Mostrando recursos 141 - 160 de 18.760

  1. The acquisition of sociolinguistic variation in a Mexican immigrant community

    Lerner, Marielle
    In language change originating within the speech community, child acquisition begins with “faithful transmission of the adult system” (Labov 2007:346). On entering their peer group, children participate in incrementation of change. Input from multiple generations of speakers is arguably necessary for children to advance a language change. With stable variable input, children are reported to acquire their parents’ probabilistic usage, then maintain it among peers. This dissertation asks what can be learned about the acquisition of sociolinguistic variation from a case where children receive limited generational evidence about their community’s linguistic variables. I examine whether these youngest speakers participate in...

  2. Social and Structural Constraints on a Phonetically-Motivated Change in Progress: (str) Retraction in Raleigh, NC

    Wilbanks, Eric
    The current project examines the status of (str) retraction, an ongoing, phonetically-motivated sound change, in the Raleigh, NC corpus of sociolinguistic interviews (Dodsworth & Kohn, 2012). Investigating the status of this sound change in apparent time, acoustic analyses of 140 Raleigh-natives was carried out. All tokens of /s/ and /S/ were automatically extracted and the spectral characteristics of the resulting 99,150 tokens were analyzed. Results demonstrate the retracted variant in the speech of the youngest Raleigh women and it is argued that the emergence of (str) retraction in the community in the 1960s corresponds with massive demographic shifts caused by...

  3. Multi-Value Asymmetry in Number Agreement and Concord

    Shen, Zheng
    In this paper I present cross-linguistic data of NRNR, TP RNR, and composed plurality to argue for the multi-value asymmetry between the N and the T domain. I propose that the asymmetry can be accounted for by assuming that T heads have multiple unvalued number features while N heads have only one. The proposal is compatible with the unified Agree analysis of concord and agreement and it is further supported by the mismatch cases of multi-valuation.

  4. Toward the Parameter Hierarchy of Embedded Imperatives

    Saito, Hiroaki
    This paper investigates cross-linguistic variation in embedded imperatives in terms of syntactic environments in which they can(not) appear, focusing on the availability of embedded imperatives in the clausal complement of verbs and nouns, and relative clauses. I demonstrate that there are four distinct types of languages regarding the possibility of embedded imperatives. I also suggest that there is an implicational relation among these types, which is captured through a parameter hierarchy.

  5. Toward the Parameter Hierarchy of Embedded Imperatives

    Saito, Hiroaki
    This paper investigates cross-linguistic variation in embedded imperatives in terms of syntactic environments in which they can(not) appear, focusing on the availability of embedded imperatives in the clausal complement of verbs and nouns, and relative clauses. I demonstrate that there are four distinct types of languages regarding the possibility of embedded imperatives. I also suggest that there is an implicational relation among these types, which is captured through a parameter hierarchy.

  6. Morpho-pragmatic Faithfulness Interacts with Phonological Markedness in Appalachian A-prefixing

    McQuaid, Goldie Ann
    This paper examines so-called a-prefixing in the speech of dialect speakers living in Appalachia. Building on existing empirical work, and leveraging results from a GoldVarb analysis, I posit the a-prefix realizes a morpho-pragmatic feature which expresses a range of related meanings, including surprise, unexpectedness, and newsworthiness. This range of meanings is encompassed in the linguistic category mirativity. The prefix is therefore suggested to spell out the feature [MIRATIVE]. Variable insertion of the a-prefix is blocked when the base does not meet certain phonological requirements. In particular, prefixing is blocked with forms beginning with a lax vowel (*‘a-ask-ing’), and with forms...

  7. Measuring Cross-Linguistic Influence in First- and Second-Generation Bilinguals: ERP vs. Acceptability Judgments

    Martohardjono, Gita; Phillips, Ian; Madsen, Christen N., II; Otheguy, Ricardo; Schwartz, Richard G.; Shafer, Valerie L.
    Two types of Spanish-English bilinguals were tested in an event-related potential (ERP) experiment on a contrast in the two languages exemplified in (1) and (2) in order to investigate linguistic permeability during processing of Spanish (1a and 2a). In Spanish, but not English, absence of the complementizer que is ungrammatical. (1) a. Qué hermana confesó Inés que había comido la tarta? b. *What sister did Inés confess that had eaten the cake? (2) a. *Qué hermana confesó Inés Ø había comido la tarta? b. What sister did Inés confess Ø had eaten the cake? In a first analysis, we grouped subjects by generation and compared...

  8. The Social Perception of a Sound Change

    Lawrence, Daniel
    A core finding of sociolinguistic research is that phonological changes may become subject to social evaluation as they propagate through a speech community. Much work has analyzed the social evaluation of innovations by categorizing them in terms of their salience, or the degree of stigma/prestige attached to them. However, recent studies have attempted to develop a more sophisticated understanding of the types of social-indexical meaning which can attach to linguistic variation. In particular, it is argued that speaker-listeners' social perceptions of variation tend to be structured around locally-relevant stereotypical figures such as the `valley girl' or `burnout' (Eckert, 2008; Moore...

  9. Alternatives and Focus: Distribution of Chinese Relative Clauses Revisited

    Hsu, Yu-Yin
    The syntax and the function of Chinese relative clauses have been a hot issue in linguistic studies, given that typologically modifiers of nominals rarely occur before a demonstrative (cf. Greenberg 1963, Cinque 2005), and yet pre-demonstrative relative clauses are common in Chinese. This paper presents an analysis of syntax and information structure of Chinese relative clauses and shows results of a corpus study and a production experiment. It is argued that pre-demonstrative relative clauses structurally express Focus at the nominal periphery, similar to Focus Phrase at the left-periphery of a sentence à la Rizzi (1997), deriving by nominal-internal Focus movement....

  10. The German Definite Article and the ‘Sameness’ of Indices

    Hanink, Emily A.
    The German definite article may contract with a preceding preposition under certain circumstances; the contracted form is referred to in the literature as weak, while the non-contracted form is referred to as strong. Schwarz (2009) gives an analysis of this contrast according to which the weak form is required when the referent of an NP is unique, while the strong form is required when it is also anaphoric, i.e., when it refers back to an antecedent. However, as Schwarz himself points out, anaphoric uses in which the anaphoric NP is modified by the adjective same surprisingly surface with the weak...

  11. Predicting Mergers in New Dialect Formation

    Djärv, Kajsa
    This paper considers the application of Yang’s (2000, 2002, 2009) model of phonological change and population dynamics to the case of competing mergers in the formation of New Zealand English, as described by Peter Trudgill and colleagues. Trudgill (1986 et seq) argues for the deterministic nature of change in the specific case of contactinduced change referred to as New Dialect Formation, such that given sufficient knowledge about the linguistic features represented among the speakers of the different contact-varieties, it is possible to predict with a high degree of certainty the features which will survive into the new dialect. Specifically, Trudgill...

  12. Worldlikeness: A Web-based Tool for Typological Psycholinguistic Research

    Chen, Tsung-Ying; Myers, James
    In this paper, we introduce Worldlikeness, a web-based tool for collecting and sharing cross-linguistic wordlikeness judgments (nonce word acceptability judgments) to facilitate typological psycholinguistic research. Typological psycholinguistic research is essential since crucial factors affecting language processing vary across languages, but these factors often too confounded to tease apart by comparing just two languages at a time. This type of research is nevertheless difficult since it requires testing many speakers from each language, using materials designed with the help of expert native speakers. Worldlikeness aims to make typological psycholinguistics more feasible, by providing tools for separate groups of experimenters to design...

  13. Visual and Linguistic Determinants of the Eyes' Initial Fixation Position in Reading Development

    ducrot, stéphanie; Pynte, Joël; Ghio, Alain; Lété, Bernard
    International audience

  14. Berber in contact: linguistic and sociolinguistic perspectives

    Lafkioui, Mena; Brugnatelli, Vermondo
    International audience

  15. Synchronic and diachronic linguistic variation as an indicator of language change and difusion in Tarifit

    Lafkioui, Mena
    International audience

  16. La linguistica e sociolinguistica berbera nella ricerca e nell’università italiana

    Lafkioui, Mena
    International audience

  17. Dialectology and Linguistic Geography

    Lafkioui, Mena
    International audience

  18. Language-independent methods for computer-assisted pronunciation training

    Lee, Ann, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Computer-assisted pronunciation training (CAPT) systems help students practice speaking foreign languages by providing automatic pronunciation assessment and corrective feedback. Automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology is a natural component in CAPT systems. Since a nonnative speaker's native language (Li) background affects their pronunciation patterns in a target language (L2), typically not only native but also nonnative training data of specific Ls is needed to train a recognizer for CAPT systems. Given that there are around 7,000 languages in the world, the data collection process is costly and has scalability issues. In addition, expert knowledge on the target L2 is also often...

  19. Issues in objectivity and mind-dependence

    Botchkina, Ekaterin
    Reality and objectivity are often characterized in terms of independence from the mind: the first-pass idea is that what it takes for any particular subject matter to be real and objective is for facts about it to obtain independently of beliefs, linguistic practices, conceptual schemes, and so on. But if we take seriously the possibility that significant realms of reality, including social kinds, judgment-dependent properties, and mental phenomena themselves, stand in various dependence relations to the mental, then this first-pass characterization needs to be significantly revised. In this set of papers, I consider the special questions that metaphysically mind-dependent entities...

  20. Performance engineering of multicore software : developing a science of fast code for the post-Moore era

    Schardl, Tao Benjamin
    The end of Moore's Law, which experts predict to occur in as few as 5 years, means that even average programmers will need to be able to write fast code. Software performance engineering offers great promise to provide computer performance gains in the post-Moore era, but developing efficient software today requires substantial expertise and arcane knowledge of hardware and software systems. Multicore processors are particularly challenging to use efficiently, because doing so requires programmers to engage in parallel programming and to deal with nondeterministic program behavior and parallel scalability concerns. I contend that we can remedy the ad hoc and...

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