Mostrando recursos 141 - 160 de 68,833

  1. Some Structural Aspects of Language Are More Stable than Others: A Comparison of Seven Methods

    Dan Dediu; Michael Cysouw
    Understanding the patterns and causes of differential structural stability is an area of major interest for the study of language change and evolution. It is still debated whether structural features have intrinsic stabilities across language families and geographic areas, or if the processes governing their rate of change are completely dependent upon the specific context of a given language or language family. We conducted an extensive literature review and selected seven different approaches to conceptualising and estimating the stability of structural linguistic features, aiming at comparing them using the same dataset, the World Atlas of Language Structures. We found that,...

  2. M: Facilitating the recruitment of minority ethnic people into research: qualitative case study of South Asians and asthma. PLoS Med 2009

    Aziz Sheikh; Laila Halani; Raj Bhopal; Gopalakrishnan Netuveli; Martyn R. Partridge; Josip Car; Chris Griffiths; Mark Levy
    Background: There is international interest in enhancing recruitment of minority ethnic people into research, particularly in disease areas with substantial ethnic inequalities. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis found that UK South Asians are at three times increased risk of hospitalisation for asthma when compared to white Europeans. US asthma trials are far more likely to report enrolling minority ethnic people into studies than those conducted in Europe. We investigated approaches to bolster recruitment of South Asians into UK asthma studies through qualitative research with US and UK researchers, and UK community leaders. Methods and Findings: Interviews were conducted with...

  3. RESEARCH ARTICLE Crowdsourcing Language Change with Smartphone Applications

    Adrian Leemann; Marie-josé Kolly; Ross Purves; David Britain; Elvira Glaser
    Crowdsourcing linguistic phenomena with smartphone applications is relatively new. In lin-guistics, apps have predominantly been developed to create pronunciation dictionaries, to train acoustic models, and to archive endangered languages. This paper presents the first account of how apps can be used to collect data suitable for documenting language change: we created an app, Dialäkt Äpp (DÄ), which predicts users ’ dialects. For 16 linguistic vari-ables, users select a dialectal variant from a drop-down menu. DÄ then geographically locates the user’s dialect by suggesting a list of communes where dialect variants most sim-ilar to their choices are used. Underlying this prediction...

  4. Production and Comprehension of Time Reference in Korean Nonfluent Aphasia

    Jiyeon Leea; Miseon Kwonc; Hae Ri Nad; Roelien Bastiaansee; Cynthia K. Thompsona
    Objectives—Individuals with nonfluent agrammatic aphasia show impaired production and comprehension of time reference via verbal morphology. However, cross-linguistic findings to date suggest inconsistent evidence as to whether tense processing in general is impaired or time reference to the past is selectively difficult in this population. This study examined production and comprehension of time reference via verb morphology in Korean-speaking individuals with nonfluent aphasia. Methods—A group of 9 healthy controls and 8 individuals with nonfluent aphasia (5 for the production task) participated in the study. Sentence priming production and auditory sentence to picture matching tasks were used, parallel with the previous...

  5. Reviewed by:

    Cristina Baus; Eva Gutiérrez; Manuel Carreiras; Iris Berent; Ariel M. Cohen-goldberg
    The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional role of syllables in sign language and how the different phonological combinations influence sign production. Moreover, the influence of age of acquisition was evaluated. Deaf signers (native and non-native) of Catalan Signed Language (LSC) were asked in a picture-sign interference task to sign picture names while ignoring distractor-signs with which they shared two phonological parameters (out of three of the main sign parameters: Location, Movement, and Handshape). The results revealed a different impact of the three phonological combinations. While no effect was observed for the phonological combination Handshape-Location, the...

  6. Uniparental Markers of Contemporary Italian Population Reveals Details on Its Pre-Roman Heritage

    Francesca Brisighelli; Manuel Fondevila; Ro Blanco-verea; Vincenzo L. Pascali; Cristian Capelli; Antonio Salas
    Background: According to archaeological records and historical documentation, Italy has been a melting point for populations of different geographical and ethnic matrices. Although Italy has been a favorite subject for numerous population genetic studies, genetic patterns have never been analyzed comprehensively, including uniparental and autosomal markers throughout the country. Methods/Principal Findings: A total of 583 individuals were sampled from across the Italian Peninsula, from ten distant (if homogeneous by language) ethnic communities — and from two linguistic isolates (Ladins, Grecani Salentini). All samples were first typed for the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region and selected coding region SNPs (mtSNPs). This...

  7. ral Health and Quality of Life Outcomes ssBioMed Cent Open AcceReview International versions of the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS)

    Lothar Aj Heinemann; Peter Potthoff; Hermann Pg Schneider; Hermann Pg Schneider
    Background: Symptom scales for aging women have clinically been used for years and the interest in measuring health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has increased in recent years. The Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) is a formally validated scale according to the requirements for quality of life instruments. The aim of this paper is to review the current state of the instrument particularly concerning versions of the scale in different languages. MRS versions available: The translations were performed following international methodological recommendations for the linguistic & cultural adaptation of HRQoL instruments. The first translation was done from the German original scale into...

  8. The Kimberley Assessment of Depression of Older Indigenous Australians: Prevalence of Depressive Disorders, Risk Factors and Validation of the KICA-dep Scale

    Osvaldo P. Almeida; Leon Flicker; Stephen Fenner; Kate Smith; Zoe Hyde; David Atkinson; Linda Skeaf; Roslyn Malay; Dina Logiudice
    Objective: This study aimed to develop a culturally acceptable and valid scale to assess depressive symptoms in older Indigenous Australians, to determine the prevalence of depressive disorders in the older Kimberley community, and to investigate the sociodemographic, lifestyle and clinical factors associated with depression in this population. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of adults aged 45 years or over from six remote Indigenous communities in the Kimberley and 30 % of those living in Derby, Western Australia. The 11 linguistic and culturally sensitive items of the Kimberley Indigenous Cognitive Assessment of Depression (KICA-dep) scale were derived from the signs and symptoms required...

  9. Syntax at Hand: Common Syntactic Structures for Actions and Language


    Evidence that the motor and the linguistic systems share common syntactic representations would open new perspectives on language evolution. Here, crossing disciplinary boundaries, we explore potential parallels between the structure of simple actions and that of sentences. First, examining Typically Developing (TD) children displacing a bottle with or without knowledge of its weight prior to movement onset, we provide kinematic evidence that the sub-phases of this displacing action (reaching + moving the bottle) manifest a structure akin to linguistic embedded dependencies. Then, using the same motor task, we reveal that children suffering from specific language impairment (SLI), whose core deficit...

  10. MEETING ABSTRACT Open Access Essential of audiology: screening and post- screening

    Francesco Martines; Pietro Salvago; Salvatore Cocuzza; Eleonora La Mattina; Martinelli Stefano; Marianna Mucia; Enrico Martines
    Newborn hearing screening is a type of screening test for the early detection of hearing loss. It can recognize with good accuracy newborns affected by hearing impairment allowing an early diagnosis and intervention and avoiding cognitive and linguistic deficits [1-6]. The incidence of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in Sicily is 2.35 cases per 1000 newborns; this value increases to 2.95 if we consider also unilateral SNHL [2,3] and to 10 cases per 1000 births among infants at risk [7-9]. A correct newborn hearing screening programme is based on different protocols depending on the presence/ absence of audiologic risk factors:...

  11. RESEARCH ARTICLE Modeling Coevolution between Language and Memory Capacity during Language Origin

    Tao Gong; Lan Shuai
    Memory is essential to many cognitive tasks including language. Apart from empirical stud-ies of memory effects on language acquisition and use, there lack sufficient evolutionary explorations on whether a high level of memory capacity is prerequisite for language and whether language origin could influence memory capacity. In line with evolutionary theories that natural selection refined language-related cognitive abilities, we advocated a coevolu-tion scenario between language and memory capacity, which incorporated the genetic transmission of individual memory capacity, cultural transmission of idiolects, and natural and cultural selections on individual reproduction and language teaching. To illustrate the coevolution dynamics, we adopted a...

  12. The Heterogeneous HLA Genetic Makeup of the Swiss Population

    Jose ́ Manuel Nunes; Grazia Nicoloso; Jean-marie Tiercy; Alicia Sanchez-mazas
    This study aims at investigating the HLA molecular variation across Switzerland in order to determine possible regional differences, which would be highly relevant to several purposes: optimizing donor recruitment strategies in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), providing reliable reference data in HLA and disease association studies, and understanding the population genetic background(s) of this culturally heterogeneous country. HLA molecular data of more than 20,000 HSCT donors from 9–13 recruitment centers of the whole country were analyzed. Allele and haplotype frequencies were estimated by using new computer tools adapted to the heterogeneity and ambiguity of the data. Non-parametric and resampling statistical...

  13. RESEARCH ARTICLE Demographic History of Indigenous Populations in Mesoamerica Based on mtDNA Sequence Data

    Antonio González-martín; Amaya Gorostiza; Lucía Regalado-liu; Sergio Arroyo; Sergio Tirado; Ismael Nuño-arana; Rodrigo Rubi-castellanos; Karla S; Michael D. Coble; Héctor Rangel-villalobos
    The genetic characterization of Native American groups provides insights into their history and demographic events. We sequenced the mitochondrial D-loop region (control region) of 520 samples from eight Mexican indigenous groups. In addition to an analysis of the genetic diversity, structure and genetic relationship between 28 Native American populations, we applied Bayesian skyline methodology for a deeper insight into the history of Mesoamerica. AMOVA tests applying cultural, linguistic and geographic criteria were performed. MDS plots showed a central cluster of Oaxaca and Maya populations, whereas those from the North and West were located on the periphery. Demographic reconstruction indicates higher...

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLE


    Mutations in the human FOXP2 gene cause impaired speech development and linguistic deficits, which have been best characterised in a large pedigree called the KE family. The encoded protein is highly conserved in many vertebrates and is expressed in homologous brain regions required for sensorimotor integration and motor-skill learning, in particular corticostriatal circuits. Independent studies in multiple species suggest that the striatum is a key site of FOXP2 action. Here, we used in vivo recordings in awake-behaving mice to investigate the effects of the KE-family mutation on the function of striatal circuits during motor-skill learning. We uncovered abnormally high ongoing...

  15. RESEARCH ARTICLE Understanding How Grammatical Aspect Influences Legal Judgment

    Andrewm Sherrill; Anita Eerl; Rolf A. Zwaan; Joseph P. Magliano
    Recent evidence suggests that grammatical aspect can bias how individuals perceive crimi-nal intentionality during discourse comprehension. Given that criminal intentionality is a common criterion for legal definitions (e.g., first-degree murder), the present study explored whether grammatical aspect may also impact legal judgments. In a series of four experi-ments participants were provided with a legal definition and a description of a crime in which the grammatical aspect of provocation and murder events were manipulated. Participants were asked to make a decision (first- vs. second-degree murder) and then indicate factors that impacted their decision. Findings suggest that legal judgments can be affected...

  16. Reconstructing Roma history from genome-wide data

    Priya Moorjani; Nick Patterson; Po-ru Loh; Mark Lipson; Bela I. Melegh; Michael Bonin; Olaf Rieß; Bonnie Berger; David Reich
    The Roma people, living throughout Europe and West Asia, are a diverse population linked by the Romani language and culture. Previous linguistic and genetic studies have suggested that the Roma migrated into Europe from South Asia about 1,000–1,500 years ago. Genetic inferences about Roma history have mostly focused on the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA. To explore what additional information can be learned from genome-wide data, we analyzed data from six Roma groups that we genotyped at hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We estimate that the Roma harbor about 80 % West Eurasian ancestry–derived from a combination...

  17. doi:10.1155/2012/865731 Research Article Processing Load Induced by Informational Masking Is Related to Linguistic Abilities

    Thomas Koelewijn; Adriana A. Zekveld; Joost M. Festen; Sophia E. Kramer
    Copyright © 2012 Thomas Koelewijn et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. It is often assumed that the benefit of hearing aids is not primarily reflected in better speech performance, but that it is reflected in less effortful listening in the aided than in the unaided condition. Before being able to assess such a hearing aid benefit the present study examined how processing load while listening to masked speech relates to inter-individual differences in cognitive...

  18. Review of the Journal Medical Archives in 2013

    Izet Masic
    lished a total of 125 articles (it was until now most ex-tensive volume of the journal). Submission was carried out only electronically trough the Data Base Management System: www.scopemed.org. Th e journal has its own web site: www.avicenapublisher.org and it is possible to down-load full articles in PDF format. Most reviewers are from Bosnia and Herzegovina, but there is a signifi cant number published articles from other countries. A large number of articles was returned to authors due to linguistic and technical shortcomings, but also relatively poor scientifi c content. Th ere is ongoing work on the promotion of peer...

  19. Review Article An Overview of Biomolecular Event Extraction from Scientific Documents

    Jorge A. Vanegas; Sérgio Matos; Fabio González; José L. Oliveira
    License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This paper presents a review of state-of-the-art approaches to automatic extraction of biomolecular events from scientific texts. Events involving biomolecules such as genes, transcription factors, or enzymes, for example, have a central role in biological processes and functions and provide valuable information for describing physiological and pathogenesis mechanisms. Event extraction from biomedical literature has a broad range of applications, including support for information retrieval, knowledge summarization, and information extraction and discovery. However, automatic event extraction is a challenging task due to the...

  20. Linguistic Processing and Classification of Semi Structured Bibliographic Data on Complementary Medicine

    Thomas Ostermann; Christa K. Raak; Peter F. Matthiessen; Arndt Büssing; Hartmut Zillmann
    This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License

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