On the origin of the royal Kongo title ngangula
- Koen Bostoen; Odjas Ndonda Tshiyayi; Gilles‑maurice De Schryver
This article offers an in‑depth historical‑comparative linguistic account of the origin and etymology of ngangula. This term is not only a widespread blacksmith term in the Lower Congo region, but also a traditional royal Kongo title attesting to the importance of the blacksmith metaphor in Kongo political ideology. Popular etymology has it that ngangula is related to nganga, reconstructed in Proto‑Bantu as *-gàngà and commonly translated as ‘medicine‑man’. It is argued here that this widely held belief does not stand up to scrutiny. The term ngangula is shown to be derived from the common Bantu verb *pàngʊd- meaning ‘to cut;...
Towards a formal standard for interoperability in M&S/system of systems integration. Paper presented at
- Saurabh Mittal; Bernard P. Zeigler; Jose L. Risco-martin
Modeling and Simulation (M&S) is finding increasing application in development and testing of command and control systems comprised of information-intensive component systems. Achieving interoperability is one of the chief System of systems (SoS) engineering objectives in the development of command and control (C2) capabilities for joint and coalition warfare. In this paper, we apply an SoS perspective on the integration of M&S with such systems. We employ recently developed interoperability concepts based on linguistic categories along with the Discrete Event System Specification (DEVS) formalism to implement a standard for interoperability. We will show how the developed standard is implemented in...
EFFECT OF TOPICAL KNOWLEDGE ON L2 WRITING
- Ling He
This study investigates the effect of topical knowledge on university-level ESL (English as a Second Language) students ’ writing in a testing situation, following Messick”s (1989) validity theory, which embraces an integration of multiple types of validity evidence (content-, criterion-, and construct-based validity, along with social consequences) to support the inferences drawn from the test scores. A total of 50 participants with different levels of English language proficiency and various ethnic, cultural, and linguistic backgrounds took part in the study in a metropolitan city in western Canada. Each student wrote two 60-minute essays: one responding to a prompt requiring general...
Reports and Discussion Language Independent Statistical Software for Corpus Exploration
- John Sinclair; Oliver Mason; Jackie Ball; Geoff Barnbrook
Abstract. In this report two programs for statistical analysis of concordance lines are described. The programs have been developed for analysing the lexical context of a given word. It is shown how different parameter settings influence the outcome of collocational analysis, and how the concept of collocation can be extended to allow the extraction of lines typical for a word from a set of concordance lines. Even though all the examples are for English, the software is completely language independent and only requires minimal linguistic resources. 1.
1 Submitted to Journal of Multicultural Discourses 2010
- Marisa Tempel; Jan D. Ten Thije
The appreciation of cultural and linguistic adjustments in multilingual museum audio tours by international tourists
American Linguistics.] LINGUISTIC ACCULTURATION IN NIVACLÉ (NIVACLÉ) AND
- Lyle Campbell; Verónica Grondona
Linguistic acculturation in Nivaclé and Chorote is striking since there are very few Spanish loanwords in either of these two languages, unlike many other Latin American Indian languages, and because there are remarkable examples of the deployment of native linguistic resources to accommodate concepts acquired through contact with Spanish culture. Nivaclé and Chorote do not allow items of acculturation to impose foreign lexical material on these languages, but rather impose their own linguistic resources on newly acquired items. This paper considers the linguistic consequences of acculturation, of contact with Spanish cultural items not formerly known to the speakers of these...
EDUCATIONAL PEARL “Little language ” project modules
- John Clements; Kathi Fisler
Many computer science departments are debating the role of programming languages in the curriculum. These discussions often question the relevance and appeal of programming-languages content for today’s students. In our experience, domain-specific, “little languages” projects provide a compelling illustration of the importance of programming-language concepts. This paper describes projects that prototype mainstream applications such as PowerPoint, TurboTax, and animation scripting. We have used these exercises as modules in non-programming languages courses, including courses for first year students. Such modules both encourage students to study linguistic topics in more depth and provide linguistic perspective to students who might not otherwise be...
Any Words in the Brain’s Language? Does Mind Really Work That Way?
- Tatiana V. Chernigovskaya
The paper discusses specificity of linguistic competence, brain imaging data, mental lexicon in language acquisition and pathology. Connectionist and modular approaches are observed in the context of origins of language and in the cognitive framework.
- Stuart Soroka; Keith Banting; Richard Johnston; Fiona Kay; Richard Johnston; Social Capital; The Welfare State
Contemporary democratic politics is multicultural politics. During the second half of the twentieth century, new patterns of international migration altered the demographic landscape of liberal-democratic countries, increasing the ethnic, racial, religious and linguistic diversity of their societies. These new forms of social difference have generated new political pressures and new policy issues. Governments must manage tensions between cultural majorities and minorities, and find their way through potentially explosive issues embedded in immigration and refuge policies, anti-discrimination programmes, and the integration of newcomers into the social fabric. But multiculturalism may bring an even broader transformation of political life and policy regimes....
A.: Lmm: an owl-dl metamodel to represent heterogeneous lexical knowledge
- Davide Picca; Alfio Massimiliano Gliozzo; Aldo Gangemi
In this paper we present a Linguistic Meta-Model (LMM) allowing a semiotic-cognitive representation of knowledge. LMM is freely available and integrates the schemata of linguistic knowledge resources, such as WordNet and FrameNet, as well as foundational ontolo-gies, such as DOLCE and its extensions. In addition, LMM is able to deal with multilinguality and to represent individuals and facts in an open domain perspective. 1.
Dissertação submetida à Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina em cumprimento
- Adriana Regina; Baiocco Stanzioni; Mestre Em Letras; Maio De; Esta Dissertação; Adriana Regina; Baiocco Stanzioni; Mestre Em Letras; Opção Língua; Inglesa Lingüística Aplicada; Prof Dr; José Luis Meurer; Profa Dra; Josalba Ramalho Vieira; Orientadora E Presidente
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ETHNOLINGUISTIC VITALITY AND MINORITY EDUCATION
- Martin Ehala
To respect and protect linguistic and cultural diversity is one of the core principles of UNESCO and EU. Yet globalisation has considerably challenged the sustainability of small ethnic and linguistic communities. Increased mobility, concentration of wealth, and new information technologies are inevitably working towards the decrease of cultural and linguistic diversity. However, the maintenance of diversity depends also heavily on various cultural and social psychological factors that could be influenced by education and mass communication. The paper outlines the main social psychological factors influencing the ethnolinguistic vitality of a culture or ethnic group and reveals their structural relationships, for example...
Pragmatics 14:2/3.199-216 (2004) International Pragmatics Association IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION IN CHINESE HERITAGE LANGUAGE CLASSES
- Agnes Weiyun He
From an interactionally enriched linguistic anthropological perspective, this article promotes the view that identity is indexical with specific sets of acts and stances, which in turn are constructed by specific language forms. Based on detailed sequential and grammatical analyses of data from Chinese heritage language classes, it argues that identity is dynamic, constantly unfolding along with interaction, and thus has the potential to shift and mutate. It positions identity as emerging through co-participants ’ responses and reactions and thus as an intersubjective and reciprocal entity. It further suggests that identity construction is intricately linked with heritage language learning.
Learning in Context: Attention and effects of linguistic contrast on preschoolers ’ comprehension of color terms.
- Debi Roberson
Despite good color discrimination, rapid early word learning, and the ability to categorize objects by color when other dimensions are held constant (e.g. Soja, 1994), children may take up to seven years to learn the eleven basic color words of English (Roberson, Davidoff, Davies & Shapiro, 2004). Recurring naming (overextension) and comprehension errors for color terms are reported among 2-5 year olds, despite similar levels of familiarity to those for count nouns such as “ball ” which are mastered early and often from a single exposure. Learning difficulties for the color domain might arise at an attentional level (because children...
S.: CIRI - an ontologybased query interface for text retrieval
- Eija Airio; Kalervo Järvelin; Pirkko Saatsi; Jaana Kekäläinen; Sari Suomela
Abstract. Ontologies can be used in IR for document indexing, query formulation and automatic query expansion. The three-level model developed in UTA allows expressing essential ontology relationships for IR. The levels of the model are the conceptual level, the linguistic level and the occurrence level. The first of the levels includes hierarchically structured concepts, the second expressions corresponding the concepts, and the last string models corresponding the expressions. The CIRI system (Concept-based Information Retrieval Interface) is based on the three level model. In the CIRI interface, the user is able to open available ontologies and select concepts from them, select...
Enterprise system implementation and the linguistic shaping of organizational knowledge
- Boris Wyssusek
This contribution reports on the development of a theoretical framework as a foundation for the understanding of the influence of enterprise system implementation on organizational knowledge and learning. Our conceptualization of enterprise systems as symbolic systems gives rise to the study of enterprise system implementation in terms of semiotic and linguistic categories. While drawing on the concept of “model power, ” on the notion of “programming as theory development, ” and on the weak interpretation of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, we are able to show how enterprise system implementations influence organizational knowledge and organizational learning via linguistic processes.
An architecture for word learning using bidirectional multimodal structural alignment
- Keith Bonawitz; Anthony Kim; Seth Tardiff
Learning of new words is assisted by contex-tual information. This context can come in several forms, including observations in non-linguistic semantic domains, as well as the lin-guistic context in which the new word was pre-sented. We outline a general architecture for word learning, in which structural alignment coordinates this contextual information in or-der to restrict the possible interpretations of un-known words. We identify spatial relations as an applicable semantic domain, and describe a system-in-progress for implementing the gen-eral architecture using video sequences as our non-linguistic input. For example, when the complete system is presented with “The bird dove to the...
- Vyvyan Evans
Towards a cognitive compositional semantics: An overview of LCCM theory In this paper I am concerned with the nature of word ‘meaning ’ and their semantic contribution in combination. My starting point is the position that the ‘meanings ’ associated with words are protean in nature. That is, the semantic values associated with words are flexible, open-ended and highly dependent on the utterance context in which they are embedded. In attempting to provide an account of meaning-construction that coheres with this fact, I present a cognitively-realistic theory of lexical representation and a programmatic theory of lexical concept integration. My fundamental...
Protecting Privacy in Webmail with Secret Sharing
- Yossef Oren
With the many advantages of web-based mail comes a very serious privacy flaw – all messages are stored in a single central location on the webmail operator’s data center. This fact makes these data cen-ters a natural interception point for various undesirable parties, severely risking the privacy of individual webmail users. We propose a novel and unique way to solve this problem and protect the privacy of mes-sages exchanged by webmail users, based on the cryptographic principle of secret sharing. Briefly put, each message is split into two shares and these shares are sent through two different webmail providers, preferably...
CLEARING THE AIR APPLIED LINGUISTIC PERSPECTIVES ON AVIATION COMMUNICATION
- John Read; Ute Knoch
University of Melbourne. Her research interests are in the area of writing assessment, rater training and assessing languages for academic and specific purposes. Correspondence to Ute Knoch: