Mostrando recursos 121 - 140 de 3.150

  1. Locating “Wissatinnewag” in John Pynchon’s Letter of 1663

    Bruchac, Margaret; Thomas, Peter
    The place name “Wissatinnewag” appears in only a single document preserved in the English colonial records: a letter from John Pynchon written on July 28, 1663. The original letter, written in English, is now missing, and only a printed text and a Dutch translation survive. Today, some assume that the name refers to a Native American Indian village situated in the present-day town of Gill, Massachusetts, along the northern shore of the Connecticut River near Turners Falls.1 There appears to be no other surviving seventeenth century manuscript or primary source that confirms this name for this location. The archaeological evidence...

  2. Afghan Languages in a Larger Context of Central and South Asia

    Schiffman, Harold F; Spooner, Brian
    The pioneer Western investigator of the languages of Afghanistan, Georg Morgenstierne, who began his work in 1924, called Afghanistan linguistically “one of the most interesting countries on earth.” Linguistic work by local scholars began in the following generation. When one of us [Spooner] first met Dr. A. G. Ravan Farhadi (the author of Le Persan Parlé en Afghanistan, 1953) in Kabul in 1972, he announced that in the latest count the number of languages known in Afghanistan had reached 48.

  3. My Sisters the Saints: a Spiritual Memoir : uma tradução comentada

    Sousa, Márcia Teresa Dias Borges
    Dissertação de Mestrado, Tradução e Assessoria Linguística, 12 de Setembro de 2016, Universidade dos Açores.

  4. Recent historical migrations have shaped the gene pool of Arabs and Berbers in North Africa

    Arauna, LR; Mendoza-Revilla, J; Mas-Sandoval, A; Izaabel, H; Bekada, A; Benhamamouch, S; Fadhlaoui-Zid, K; Zalloua, P; Hellenthal, G; Comas, D
    North Africa is characterized by its diverse cultural and linguistic groups and its genetic heterogeneity. Genomic data has shown an amalgam of components mixed since pre-Holocean times. Though no differences have been found in uniparental and classical markers between Berbers and Arabs, the two main ethnic groups in the region, the scanty genomic data available have highlighted the singularity of Berbers. We characterize the genetic heterogeneity of North African groups, focusing on the putative differences of Berbers and Arabs, and estimate migration dates. We analyze genome-wide autosomal data in five Berber and six Arab groups, and compare them to Middle...

  5. Nomadism in Baluchistan

    Spooner, Brian
    Baluchistan as the Baluch define it includes most of West Pakistan west of the Indus, the southwest corner of Afghanistan, and the southeastern province of Persia, and Baluch minorities are also to be found scattered far to the north of this area as far as Soviet Turkmenistan. However, this vast area has never constituted any sort of unit, except in a vague cultural and linguistic sense.

  6. Language learning, language use, and the evolution of linguistic variation

    Smith, K; Perfors, A; Samara, A; Swoboda, K; Wonnacott, EA
    Linguistic universals arise from the interaction between the processes of language learning and language use. A test-case for the relationship between these factors is linguistic variation, which tends to be conditioned on linguistic or sociolinguistic criteria. How can we explain the scarcity of unpredictable variation in natural language, and to what extent is this property of language a straightforward reflection of biases in statistical learning? We review three strands of experimental work exploring these questions, and introduce a Bayesian model of the learning and transmission of linguistic variation along with a closely-matched artificial language learning experiment with adult participants. Our results show that while the biases of...

  7. Hedonic and Transcendent Conceptions of Value

    Podolny, Joel M; Besharov, Marya
    In this paper we introduce a conceptual distinction between a hedonic and transcendent conception of value. We posit three linguistic earmarks by which one can distinguish these conceptions of value. We seek validation for the conceptual distinctions by examining the language contained in reviews of cars and reviews of paintings. In undertaking the empirical examination, we draw on the work of M.A.K. Halliday to identify clauses as fundamental units of meaning and to specify process types that can be mapped onto theoretical distinctions between the two conceptions of value. Extensions of this research are discussed.

  8. The Language of Bias: A Linguistic Approach to Understanding Intergroup Relations

    Roberson, Quinetta M; Bell, Bradford S.; Porter, Shanette C
    [Excerpt] This chapter explores the role of language in the relationship between diversity and team performance. Specifically, we consider how a linguistic approach to social categorization may be used to study the social psychological mechanisms that underlie diversity effects. Using the results of a study examining the effects of gender, ethnicity and tenure on language abstraction, we consider the potential implications for team processes and effectiveness. In addition, we propose a revised team input-process-output model that highlights the potential effects of language on team processes. We conclude by suggesting directions for future research linking diversity, linguistic categorization and team effectiveness.

  9. A Voice is Worth a Thousand Words: The Implications of the Micro-Coding of Social Signals in Speech for Trust Research

    Waber, Benjamin; Williams, Michele; Carroll, John; Pentland, Alex
    While self-report measures are often highly reliable for field research on trust (Mayer and Davis, 1999), subjects often cannot complete surveys during real time interactions. In contrast, the social signals that are embedded in the non-linguistic elements of conversations can be captured in real time and extracted with the assistance of computer coding. This chapter seeks to understand how computer-coded social signals are related to interpersonal trust.

  10. Use of verb-noun collocations by advanced learners of Chinese

    Peng, Xiaolin
    The important role of collocations has been widely accepted in the current literature, but to date there are still relatively few studies on language learners’ collocation knowledge and development within different local contexts. The current study intends to contribute to the literature by investigating the oral production of Chinese verb-noun (V-N) collocations by a group of highly proficient learners comprised of both Chinese as a foreign language learners (CFL learners) and Chinese heritage language learners (CHL learners), as compared to Chinese native speakers (CNSs). The study brings together current literature on collocation and heritage language learners both from a Western...

  11. Realizing morphemes in the Icelandic noun phrase

    Ingason, Anton Karl
    This dissertation defends a strong version of the view that linguistic surface complexity is the product of interactions between deep syntactic mechanisms and shallow interface-specific mechanisms. I argue that current developments in the theory of locality in Distributed Morphology (Embick 2010, Marantz 2013) impose boundaries on syntactic analysis and that morphemes cannot be identified and analyzed without studying their realization at the interfaces of syntax with both phonology and interpretation. The empirical focus is on a series of phenomena which are attested in Icelandic noun phrases and involve the realization of roots, category-defining heads, inflection morphemes, and definite articles, all...

  12. Literacy, strategy, and identity in interaction: Vietnamese and Mexican immigrant students in urban Catholic schooling

    LeBlanc, Robert Jean
    This year-long interactional ethnography of four first- and second-generation Vietnamese and Mexican immigrant youth enrolled in an urban Catholic school traced how participants used a series of literacy-focused interactional strategies to negotiate the complexities of the contemporary Catholic school landscape. Urban US Catholic schools have undergone a radical transformation in the last 40 years, from overenrolled neighborhood parochial schools serving largely white Catholic students (Walch, 2003), to contracting decentralized schools serving Catholic immigrants from Asia and Latin American alongside large numbers of non-Catholic African American students (Hunt & Walch, 2010; Irving & Fosters, 1996; Louie & Holdaway, 2009; NCEA, 2014)....

  13. Evidence and formal models in the linguistic sciences

    Santana, Carlos Gray
    This dissertation contains a collection of essays centered on the relationship between theoretical model-building and empirical evidence-gathering in linguistics and related language sciences. The first chapter sets the stage by demonstrating that the subject matter of linguistics is manifold, and contending that discussion of relationships between linguistic models, evidence, and language itself depends on the subject matter at hand. The second chapter defends a restrictive account of scientific evidence. I make use of this account in the third chapter, in which I argue that if my account of scientific evidence is correct, then linguistic intuitions do not generally qualify as...

  14. The role of higher education in linguistic change

    Prichard, Hilary E
    This dissertation examines the interaction between a social variable, higher education, and the linguistic variables which constitute local dialects. It draws on literature in both sociolinguistics and the sociology of education to propose a reformulation of the education variable which recognizes the ways in which the social meaning of education has changed over time. Two case studies are presented which examine the effect this new education variable has in ongoing local sound changes. The first uses data from the Philadelphia Neighborhood Corpus to study the extent to which Philadelphians with differing educational backgrounds have maintained local dialect features over the...

  15. The royal Lykaian altar shall bear witness: History and religion in southwestern Arcadia

    Mahoney, Kyle W
    This dissertation surveys the history of the sanctuary of Zeus on Mt. Lykaion and its environment, from the Late Bronze Age (ca. 1600-1100 B.C.) to the Roman imperial period (ca. A.D. 200). I begin with a review of the myth traditions attached to the landscape, suggesting that these were familiar to Greek speakers all over the Mediterranean from early times. We can see their influence in our earliest poets, Homer and Hesiod, who indirectly acknowledge the birth of Zeus on Mt. Lykaion and other local myths. The remainder of Chapter 1 discusses Mt. Lykaion through a comparative mythological and linguistic...

  16. Doing well in school: Repertoires of success at the end of elementary school

    Link, Holly K
    In spite of over a decade of U.S. school reform emphasizing test preparation and performance, students from minoritized backgrounds continue to underachieve on standardized testing. With an abundance of research on the achievement gap, we are now more than ever aware of this problem. But to avoid reproducing longstanding school inequities, testing practices and achievement measures need rethinking. This dissertation does this by investigating how, in a recently established Mexican immigrant community in Pennsylvania, children from Mexican immigrant and African American backgrounds negotiated the heavy emphasis on high-stakes testing in their final year of elementary school. Based on long-term, collaborative...

  17. Imagining convivial multilingualism: Practices, ideologies and strategies in Diidxaza/ Isthmus Zapotec indigenous language education

    De Korne, Haley
    This study documents practices relating to the use of Isthmus Zapotec or Diidxazá, an Indigenous language of Oaxaca, Mexico, in formal and non-formal education. Drawing on ethnographic monitoring and ethnography of language policy methodologies, I document, interpret, and ultimately engage in Isthmus Zapotec education with the aim of countering social inequalities produced through language hierarchies. ^ Within the historical and socio-political context of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec where Isthmus Zapotec is spoken, I describe and categorize the actors, practices, and socio-political processes that currently constitute the educational language ecology. I draw on participant observation, interviews, photographs and documents collected during...

  18. Fresas, Nacos y Lo que le Sigue: Towards a Sketch of Two Mexican Emblematic Models of Personhood

    Chaparro, Sofía
    In this paper I sketch out two widely recognized cultural stereotypes in Mexico: fresas and nacos. Using a linguistic anthropological framework, I describe the semiotic registers of these stereotypical figures, illustrating them through various types of media, including internet images, videos, and popular songs. I then provide a tentative historical account of when these figures emerged and how they became enregistered in the Mexican imaginary. I make the case that these stereotypical figures are tied to a deeply rooted classism and racism in Mexico that are traces of its colonial legacy.

  19. “A treasure” and “a legacy”: Individual and Communal (Re)valuing of Isthmus Zapotec in Multilingual Mexico

    De Korne, Haley
    Speaking Isthmus Zapotec has represented different forms of material and symbolic capital at different times and places throughout the pre-Hispanic, colonial and post-colonial history of Mexico. This chapter explores the shifting and contrasting discourses of value around the language in the current era of neoliberal multiculturalism drawing on an ethnographic study of the use of Isthmus Zapotec in educational contexts in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The effects of educational politics across historical eras and into the present have largely devalued Isthmus Zapotec use and contributed to the material inequalities experienced by Isthmus Zapotec speakers. The social capital associated with Isthmus...

  20. The Social Life of Orthography Development

    Donalson, Coleman
    From a linguistic perspective the development of orthography for a language is often taken as a scientific endeavor involving the adoption of a set of graphic conventions for mapping the phonemic system of a language. In this paper I unpack how orthography development and use is necessarily wrapped up in socio-political debates. Approaching orthography graphically, I demonstrate how spelling itself frequently carries implicit metacommentary connected to these debates. Next, looking at orthography’s link with speech I argue that ideologies of language in departmentalized linguistics ignore and obscure the way orthography interacts with register phenomena within a language.

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