Mostrando recursos 141 - 160 de 78,865

  1. Social Organizations as Reconstitutable Networks of Conversation

    Krippendorff, Klaus
    This essay intends to recover human agency from holistic, abstract, even oppressive conceptions of social organization, common in the social sciences, social systems theory in particular. To do so, I am taking the use of language as simultaneously accompanying the performance of and constructing reality (my version of social constructivism). The essay starts with a definition of human agency in terms of its linguistic manifestation. It then sketches several leading conceptions of social organization, their metaphorical origin and entailments. Finally, it contextualizes the use of these metaphors in conversation, which leads to the main thesis of this essay that the...

  2. My (Global) Media Studies

    Kraidy, Marwan M
    What we commonly refer to as “global media studies” or “global communication studies” still struggles to live up to its name. Mercifully, the field appears to have exited the suffocating paradigmatic monoliths of the past, opening up space for theoretical and methodological experimentation and for studies grounded in a geosocial locus but without predetermined outcomes. At the same time, the field is painstakingly coming to terms (to speak optimistically) with its Western ethos and location. Most parts of the world contribute mainly case research framed by Anglo-American, French, or German theory. Other approaches rarely become theoretical guideposts, with the notable...

  3. To Memorize or to Predict: Prominence Labeling in Conversational Speech

    Nenkova, Ani; Brenier, Jason; Kothari, Anubha; Calhoun, Sasha; Whitton, Laura; Beaver, David; Jurafsky, Dan
    The immense prosodic variation of natural conversational speech makes it challenging to predict which words are prosodically prominent in this genre. In this paper, we examine a new feature, accent ratio, which captures how likely it is that a word will be realized as prominent or not. We compare this feature with traditional accent-prediction features (based on part of speech and N-grams) as well as with several linguistically motivated and manually labeled information structure features, such as whether a word is given, new, or contrastive. Our results show that the linguistic features do not lead to significant improvements, while accent...

  4. Entity-Driven Rewrite for Multi-Document Summarization

    Nenkova, Ani
    In this paper we explore the benefits from and shortcomings of entity-driven noun phrase rewriting for multi-document summarization of news. The approach leads to 20% to 50% different content in the summary in comparison to an extractive summary produced using the same underlying approach, showing the promise the technique has to offer. In addition, summaries produced using entity-driven rewrite have higher linguistic quality than a comparison non-extractive system. Some improvement is also seen in content selection over extractive summarization as measured by pyramid method evaluation.

  5. High Frequency Word Entertainment in Spoken Dialogue

    Nenkova, Ani; Gravano, Agustin; Hirschberg, Julia
    Cognitive theories of dialogue hold that entrainment, the automatic alignment between dialogue partners at many levels of linguistic representation, is key to facilitating both production and comprehension in dialogue. In this paper we examine novel types of entrainment in two corpora—Switchboard and the Columbia Games corpus. We examine entrainment in use of high-frequency words (the most common words in the corpus), and its association with dialogue naturalness and flow, as well as with task success. Our results show that such entrainment is predictive of the perceived naturalness of dialogues and is significantly correlated with task success; in overall interaction flow,...

  6. Revisiting Readability: A Unified Framework for Predicting Text Quality

    Pitler, Emily; Nenkova, Ani
    We combine lexical, syntactic, and discourse features to produce a highly predictive model of human readers’ judgments of text readability. This is the first study to take into account such a variety of linguistic factors and the first to empirically demonstrate that discourse relations are strongly associated with the perceived quality of text. We show that various surface metrics generally expected to be related to readability are not very good predictors of readability judgments in our Wall Street Journal corpus. We also establish that readability predictors behave differently depending on the task: predicting text readability or ranking the readability. Our...

  7. Structural Features for Predicting the Linguistic Quality of Text: Applications to Machine Translation, Automatic Summarization and Human-Authored Text

    Nenkova, Ani; Chae, Jieun; Louis, Annie; Pitler, Emily
    Sentence structure is considered to be an important component of the overall linguistic quality of text. Yet few empirical studies have sought to characterize how and to what extent structural features determine fluency and linguistic quality. We report the results of experiments on the predictive power of syntactic phrasing statistics and other structural features for these aspects of text. Manual assessments of sentence fluency for machine translation evaluation and text quality for summarization evaluation are used as gold-standard. We find that many structural features related to phrase length are weakly but significantly correlated with fluency and classifiers based on the...

  8. Automatic Evaluation of Linguistic Quality in Multi-Document Summarization

    Pitler, Emily; Louis, Annie; Nenkova, Ani
    To date, few attempts have been made to develop and validate methods for automatic evaluation of linguistic quality in text summarization. We present the first systematic assessment of several diverse classes of metrics designed to capture various aspects of well-written text. We train and test linguistic quality models on consecutive years of NIST evaluation data in order to show the generality of results. For grammaticality, the best results come from a set of syntactic features. Focus, coherence and referential clarity are best evaluated by a class of features measuring local coherence on the basis of cosine similarity between sentences, coreference...

  9. Using Entity Features to Classify Implicit Discourse Relations

    Louis, Annie; Joshi, Aravind K; Prasad, Rashmi; Nenkova, Ani
    We report results on predicting the sense of implicit discourse relations between adjacent sentences in text. Our investigation concentrates on the association between discourse relations and properties of the referring expressions that appear in the related sentences. The properties of interest include coreference information, grammatical role, information status and syntactic form of referring expressions. Predicting the sense of implicit discourse relations based on these features is considerably better than a random baseline and several of the most discriminative features conform with linguistic intuitions. However, these features do not perform as well as lexical features traditionally used for sense prediction.

  10. CCGbank: A Corpus of CCG Derivations and Dependency Structures Extracted from the Penn Treebank

    Hockenmaier, Julia; Steedman, Mark
    This article presents an algorithm for translating the Penn Treebank into a corpus of Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG) derivations augmented with local and long-range word–word dependencies. The resulting corpus,CCGbank,includes 99.4% of the sentences in the Penn Treebank. It is available from the Linguistic Data Consortium,and has been used to train widecoverage statistical parsers that obtain state-of-the-art rates of dependency recovery. In order to obtain linguistically adequate CCG analyses,and to eliminate noise and inconsistencies in the original annotation,an extensive analysis of the constructions and annotations in the Penn Treebank was called for,and a substantial number of changes to the Treebank were...

  11. Designing and Evaluating an XPath Dialect for Linguistic Queries

    Bird, Steven; Chen, Yi; Davidson, Susan B.; Lee, Haejoong; Zheng, Yifeng
    Linguistic research and natural language processing employ large repositories of ordered trees. XML, a standard ordered tree model, and XPath, its associated language, are natural choices for linguistic data and queries. However, several important expressive features required for linguistic queries are missing or hard to express in XPath. In this paper, we motivate and illustrate these features with a variety of linguistic queries. Then we propose extensions to XPath to support linguistic queries, and design an efficient query engine based on a novel labeling scheme. Experiments demonstrate that our language is not only sufficiently expressive for linguistic trees but also...

  12. Design Research, an Oxymoron?

    Krippendorff, Klaus
    Why oxymoron? An oxymoron is a figure of speech that combines two contradictory terms. The word oxymoron is of Greek origin. It combines the word oxy (=sharp) and moron (=dull, stupid, foolish). Thus, oxymoron not only names a contradiction in terms, it is an oxymoron as well. Oxymorons may be used for achieving rhetorical effects, as in working vacation and uninvited guest. They may also result from conceptual sloppiness, as in extremely average, original copy, or same difference. Oxymorons may remain unnoticed when the meanings of the contradictory parts are not distinguished, as in spendthrift, virtual reality, and Artificial Intelligence. Typically,...

  13. Afterword

    Krippendorff, Klaus
    Francisco J. Varela was a student and collaborator of Humberto R. Maturana. Their pioneering collaboration on Autopoiesis and Cognition reestablished “processes of living” as the principle topic of biological explorations. This topic had dropped out of the discourse of biology after the work of Jacob von Uexküll. Autopoiesis brought a new framework to biology. I say framework because it was not a theory that predicted observable phenomena but a scaffold to pose and answer new kinds questions. In their The Tree of Knowledge, which connected the notion of autopoiesis to a variety of biological, evolutionary, cognitive, and, in a rudimentary...

  14. Models of Messages: Three Prototypes

    Krippendorff, Klaus
    This paper identifies the problem of analyses of message content as one of making specific inferences from recorded text to characteristics of a source that are not directly observable. The problem is common to a variety of analytical situations in the humanities and in the social sciences; and the way adequate solutions are found therefore deserves systematic attention. Choices among investigative techniques always imply assumptions regarding the structure of a source. In message analysis, investigative methods crucially affect the conceivable relations between the recorded text and the content if presumable conveys to the analyst. While there is no appropriate theory of...

  15. Explorations in the Informational Component

    Eilam, Aviad
    Most current work in linguistics acknowledges that the organization of linguistic information in a sentence is sensitive to the speaker's assumptions regarding his hearer's knowledge state. What is less clear, however, is how and where the organization of information—information structure (IS)—is carried out in the grammar, and precisely what role it plays in shaping the output of the grammar. In this study I argue that IS is an independent component of the grammar, whose primitives combine to form IS representations in accordance with a set of well-formedness conditions. These representations not only determine if a given output is licit or...

  16. The permeability of dialect boundaries: a case study of the region surrounding Erie, Pennsylvania

    Evanini, Keelan
    This dissertation presents a dialectological study of the city of Erie, Pennsylvania, and the neighboring towns in the boundary area between the North and Midland dialect regions. The field work conducted for this dissertation consists of interviews, word lists, minimal pair tests, and grammatical acceptability judgments. In total, data from 106 speakers was analyzed to determine the course of linguistic change in the city of Erie and the current location of the dialect boundaries in the neighboring regions. In order to process the acoustic data from this large corpus, the methodology of transcription and subsequent forced alignment was applied. In...

  17. Mediated Personhood and World of Warcraft: An Ethnographic and Linguistic Analysis

    ErkenBrack, Elizabeth
    Every day millions of video gamers flip a switch and disappear into a virtual world, striving to exchange the reality of everyday life for the fulfillment of computer generated dreams. World of Warcraft, a Massive Multi-Player Online Role Playing Game, is the most popular internet outlet for this gamer crowd, allowing players to create and inhabit a character in an extensive, realistic environment. The world created by this game not only invokes social patterns that parallel non-virtual culture, the game itself creates a unique mass-mediated form of culture among its players. The connection between the World of Warcraft participants is...

  18. Language Shift and the Speech Community: Sociolinguistic Change in a Garifuna Community in Belize

    Ravindranath, Maya
    Language shift is the process by which a speech community in a contact situation (i.e. consisting of bilingual speakers) gradually stops using one of its two languages in favor of the other. The causal factors of language shift are generally considered to be social, and researchers have focused on speakers’ attitudes (both explicit and unstated) toward a language and domains of language use in the community, as well as other macro social factors. Additional research has focused on the effects of language shift, generally on the (changing) structure of the language itself. The goal of this thesis is to examine...

  19. Looking Through the Lens of Individual Differences: Relationships Between Personality, Cognitive Control, Language Processing, and Genes

    Prabhakaran, Ranjani
    The study of individual differences in cognitive abilities and personality traits has the potential to inform our understanding of how the processing mechanisms underlying different behaviors are organized. In the current set of studies, we applied an individual-differences approach to the study of sources of variation in individuals’ personality traits, cognitive control, and linguistic ambiguity resolution abilities. In Chapter 2, we investigated the relationship between motivational personality traits and cognitive control abilities. The results demonstrated that individual differences in the personality traits of approach and avoidance predict performance on verbal and nonverbal versions of the Stroop task. These results are...

  20. Morpheme Boundaries and Structural Change: Affixes Running Amok

    Diertani, C EA
    Diachronic morphosyntacticians of all theoretical persuasions agree that there is a tendency for "more lexical" linguistic material to develop "more functional" characteristics over time, a process generally known as grammaticalization. While most previous work on grammaticalization has been conducted in surface-oriented functionalist frameworks, this dissertation aims to illuminate the deeper structural properties of a sub-set of these phenomena, diachronic affixation, as well as its much rarer opposite, de-affixation, a phenomenon in which previously bound material becomes a syntactically independent form. This approach differs from previous generative approaches to this problem in utilising a non-lexicalist, piece-based, syntactic approach to morphology, Distributed...

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