeffrey Pomerantz
    The growth in the past decade of both the infrastructure and the number of users of the Internet has enabled a corresponding growth in the number of users of digital reference services on the Internet. This increase has led to an increase in the number of questions received by these services, putting a strain on the human intermediaries employed therein. The ability of a digital reference service to “scale up ” to handle an increasingly large number of questions is directly affected by the amount of automation employed by that service: the more processes that are automated, the more of...

  19. The optimization of discourse anaphora

    David I. Beaver; Maria Wolters; Henk Zeevat
    Abstract. In this paper the Centering model of anaphora resolution and discourse coherence (Grosz, Joshi and Weinstein, 1983, 1995) is reformulated in terms of Optimality Theory (ot) (Prince and Smolensky 1993). One version of the reformulated model is proven to be descriptively equivalent to an earlier algorithmic statement of Centering due to Brennan, Friedman and Pollard (1987). However, the new model is stated declaratively, and makes clearer the status of the various constraints used in the theory. In the second part of the paper, the model is extended, demonstrating the advantages of the ot reformulation, and capturing formally ideas originally...

  20. SA1 OR... OR x1 is

    Juan Moreno-garcia; Jose Jesus Castro-schez; Luis Jimenez; Carlos Glez-morcillo; Ramon Manjavacas; Santiago Garcia; Xavier Aguado; Sa
    The aim of this paper is to present our line of research. We apply the fuzzy logic [Zadeh65, Zadeh78] to model human and sport movements (HSMs). We create three methods of modelling that are apropiate to the HSMs. These methods are based on the concept of the linguistic label [Zadeh75]. In this work we present the obtained results. 1. INTRODUCCIÓN Our research group works on the dynamic systems model by means of the fuzzy logic and linguistic labels concepts. To apply to our method of modelling we select the HSMs, in short, we have created three methods of modelling for...

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