Structural similarity within and among languages
- Edward P. Stabler; Edward L. Keenan
Linguists rely on intuitive conceptions of structure when comparing expressions and languages. In an algebraic presentation of a language, some natural notions of sim-ilarity can be rigorously dened (e.g. among elements of a language, equivalence w.r.t. isomorphisms of the language; and among languages, equivalence w.r.t. iso-morphisms of symmetry groups), but it turns out that slightly more complex and non-standard notions are needed to capture the kinds of comparisons linguists want to make. This paper identies some of the important notions of structural similar-ity, with attention to similarity claims that are prominent in the current linguistic tradition of transformational grammar.
Using closed captions as supervision for video activity recognition
- Sonal Gupta; Raymond J. Mooney
Recognizing activities in real-world videos is a difficult problem exacerbated by background clutter, changes in camera angle & zoom, and rapid camera movements. Large corpora of labeled videos can be used to train au-tomated activity recognition systems, but this requires expensive human labor and time. This paper explores how closed captions that naturally accompany many videos can act as weak supervision that allows automat-ically collecting ‘labeled ’ data for activity recognition. We show that such an approach can improve activity retrieval in soccer videos. Our system requires no man-ual labeling of video clips and needs minimal human supervision. We also...
Linguistically aware coreference evaluation metrics
- Chen Chen; Vincent Ng
Virtually all the commonly-used evalua-tion metrics for entity coreference reso-lution are linguistically agnostic, treating the mentions to be clustered as generic rather than linguistic objects. We argue that the performance of an entity coref-erence resolver cannot be accurately re-flected when it is evaluated using linguis-tically agnostic metrics. Consequently, we propose a framework for incorporating linguistic awareness into commonly-used coreference evaluation metrics. 1
Pastry phonotactics: Is phonological learning special? Presentation at the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Northeast Linguistic
- Elliott Moreton; Katya Pertsova
Knowledge of language is largely knowledge of featurally-defined patterns, and language learning is, to a great extent, pattern learning. A simple example is shown in (1), where the same logical pattern is instantiated by different pairs of phonological, morphological, and visual features. The recognition of this commonalty invites many questions. How does
of Conference on Language Documentation and Linguistic Theory 2. London: SOAS.
- Dafydd Gibbon; Firmin Ahoua; Blé François Kipré; Sascha Griffiths; Dafydd Gibbon; Firmin Ahoua; Blé François Kipré; K. Austin; Oliver Bond; Monik Charette; David Nathan; Peter Sells (eds Proceedings; Dafydd Gibbon; Firmin Ahoua; Blé François Kipré; Edited Peter; K. Austin; Oliver Bond; Monik Charette; David Nathan; Peter Sells
Prosody and analogy in variation and language change. Lexical diphthongisation in Catalan and Spanish.
- Teresa Cabré; Pilar Prieto
Derivational and rule-based models in phonology resort to mechanisms such as addition, reordering and deletion of rules to explain variation and linguistic change. While these mechanisms can easily account for parametric variation among languages, they also contribute to view synchronic language systems as static linguistic stages and language change as a sudden shift from one linguistic stage to another. Most of the changes occurring in natural languages, though, involve gradual and non-radical modifications of linguistic features. From the perspective of constraint-based approaches such as OT (Prince & Smolensky, 1993), linguistic variation and change can be conceived as a gradual reranking...
Chapter Eleven Integrating Beginning Word Study into Clinical Interventions
- Latisha L. Hayes
The accumulated empirical evidence indicates that reading disabil-ities, over and above difficulties caused by inadequate reading experience and instruction, are caused by linguistic deficiencies in the area of phonological awareness—namely, phonological coding (for reviews, see Adams, 1990; Chall, 1996; Stanovich, 2000; Vel-lutino et al., 1996). Phonological coding is the ability to code abstract representations of the sounds in spoken and written words into the form of phonemes (i.e., the individual components of the speech stream). An impressive line of research has proven the strong relationship between language deficits and reading
Licensor strength and locality effects in negative polarity licensing
In sentence comprehension, dependencies must be established between linguistic elements in real time. Two robust determinants of dependency resolution are locality (Gibson 1998; Lewis 1996) and interference (Van Dyke & Lewis 2003; Gordon, Hendrick, & Johnson 2001). Negative Polarity Items (NPIs) require a different dependency satisfaction from filler-gap
Formal Semantics in Modern Type Theories: Theory and Implementation
- S. Chatzikyriakidis; Z. Luoy
Formal semantics based on Modern Type Theories (MTTs) provides us with not only a viable alternative to Montague Grammar, but potentially an attractive full-blown semantic tool with advantages in many respects. We shall introduce the MTT-based semantics and then study several issues such as adjectival modification, co-predication and coordination. Key comparisons to Montague Grammar are done all along, discussing the advantages of MTTs over simple type theory. For example, subtyping is crucially needed for proper seman-tic treatments of some linguistic features but has proven difficult in a Montagovian setting; coercive subtyping is adequate for MTTs and has become a key...
Type-theoretical semantics with coercive subtyping
- Zhaohui Luo
Abstract In the formal semantics based on modern type theories, common nouns are interpreted as types, rather than as functional subsets of entities as in Montague grammar. This brings about important advantages in linguistic interpretations but also leads to a limitation of expressive power because there are fewer operations on types as compared with those on functional subsets. The theory of coercive subtyping adequately extends the modern type theories with a notion of subtyping and, as shown in this paper, plays a very useful role in making type theories more expressive for formal semantics. In particular, it gives a satisfactory...
The Acquisition of Chinese Shape Classifiers By L2 Adult Learners
- Neal Szu-yen Liang
Historically, much attention has been given to the acquisition and the development of Chinese classifiers by L1 children. Little, if any, is known about how non-native adult speakers of Chinese acquire this linguistic feature. To that end, the current study aims to explore the acquisition of eight shape classifiers denoting one-, two- and three-dimensional objects by adult speakers of English and Korean with various Chinese proficiency levels. Their task was to match ten objects made of clay with one of eight phrases that best describes the denoted object. The findings show that 1) a positive relationship exists between subjects’ Chinese...
Typicality-Based Inference by Plugging Conceptual Spaces Into Ontologies
- Leo Ghignone; Antonio Lieto; Daniele P. Radicioni
Abstract. In this paper we present a cognitively inspired system for the representation of conceptual information in an ontology-based envi-ronment. It builds on the heterogeneous notion of concepts in Cognitive Science and on the so-called dual process theories of reasoning and ra-tionality, and it provides a twofold view on the same artificial concept, combining a classical symbolic component (grounded on a formal on-tology) with a typicality-based one (grounded on the conceptual spaces framework). The implemented system has been tested in a pilot experi-mentation regarding the classification task of linguistic stimuli. The re-sults show that this modeling solution extends the representational...
1 Automatic Bilingual Lexicon Acquisition
This paper presents a very simple and effective approach to using parallel corpora for automatic bilingual lexicon acquisition. The approach, which uses the Random Indexing vector space methodology, is based on finding correlations between terms based on their distributional characteristics. The approach requires a minimum of preprocessing and linguistic knowledge, and is efficient, fast and scalable. In this paper, we explain how our approach differ from traditional cooccurrence-based word alignment algorithms, and we shown how to extract a bilingual lexicon using the Random Indexing approach applied to aligned parallel data. The quality of the acquired lexicon is evaluated by comparing...
Assigning Deep Lexical Types
- João Silva; António Branco; Edifício C
Abstract. Deep linguistic grammars provide complex grammatical represen-tations of sentences, capturing, for instance, long-distance dependencies and returning semantic representations, making them suitable for advanced natural language processing. However, they lack robustness in that they do not grace-fully handle words missing from the lexicon of the grammar. Several approaches have been taken to handle this problem, one of which consists in pre-annotating the input to the grammar with shallow processing machine-learning tools. This is usually done to speed-up parsing (supertagging) but it can also be used as a way of handling unknown words in the input. These pre-processing tools, however, must...
Linguistic Theory 2. London: SOAS. or:
- Edited Peter; K. Austin; Oliver Bond; Monik Charette; David Nathan; Peter Sells
things come in small languages: grammatical loss and innovation in Nzadi
Language Documentation & Linguistic Theory 2
- Oliver Bond; Monik Charette; David Nathan; Peter Sells (eds Proceedings; Edited Peter; K. Austin; Oliver Bond; Monik Charette; David Nathan; Peter Sells
A note on the typology of head-internal relativization
- Suprasegmental Modelling; A. Batliner; A. Kießling; R. Kompe; H. Niemann; Now Ericsson Eurolab
Summary. We show how prosody can be used in speech understanding systems. This is demonstrated with the VERBMOBIL speech–to–speech translation system, the world wide first complete system, which successfully uses prosodic information in the linguistic analysis. Prosody is used by computing probabilities for clause boundaries, accentuation, and different types of sentence mood for each of the word hypotheses computed by the word recognizer. These probabilities guide the search of the linguistic analysis. Disambiguation is already achieved during the analysis and not by a prosodic verification of different linguistic hypothe-ses. So far, the most useful prosodic information is provided by clause...
Principles and Parameters: a coding theory perspective
- Matilde Marcolli
We propose an approach to Longobardi’s parametric comparison method (PCM) via the theory of error-correcting codes. One associates to a collection of languages to be analyzed with the PCM a binary (or ternary) code with one code words for each language in the family and each word consisting of the binary values of the syntactic parameters of the language, with the ternary case allowing for an additional parameter state that takes into account phenomena of entailment of parameters. The code pa-rameters of the resulting code can be compared with some classical bounds in coding theory: the asymptotic bound, the Gilbert–Varshamov...
Fuzzy Logic and Approximate Reasoning: An Overview
Approximate Reasoning is the process Ill " processes by which a possible imprecise conclusion is deduced from a collection of imprecise premises. Fuzzy logic plays the major role in approximate reasoning. It has the ability to deal with different types of uncertainty. An overview of the different aspects of the theory of appro:x:imate reasoning has been provided here based on the e:x:isting literature. Suitable iUustratioDB are included, whenever necessary, to make the concept clear. Some of the implementation of the theory to real life problems have been mentioned. Finally, a linguistic re cognition system based on approximate reasoning has heen...
Learning Nouns and Adjectives: A Connectionist Account
- Computer Science; Michael Gasser; Linda B. Smith
Why do children learn nouns such as cup faster than dimensional adjectives such as big? Most explanations of this phenomenon rely on prior knowledge of the noun–adjective distinction or on the logical priority of nouns as the arguments of predicates. In this article we examine an alternative account, one which relies instead on properties of the semantic categories to be learned and of the word-learning task itself. We isolate four such properties: The relative size, the relative compactness, and the degree of overlap of the regions in representational space associated with the categories, and the presence or absence of lexical...