- H. Conrad Cunningham; Steven Schoenly; Associate Professor Emeritus; Andy Deitsch; David Czarnecki; Java Internationalization
Study of the principles and practice of software internationalization with emphasis on the design and customization of software to accommodate linguistic and cultural diversity.
Attribute Grammar Paradigms — A High-Level Methodology in Language Implementation
Attribute grammars are a formalism for specifying programming languages. They have been applied to a great number of systems automatically producing language implementations from their specifications. The systems and them specification languages can be evaluated and classified according to their level of application support, linguistic characteristics, and degree of automation, A survey of attribute grammar-based specification languages is given. The modern advanced spemtlcation languages extend the core attribute grammar model with concepts and primitives from established programming paradigms. The main ideas behind the developed attribute grammar paradigms are discussed, and representative specification languages are presented with a common example grammar....
Action Observation Mirror System Mental Simulation Embodied Cognition Visuomotor Processes Manual Rotation Multisensory Integration
- Rolf A. Zwaan; Lawrence J. Taylor; Rolf A. Zwaan
Observing actions and understanding sentences about actions activates corresponding motor processes in the observer/comprehender. In five experiments, we address two novel questions regarding language-based motor resonance. The first question asks whether visual motion that is associated with an action produces motor resonance in sentence comprehension. The second question asks whether motor resonance is modulated during sentence comprehension. Our experiments provide an affirmative response to both questions. A rotating visual stimulus affects both actual manual rotation and the comprehension of manual rotation sentences. Motor resonance is modulated by the linguistic input and is a rather immediate and localized phenomenon. The results...
Language Evolution by Iterated Learning With Bayesian Agents
- Thomas L. Griffiths; Michael L. Kalish
Languages are transmitted from person to person and generation to generation via a process of iterated learning: people learn a language from other people who once learned that language themselves. We analyze the consequences of iterated learning for learning algorithms based on the principles of Bayesian inference, assuming that learners compute a posterior distribution over languages by combining a prior (representing their inductive biases) with the evidence provided by linguistic data. We show that when learners sample languages from this posterior distribution, iterated learning converges to a distribution over languages that is determined entirely by the prior. Under these conditions,...
Multi-lingual dependency parsing with incremental integer linear programming
- Sebastian Riedel; Ruket Çakıcı; Ivan Meza-ruiz
Our approach to dependency parsing is based on the linear model of McDonald et al.(McDonald et al., 2005b). Instead of solving the linear model using the Maximum Spanning Tree algorithm we propose an incremental Integer Linear Programming formulation of the problem that allows us to enforce linguistic constraints. Our results show only marginal improvements over the non-constrained parser. In addition to the fact that many parses did not violate any constraints in the first place this can be attributed to three reasons: 1) the next best solution that fulfils the constraints yields equal or less accuracy, 2) noisy POS tags...
Connecting the Dots without Forgetting the Circles 1
- Alvin W. Wolfe
The steep slope of the increase in human population over the past century has been accompanied by increased complexity of the various systems that serve the six billion human beings that growth has produced. Network analysis has been a response by social scientists to the necessity to develop better methods of analysis. Now other scientists are finding network models more and more useful for understanding their own fields — in the study of materials from quarks to the cosmos, in the study of biology from DNA to ecosystems, and in the study of humans from domestic networks to the internet....
Specific Language Impairment is not Specific to Language: The Procedural Deficit Hypothesis
- Edited D. Bishop; M. Eckert; C. Leonard; Michael T. Ullman; Elizabeth I. Pierpont
Specific Language Impairment (SLI) has been explained by two broad classes of hypotheses, which posit either a deficit specific to grammar, or a non-linguistic processing impairment. Here we advance an alternative perspective. According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), SLI can be largely explained by the abnormal development of brain structures that constitute the procedural memory system. This system, which is composed of a network of inter-connected structures rooted in frontal/basal-ganglia circuits, subserves the learning and execution of motor and cognitive skills. Crucially, recent evidence also implicates this system in important aspects of grammar. The PDH posits that a significant...
ANNIS: Complex Multilevel Annotations in a Linguistic Database
- Michael Götze
We present ANNIS, a linguistic database that aims at facilitating the process of exploiting richly annotated language data by naive users. We describe the role of the database in our research project and the project requirements, with a special focus on aspects of multilevel annotation. We then illustrate the usability of the database by illustrative examples. We also address current challenges and next steps. 1
The Discourse Basis of Constructions: Some Evidence from Korean Acquisition
- Patricia M. Clancy
The “return of constructions ” to linguistic theory has introduced a new approach for analyzing argument structure and its acquisition (Tomasello, 1998). In this approach (Goldberg, 1995), argument structure is conceptualized as involving clause-level semantic-syntactic templates: A construction accommodates verbs of a particular semantic type taking arguments
How to find better index terms through citations
- Anna Ritchie; Simone Teufel; Stephen Robertson
We consider the question of how information from the textual context of citations in scientific papers could improve indexing of the cited papers. We first present examples which show that the context should in principle provide better and new index terms. We then discuss linguistic phenomena around citations and which type of processing would improve the automatic determination of the right context. We present a case study, studying the effect of combining the existing index terms of a paper with additional terms from papers citing that paper in our corpus. Finally, we discuss the need for experimentation for the practical...
Blogs Are Echo Chambers: Blogs Are Echo Chambers
- Eric Gilbert; Tony Bergstrom; Karrie Karahalios
In the last decade, blogs have exploded in number, popularity and scope. However, many commentators and researchers speculate that blogs isolate readers in echo chambers, cutting them off from dissenting opinions. Our empirical paper tests this hypothesis. Using a hand-coded sample of over 1,000 comments from 33 of the world’s top blogs, we find that agreement outnumbers disagreement in blog comments by more than 3 to 1. However, this ratio depends heavily on a blog’s genre, varying between 2 to 1 and 9 to 1. Using these hand-coded blog comments as input, we also show that natural language processing techniques...
Multidimensional Markup and Heterogeneous Linguistic Resources
- Maik Stührenberg; Andreas Witt; Daniela Goecke; Dieter Metzing; Oliver Schonefeld
The paper discusses two topics: firstly an approach of using multiple layers of annotation is sketched out. Regarding the XML representation this approach is similar to standoff annotation. A second topic is the use of heterogeneous linguistic resources (e.g., XML annotated documents, taggers, lexical nets) as a source for semiautomatic multi-dimensional markup to resolve typical linguistic issues, dealing with anaphora resolution as a case study. 1 1 Introduction – Why (and how) to use heterogeneous linguistic resources A large and diverse amount of linguistic resources
UNDERSTANDING IMPLICIT ENTITIES AND EVENTS WITH GETARUNS
- Rodolfo Delmonte
Abstract- Semantic processing represents the new challenge for all applications that require text understanding, as for instance Q/A. In this paper we will highlight the need to couple statistical approaches with deep linguistic processing and will focus on “implicit ” or lexically unexpressed linguistic elements that are nonetheless necessary for a complete semantic interpretation of a text. We will address the following types of “implicit ” entities and events:- grammatical ones, as suggested by a linguistic theories like LFG or similar generative theories;- semantic ones suggested in the FrameNet project, i.e. CNI, DNI, INI;- pragmatic ones: here we will present...
THE IMPACT OF SECT-AFFILIATION ON DIALECT AND CULTURAL MAINTENANCE AMONG THE DRUZE OF JORDAN: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY
- Mahmoud A. Al-khatib; Abdulaziz A. Alzoubi
The purpose of this paper is to determine if the Druze dialect and culture are in a process of being transformed and assimilated or if they are being maintained among a generational cross-section of 131 Druze respondents in the Jordanian village of Umm Al-Quttain. In this study, the data was collected by means of a questionnaire and participant interview. The study investigates dialect proficiency, domains of dialect use, and linguistic attitudes towards both the mother tongue dialect and the dialect spoken by the larger speech community. The results of this investigation indicate that there is a unambiguous case of dialect...
An analysis of Wikipedia digital writing
- Dott Antonella Elia
This paper is a presentation of a doctoral research in progress focused on a new genre: online encyclopaedias. The introduction to Wikipedia and Encyclopaedia Britannica Online will be followed by a presentation of wiki as a new textual genre. Wikipedia analysis will focus firstly on the investigation of the “WikiLanguage”, the language used in official encyclopaedic articles. Secondly, the “WikiSpeak”, the spoken-written language used by Wikipedians in their backstage and informal community, will be taken into account. The initial findings of this research seem to suggest that, the language of the Wikipedia’s coauthored articles is formal and standardized in a...
Integrating Linguistic Dimensions: The Scope of Adverbs
- Olivier Bonami; Université Paris-sorbonne; Danièle Godard; Stefan Müller (editor
Three distinctions seem relevant for the scope properties of adverbs: their function (adjuncts or complements), their prosody (incidental or integrated) and their lexical semantics (parenthetical or non parenthetical). We propose an analysis in which the scope of French adverbs is aligned with their syntactic properties, relying on a view of adjuncts as loci for quantification, a linearization approach to the word order, and an explicit modelling of dialogue. 1
The metagrammar goes multilingual: A cross-linguistic look at the V2-phenomenon
- Alexandra Kinyon; Tatjana Scheffler; Aravind K. Joshi; Owen Rambow; Sinwon Yoon
We present an initial investigation into the use of a metagrammar for explicitly sharing abstract grammatical specifications among languages. We define a single class hierarchy for a metagrammar which allows us to automatically generate grammars for different languages from a single compact metagrammar hierarchy. We use as our linguistic example the verbsecond phenomenon, which shows considerable variation while retaining a basic property, namely the fact that the verb can appear in one of two positions in the clause.
Epistemological Aspects Epistemological Aspects
- Sylvain Pogodalla
“The study of language based on examples of ’real life ’ language use ” [McEnery and Wilson(1996)] Not only a methodology, but also a theory Not by itself a linguistic branch (unlike phonology, syntax or semantics), but transversal (in particular form the methodological point of view) Corpus Linguistics, Resources and Normalisation What is Corpus Linguistics? Epistemological Aspects
The induction of dynamical recognizers
- Jordan B. Pollack
A higher order recurrent neural network architecture learns to recognize and generate languages after being "trained " on categorized exemplars. Studying these networks from the perspective of dynamical systems yields two interesting discoveries: First, a longitudinal examination of the learning process illustrates a new form of mechanical inference: Induction by phase transition. A small weight adjustment causes a "bifurcation" in the limit behavior of the network. This phase transition corresponds to the onset of the network’s capacity for generalizing to arbitrary-length strings. Second, a study of the automata resulting from the acquisition of previously published training sets indicates that while...
A game theoretic approach to controller design for hybrid systems
- Claire J. Tomlin; John Lygeros; S. Shankar Sastry
We present a method to design controllers for safety specifications in hybrid systems. The hybrid system combines discrete event dynamics with nonlinear continuous dynamics: the discrete event dynamics model linguistic and qualitative information and naturally accommodate mode switching logic, and the continuous dynamics model the physical processes themselves, such as the continuous response of an aircraft to the forces of aileron and throttle. Input variables model both continuous and discrete control and disturbance parameters. We translate safety specifications into restrictions on the system’s reachable sets of states. Then, using analysis based on optimal control and game theory for automata and...